Addendum to Ch. 15
Chapter ObjectiveTo analyze the economic, social, and political effects of immigration and to understand the immigrant experience.
SECTION 1 The New Immigrants
Identify immigrants’ countries of origin. Describe the journey immigrants endured and their experiences at United States immigration stations.
Examine the causes and effects of the nativists’ anti-immigrant sentiments.
p. 439 Geography Skillbuilder
Italians: New York
Irish: Oho and Wisconsin
Mainly from eastern and southern Europe, Asia, and Mexico.
The desire to escape intolerable conditions such as land shortages, famine, and political or religious persecution; the prospect of jobs, cheap land, or higher wages.
Medical and government inspections and, on Angel Island, harsh inspections, and detention.
They helped one another, forming ethnic enclaves, social clubs, and aid societies.
The differences in their appearance and languages provoked racial and cultural prejudice and fear; they provided competition in the job market.
Section 1 Assessment
Terms & Names
Ellis Island, p. 440
Angel Island, p. 441
Culture shock, p. 442
Melting pot, p. 442
Chinese Exclusion Act, p. 443
Gentleman’s Agreement, p. 443
Possible Answers, Summarizing:
Leaving home countries: Poverty; religious persecution; shortage of agricultural land; lack of industrial jobs; spirit of reform.
Facing hardships in the US.: New unfamiliar culture; harsh interrogation and detention; prejudice and discrimination; problems of urban life; culture shock.
Nativists wanting to restrict immigration: Growing immigration; suspicion and fear of differences; religious intolerance; racial prejudice; economic depression.
Possible Response: Many students may say that the Chinese faced the most prejudice, because of their different appearance and customs, and because of the fear that they would take jobs away from native-born workers.
Possible Responses: Immigrants were brave and willing to work hard; there is cultural value in being exposed to many customs and ways of life; nativists themselves were descendents of immigrants.
SECTION 2 The Challenges of Urbanization
Describe the movement of immigrants to cities and the opportunities they found there.
Explain how cities dealt with housing, transportation, sanitation, and safety issues.
Describe some of the organizations and people who offered help to urban immigrants.
SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age
Explain the role of political machines and political bosses.
Describe how some politicians’ greed and fraud cost taxpayers millions of dollars.
Describe the measures taken by presidents Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur to reform the spoils system.
Explain the positions taken by presidents Cleveland, Harrison, and McKinley on the tariff issue.
Section 1: The New Immigrants
European Emigration—The Swedish Case http://www.americanwest.com/ swedemigr/ pages/ emigra.htm In-depth report on Swedish immigration to America in the late 19th century, with a link to the personal story of a mid-20th-century immigrant, as well as links to a variety of sites dealing with Sweden and with U.S. immigration The Angel Island Home Page http://www.angelisland.org/ Overview of immigrant conditions and processing on Angel Island in California Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service: Ellis Island, 1900-1933 http://www.lexis-nexis.com/ academic/ guides/ immigration/ ins/ insa4.htm Informative introduction to a microfilm publication of Ellis Island records Electronic Ellis Island: A Virtual Heritage Museum. http://wwwald.bham.wednet.edu/ museum/ museum1.htm Immigration site produced by elementary school students, including a collection of personal stories written by students about their families' immigration to the United States
Section 2: The Challenges of Urbanization
A View of Jane Addams's Hull House as a Feminist Initiative http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/ ~jboland/ addams_h.html Notes dealing with Jane Addams and her views on reform, prepared by a college instructor for a course in U.S. political thought Henry Street Settlement http://www.henrystreet.org/ site/ PageServer?pagename=abt_history A brief time line of the establishment of the Henry Street Settlement House by suffragist Lillian Wald. The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake http://quake.usgs.gov/ info/ 1906/ index.html Comprehensive look at the 1906 earthquake, including photographs, eyewitness accounts, and seismographic data. On the Lower East Side http://www.tenant.net/ Community/ LES/ contents.html Compilation of articles from turn-of-the-century journals about life in New York City's Lower East Side
Section 3: Politics in the Gilded Age
Chester A. Arthur: the Gentleman Boss President http://www.americanpresident.org/ history/ chesterccrthur/ Biography of the 21st president, who emerged from the New York City political machine, but proved notably uncorruptible in his short time as president. Presidential Flip Cards http://gi.grolier.com/ presidents/ cards/ flipcard.html Portraits and career highlights of, plus fun facts about, Presidents Arthur, Cleveland, Garfield, Harrison, and Hayes, as well as the other chief executives. Benjamin Harrison: Twenty-Third President, 1889-1893 http://www.whitehouse.gov/ history/ presidents/ bh23.html Short biography of Harrison, with a link to a biography of his wife, Caroline Lavinia Scott Harrison. Part of a White House site that also contains biographies of Presidents Arthur, Cleveland, Garfield, and Hayes.
Tracing Themes: Diversity and the National Identity
American Diversity Patterns http://anthro.palomar.edu/ ethnicity/ ethnic_6.htm Article examining the 2000 census and the ethnic diversity of the United States. The Urbanization of America http://www.ecb.org/ tracks/ mod9.htm List of links covering the history of immigration to the United States during the late nineteenth century and the changes that industrialization and urbanization brought to the country.
Chapter 15: Immigrants and Urbanization Primary Sources
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AnonymousTwelve Hundred More, 1870s
U.S. Governmentfrom Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Jane AddamsThe Modern City and the Municipal Franchise for Women, 1906