Monday, April 18, 2016

HUM 112 Week 3

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We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00 pm. I will take roll at 9:45 pm--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at 10 pm.

Week 3 Checklist
  • Complete and submit Week 3 Quiz 2 covering Chapters 23 and 24 - 40 Points
  • Read the following from your textbook:
  • Chapter 25: The Rococo and the Enlightenment on the Continent – Europe
  • Chapter 26: The Rights of Man: Revolution and the Neoclassical Style – America and Europe
  • Explore the Week 3 Music Folder
  • View the Week 3 Lecture videos
  • Do the Week 3 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 3 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points

HUM112 Music Clips for Week 3

In this week's readings (chaps. 25-26), there are several musical compositions mentioned. But, first read  pp. 826-829 for the development of the symphony orchestra and for the development of a specific style called "Classical Music" (not all symphony music is classical). It gained this name because it fit with artistic styles of the ancient classical tradition of Greece and Rome, which were enjoying popularity in the late 1700s. Our class text (p. 826) describes these "essential features of symmetry, proportion, balance, formal unity, and, perhaps above all, clarity." A skilled composer would be able to achieve this while utilizing a large symphony orchestra engaged in great variation of tempo, instruments, form, and volume, using methods such as recapitulation to bring the audience back to the central themes. 
The music selections for this week (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.  Watch and give them a listen.  We have some of the first and greatest forays into classical music, and we have a sample of traditional African music that has so impacted the course of music around the world. Here below is some background with description of each--and the link to the YouTube (and sometimes other helps). 
  1.    Haydn: Symphony No. 94, 3rd Movement
On p. 829, there is the discussion of Joseph Haydn and the mention of the third movement of his Symphony No. 94.  Read that description of the piece, and then click here and give it a listen--for a surprise!


  1. Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, I
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (German: [ˈvɔlfɡaŋ amaˈdeːʊs ˈmoːtsaʁt], English see fn.;[1] 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,[2] was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era, born in Salzburg. Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. He was competent on keyboard and violin by age five, and he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty.

      At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons.

      He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music. Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years".[3]
    • (to view an orchestra playing this in its entirety, see  )
Mozart biography with pictures and music, 3:52

I just want to thank Maynard Solomon's book MOZART A LIFE and Jane Glover's MOZART's Women.

Please read pp. 829-830 on Mozart.  There you see mention of this work, composed in 1788.  You may see the term molto allegro (very fast, lively tempo) associated with this first movement.  Listen for sudden changes.

  1. Mozart, "Madamina, il catalogo e questo" from Don Giovanni   
See pp. 830-832 in the book (p. 832 has the selection note).  This is an aria from Mozart's opera, Don Giovanni (known in other languages as Don Juan).  There are comic moments and serious moments in this opera.  This aria enumerates Don Giovanni's romantic conquests; our book (p. 832) calls it "a masterpiece of comic composition ".            
  1. Dumisani Maraire & Ephat Mujuru:  Chemutengure 
Read p. 874 (in chap. 26) on African music--its roots and its impact on the African diaspora and the world.  Note the various instruments (example--the mbira) and their description. There are jazz like qualities in the music. There is mention on p. 874 of two songs from the Shona; this is hard to find (brief audio clip at,,126118-1075120,00.html).  In its place, please try the YouTube above, but let me know if you find something better that fits this.

Click the image below to learn more about the American and French Revolutions.

There is more to the phrase "Give me liberty or give me death" than you may think.

Week 3 Explore

Classical Music

Early Abolitionist Art & Literature

William Wilberforce & the End of the African Slave Trade - Christian History Made Easy, 3:31

Click here to read more about this amazing Bible study series:

Comple... Learn how a young member of British Parliament followed his conviction to bring about the abolition of the African slave trade. In this 12-session DVD-based study, Dr. Timothy Paul Jones takes you through the most important events in Christian history from the time of the apostles to today. He brings to life the fascinating people and events that shaped our world. This isn't dry names and dates. It's full of dramatic stories told with a touch of humor. This series, based on Dr. Jones's popular award-winning book Christian History Made Easy, ties in spiritual lessons believers can glean by looking at the past, and shows how God was still working in his church despite all the ups and downs. You don't have to be an expert to lead this 12-session study. Perfect for small groups, Bible studies, or personal use. Ages: Young adult to adult. To learn more about this DVD study visit

Although many abolitionists opposed slavery for purely philosophical reasons, anti-slavery movements attracted strong religious elements. Throughout Europe and the United States, Christians, usually from 'un-institutional' Christian faith movements, not directly connected with traditional state churches, or "non-conformist" believers within established churches, were to be found at the forefront of the abolitionist movements.[1][2]

In particular, the effects of the Second Great Awakening resulted in many evangelicals working to see the theoretical Christian view, that all people are essentially equal, made more of a practical reality. Freedom of expression within the Western world also helped in enabling opportunity to express their position. Prominent among these abolitionists was Parliamentarian William Wilberforce in England, who wrote in his diary when he was 28 that, "God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the Slave Trade and Reformation of Morals."[3] With others he labored, despite determined opposition, to finally abolish the British slave trade. The famous English preacher Charles Spurgeon had some of his sermons burned in America due to his censure of slavery, calling it "the foulest blot" and which "may have to be washed out in blood."[4] Methodist founder John Wesley denounced human bondage as "the sum of all villainies," and detailed its abuses.[5] In Georgia, primitive Methodists united with brethren elsewhere in condemning slavery. Many evangelical leaders in the United States such as Presbyterian Charles Finney and Theodore Weld, and women such as Harriet Beecher Stowe (daughter of abolitionist Lyman Beecher) and Sojourner Truth motivated hearers to support abolition. Finney preached that slavery was a moral sin, and so supported its elimination. "I had made up my mind on the question of slavery, and was exceedingly anxious to arouse public attention to the subject. In my prayers and preaching, I so often alluded to slavery, and denounced it.[6] Repentance from slavery was required of souls, once enlightened of the subject, while continued support of the system incurred "the greatest guilt" upon them.[7]

Quakers in particular were early leaders in abolitionism. In 1688 Dutch Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania, sent an antislavery petition to the Monthly Meeting of Quakers. By 1727 British Quakers had expressed their official disapproval of the slave trade.[8] Three Quaker abolitionists, Benjamin Lay, John Woolman, and Anthony Benezet, devoted their lives to the abolitionist effort from the 1730s to the 1760s, with Lay founding the Negro School in 1770, which would serve more than 250 pupils.[9] In June 1783 a petition from the London Yearly Meeting and signed by over 300 Quakers was presented to Parliament protesting the slave trade.[10]

In 1787 the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed, with 9 of the 12 founder members being Quakers. During the same year, William Wilberforce was persuaded to take up their cause; as an MP, Wilberforce was able to introduce a bill to abolish the slave trade. Wilberforce first attempted to abolish the trade in 1791, but could only muster half the necessary votes; however, after transferring his support to the Whigs, it became an election issue. Abolitionist pressure had changed popular opinion, and in the 1806 election enough abolitionists entered parliament for Wilberforce to be able to see the passing of the Slave Trade Act 1807. The Royal Navy subsequently declared that the slave trade was equal to piracy, the West Africa Squadron choosing to seize ships involved in the transfer of slaves and liberate the slaves on board, effectively crippling the transatlantic trade. Through abolitionist efforts, popular opinion continued to mount against slavery, and in 1833 slavery itself was outlawed throughout the British Empire – at that time containing roughly 1/6 of the world's population (rising to 1/4 towards the end of the century).

In the United States, the abolition movement faced much opposition. Bertram Wyatt-Brown notes that the appearance of the Christian abolitionist movement "with its religious ideology alarmed newsmen, politicians, and ordinary citizens. They angrily predicted the endangerment of secular democracy, the mongrelization, as it was called, of white society, and the destruction of the federal union. Speakers at huge rallies and editors of conservative papers in the North denounced these newcomers to radical reform as the same old “church-and-state” zealots, who tried to shut down post offices, taverns, carriage companies, shops, and other public places on Sundays. Mob violence sometimes ensued."

A postal campaign in 1835 by the American Anti-Slavery Society (AA-SS) – founded by African-American Presbyterian clergyman Theodore S. Wright – sent bundles of tracts and newspapers(over 100,000) to prominent clerical, legal, and political figures throughout the whole country, and culminated in massive demonstrations throughout the North and South.[11] In attempting to stop these mailings, New York Postmaster Samuel L.Gouverneur unsuccessfully requested the AA-SS to cease sending it to the South. He therefore decided that he would “aid in preserving the public peace” by refusing to allow the mails to carry abolition pamphlets to the South himself, with the new Postmaster General Amos Kendall affirming, even though he admitted he had no legal authority to do so.[12][13][14][15] This resulted in the AA-SS resorting to other and clandestine means of dissemination.

Despite such determined opposition, many Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian members freed their slaves and sponsored black congregations, in which many black ministers encouraged slaves to believe that freedom could be gained during their lifetime. After a great revival occurred in 1801 at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, American Methodists made anti-slavery sentiments a condition of church membership.[16]

Abolitionist writings, such as "A Condensed Anti-Slavery Bible Argument" (1845) by George Bourne,[17] and "God Against Slavery" (1857) by George B. Cheever,[18] used the Bible, logic and reason extensively in contending against the institution of slavery, and in particular the chattel form of it as seen in the South.
Other Protestant missionaries of the Great Awakening initially opposed slavery in the South, but by the early decades of the 19th century, many Baptist and Methodist preachers in the South had come to an accommodation with it in order to evangelize the farmers and workers. Disagreements between the newer way of thinking and the old often created schisms within denominations at the time. Differences in views toward slavery resulted in the Baptist and Methodist churches dividing into regional associations by the beginning of the Civil War.[19]

Roman Catholic statements also became increasingly vehement against slavery during this era. In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV condemned slavery generally. In 1815 Pope Pius VII demanded of the Congress of Vienna the suppression of the slave trade. In the Bull of Canonization of Peter Claver, one of the most illustrious adversaries of slavery, Pope Pius IX branded the "supreme villainy" (summum nefas) of the slave traders;[20]

In 1839 Pope Gregory XVI condemned the slave trade in In supremo apostolatus;[21] and in 1888 Pope Leo XIII condemned slavery in In Plurimis.[22]

Roman Catholic efforts extended to the Americas. The Roman Catholic leader of the Irish in Ireland, Daniel O'Connell, supported the abolition of slavery in the British Empire and in America. With the black abolitionist Charles Lenox Remond, and the temperance priest Theobold Mathew, he organized a petition with 60,000 signatures urging the Irish of the United States to support abolition. O'Connell also spoke in the United States for abolition.

Preceding such, and while not explicitly expressing an abolitionist point of view, the Portuguese Dominican Gaspar da Cruz in 1569 strongly criticized the Portuguese traffic in Chinese slaves, explaining that any arguments by the slave traders that they "legally" purchased already-enslaved children were bogus.[23]
In 1917, the Roman Catholic Church's Canon Law was officially expanded to specify that "selling a human being into slavery or for any other evil purpose" is a crime.[24]

Chapter 25: The Rococo and the Enlightenment on the Continent – Europe
Chapter 26: The Rights of Man: Revolution and the Neoclassical Style – America and Europe

25 The Rococo and the Enlightenment on the Continent


    The Rococo 811

Rococo (/rəˈkk/ or /rkəˈk/), less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles.[1] Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular, florid, and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold. Unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes. The interior decoration of Rococo rooms was designed as a total work of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.

Rococo Style 1700-1760, 3:14

This video shows the different Artists, Sculptures, and Architects that were in this regional style. Jean Philippe Rameau, a french composer of the era, composes the background music.

        Rococo Painting in France: The Fête Galante and the Art of Love 812

        Rococo Architecture and Landscape Design in Central Europe and England 817

    The Philosophes 820

        Denis Diderot and the Encyclopédie 821

Denis Diderot (French: [dəni did(ə)ʁo]; 5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Diderot's literary reputation during his lifetime rested primarily on his plays and his contributions to the Encyclopédie; many of his most important works, including Jacques the Fatalist, Rameau's Nephew, and D'Alembert's Dream, were published only after his death.[3][4]

The top 10 best quotes by the influential French philsopher and writer Denis Diderot (1713 - 1784) See all quotes by Denis Diderot at Enlighten yourself at Like iPerceptive at Facebook Follow iPerceptive at Twitter


Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Cost of the Social Contract 822

The Social Contract, or Of the Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right (French: Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique; 1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).

The Social Contract helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe, especially in France. The Social Contract argued against the idea that monarchs were divinely empowered to legislate; as Rousseau asserts, only the people, who are sovereign, have that all-powerful right.

The stated aim of The Social Contract is to determine whether there can be a legitimate political authority, since people's interactions he saw at his time seemed to put them in a state far worse than the good one they were at in the state of nature, even though living in isolation. He concludes book one, chapter three with, "Let us then admit that force does not create right, and that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers", which is to say, the ability to coerce is not a legitimate power, and there is no rightful duty to submit to it. A State (polity) has no right to enslave a conquered people.

In this desired social contract, everyone will be free because they all forfeit the same amount of rights and impose the same duties on all. Rousseau argues that it is absurd for a man to surrender his freedom for slavery; thus, the participants must have a right to choose the laws under which they live. Although the contract imposes new laws, including those safeguarding and regulating property, there are restrictions on how that property can be legitimately claimed. His example with land includes three conditions; that the land be uninhabited, that the owner claims only what is needed for subsistence, and that labor and cultivation give the possession legitimacy.

Rousseau posits that the political aspects of a society should be divided into two parts. First, there must be a sovereign consisting of the whole population, women included, that represents the general will and is the legislative power within the state. The second division is that of the government, being distinct from the sovereign. This division is necessary because the sovereign cannot deal with particular matters like applications of the law. Doing so would undermine its generality, and therefore damage its legitimacy. Thus, government must remain a separate institution from the sovereign body. When the government exceeds the boundaries set in place by the people, it is the mission of the people to abolish such government, and begin anew.

Rousseau claims that the size of the territory to be governed often decides the nature of the government. Since a government is only as strong as the people, and this strength is absolute, the larger the territory, the more strength the government must be able to exert over the populace. In his view, a monarchical government is able to wield the most power over the people since it has to devote less power to itself, while a democracy the least. In general, the larger the bureaucracy, the more power required for government discipline. Normally, this relationship requires the state to be an aristocracy or monarchy. It is important to note here that when Rousseau talks of aristocracy and monarchy, he does not necessarily mean they are not a "democracy" as the term is used in the present day — the aristocracy or monarch could be elected. When Rousseau uses the word democracy, he refers to a direct democracy rather than a representative democracy. In light of the relation between population size and governmental structure, Rousseau argues that, like his native Geneva, small city-states are the form of nation in which freedom can best flourish. For states of this size, an elected aristocracy is preferable, and in very large states a benevolent monarch; but even monarchical rule, to be legitimate, must be subordinate to the sovereign rule of law.

Great Ideas #8: The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 4:22

"There are thus three types of aristocracy, natural, elective and hereditary. The first is suited only to primitive peoples; the third is the worst of all governments; the second is the best, and this is aristocracy in the true sense of the word" Background 0:12 History of Social Contracts 0:26 Rousseau's Social Contract 1:26 Forcing Freedom 2:20 Rousseau is cool 2:39 Revolution 3:14 Roundup 4:03 Buy on Book Despository - Video on Rousseau by Dr Smith - The more philosophy I read the better I understand Lost. Or is that the other way around? GOODREADS YOUTUBE WEBSITE

Voltaire and French Satire 824

François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (/voʊlˈtɛər/;[1] French: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of several liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.

Voltaire satirized European society and his particular aim was Roman Catholicism, in particular, the priests.
Voltaire: Candide - a contemporary adaptation (2014) excerpt, 2:16

Our short film is based on Voltaire’s 18th century satire. We follow our naïve and hopelessly optimist hero, Candide, on his journey. Throughout the story, the main heroes change and evolve while learning the workings of the world surrounding them. The three main characters meet under different circumstances, which makes this film a fast changing road movie. Devastating love, 2D blood, leper and hunt: Candide forever! Watch the excerpt of the 9 minutes long film!

Once Voltaire had directed his pen against Roman Catholicism he also targeted Islam.

According to Ahmad Gunny, Voltaire's views about Islam remained negative, and he considered the Quran to ignore the laws of physics.[104] Thus, there are a number of representations of Mohammed by Voltaire, separated, generally, into two categories: a religious one, according to which Mohammed is a prophet like the others, who exploits people's naivety and spreads superstition and fanaticism; and a political one, according to which Mohammed was a legislator who brought his contemporaries out of idolatry.[105][106] According to Diego Venturino, the figure of Mohammed is uncertain or negative in Voltaire's view, as Voltaire applauds the legislator but hates the conqueror and the pontiff, who established his religion through violence.[107][108][109]

Voltaire notes that after his harrowing adventures in Europe and Latin America, Candide finds tranquility in Muslim Turkey to "cultivate his garden"[81]

Is Islam more open minded and tolerant than Christianity?

Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations (French: Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations) is a work of Voltaire, published for the first time in its entirety in 1756. In this work, Voltaire deals with the history of Europe before Charlemagne to the dawn of the age of Louis XIV, also evoking that of the colonies and the East. As a historian he devoted several chapters to Islam,[110][111][112] Voltaire highlighted the Arabian, Turkish courts, and conducts.[113][114][114][115] Here he called Mohammed a "poet", and furthermore he was not an illiterate.[116] as a "legislator" who "changed the face of part of Europe, one half of Asia",[117][118][119] In the chapter VI, Voltaire finds similarities Arabs and ancient Hebrews, that they both kept running to battle in the name of god, and sharing the passion for booty and spoils.[120] He thus compares "the genius of the Arab people" with "the genius of the ancient Romans".[121]

The tragedy Fanaticism, or Mahomet the Prophet (French: Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophete) was written in 1736 by Voltaire. The play is a study of religious fanaticism and self-serving manipulation. In the play, the character Mahomet orders the murder of his critics.[122] When Voltaire wrote in 1742 to César de Missy, he described Mohammed as a "deceitful character."[123][124] On January 20, 1742, Voltaire wrote to Frederick the Great stating that he had decided to write a play on Mohammed so as to combat religious fraud. He wrote that Mohammed was "whatever trickery can invent that is most atrocious and whatever fanaticism can accomplish that is most horrifying. Mahomet here is nothing other than Tartuffe with armies at his command."[125][126] In 1751, Voltaire performed his play Mohamet once again, with great success.[127]

Satire According to Will Durant, when Mahomet was performed for the first time in August, 1742, a section of the Christian clergy had complained that it was "a bloody satire against the Christian religion."[128] Others who agreed with this assessment were Desfontaines and Freron. After the fourth performance of the play, it was withdrawn by Voltaire after Cardinal Fleury advised him to do so. According to some commentators, when Mahomet's fanatical disciple Seide hesitates to carry out Mahomet's instruction to kill sheik Zopir, the wording in Mahomet's rebuke was reminiscent of language used by the Christian priesthood. In Durant's assessment, the play was an attack on any religion's endorsement of violence, and to illustrate the point Durant refers to a letter written by Voltaire to Frederick the Great in which Voltaire mentions the assassinations of William of Orange, and Henry III and Henry IV of France as examples of crimes originating from piety.[129] Commenting on Voltaire's Mahomet, Malise Ruthven has observed: Discerning critics saw it as a coded attack on the Catholic Church, cleverly disguised as a polemic against its principle religious enemy.[81]

Mahomet Revived in 2005
On September 30, 2005, Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten had published cartoons of Mohammed after Kare Bluitgen had complained that he could find no artists willing to illustrate a book he was ready to publish, on the life of Mohammed. This incident revived in Loichemol his desire to present a version of the play.

The cartoon affair seemed an appropriate time to make a statement about the need to be free of ideological tyranny. Voltaire had spent his life condemning the excesses of religious fanaticism. With no funds to stage the play, Loichemol opted to have a public reading of the play. The venue for the event was to be Saint-Genis-Pouilly, about two miles from Ferney (now called Ferney-Voltaire), on the French side of the Franco-Swiss border.

The date for the reading was set for Friday, December 9, 2005, at the theater in Saint-Genis-Pouilly, followed by a second reading at the Carouge theater at 2.30 pm on Saturday December 10, 2005.
Mosque representatives objected. Hafid Quardiri, spokesman and imam for the Geneva mosque headed by Tariq Ramadan's brother Hani, was angry that the performance had not been stopped. He described the reading as "detestable. It is misleading to present the Prophet as a fanatic because he himself had always fought against fanaticism. We respect freedom of expression, but ask for respect."

A decade earlier, in 1993 Quardiri had also been a main opponent of Loichemol's proposed theatrical staging of Mahomet.

Francois Rochaix, director of the Carouge Theater, said: "It's a metaphor and is not blasphemous." Hubert Bertrand, mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, wanted freedom of expression to be allowed, while he also expressed his concern for the feelings of Muslims.

On March 6, 2006, Andrew Higgins, writing in the Wall Street Journal, described what had taken place at Saint-Denis-Pouilly:

Mayor Hubert Bertrand called in police reinforcements to protect the theater. On the night of the December reading, a small riot broke out involving several dozen people and youths who set fire to a car and garbage cans. It was "the most excitement we've ever had down here," says the socialist mayor.

The dispute rumbles on, playing into a wider debate over faith and free-speech. Supporters of Europe's secular values have rushed to embrace Voltaire as their standard-bearer. France's national library last week opened an exhibition dedicated to the writer and other Enlightenment thinkers. It features a police file started in 1748 on Voltaire, highlighting efforts by authorities to muzzle him. "Spirit of the Enlightenment, are you there?" asked a headline Saturday in Le Figaro, a French daily newspaper.

Some Westerners continue to criticize Voltaire's play Mahomet. David Hammerbeck of UCLA, who also publishes articles in the Huffington Post, wrote that Mahomet
"plays a pivotal role in Western representation of the Islamic Other by reiterating and thus perpetuating key ideological and cultural strategies in the ongoing tensions between the Christian and Islamic worlds."
While creating his argument, Hammerbeck downplays the genuinely violent aspects of Islam. Voltaire at least had the good grace to counterbalance these aspects by praising many aspects of Islamic and Ottoman history. Much of what Hammerbeck writes is valid, but he seems to present a monochrome picture. Voltaire was too subtle, playful, inventive and deliberately contrary to be able to be painted in one hue.

Voltaire's archaic play, belonging like the character Mohammed himself to another time, was written for sensibilities that few now appreciate. It has become a blank canvas upon which others have projected their own hopes, fears and prejudices. This is as true for modern supporters of Voltaire as it is for Islamist opponents of the tragedy "Mahomet".

Voltaire may have insulted religion, but he was well aware of the insults that organized religion could – and did - inflict upon the powerless. Since February 14, 1989 when Ayatollah Khomeini issued a death fatwa against Salman Rushdie, our world has changed.

Voltaire was a living embodiment of Enlightenment principles. He refused to let tyranny or religious bigotry dictate his agenda. Nowadays we have a world in which freedom of expression, the same freedom of expression upheld in the Second Amendment, is on the run. Religious bigotry and bullying are now dictating how we live.

Voltaire died on May 11, 1778. He had succeeded in drawing attention to the outrages of religious bigotry, enacted against common civilians who were deemed to be heretics. The Enlightenmemt took away the power of the church over legal affairs.

Is there another religion that continues to act in ways that once shocked Voltaire when practiced by the church?

Where the Church once acted in despotic ways and became humane and user-friendly, does Islam now have no tolerance and its excesses need to be exposed and challenged?

Where Islam does have power, as in Saudi Arabia, do other faiths have equal rights?

        Art Criticism and Theory 825

    Rococo and Classical Music 826

        The Symphonic Orchestra 826

An orchestra (/ˈɔːrkstrə/ or US /ˈɔːrˌkɛstrə/; Italian: [orˈkɛstra]) is a large instrumental ensemble, often used in classical music, that contains sections of string (violin, viola, cello and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for 20th and 21st century compositions, electric and electronic instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα (orchestra), the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus.[1] The orchestra grew by accretion throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, but changed very little in composition during the course of the 20th century.

A smaller-sized orchestra for this time period (of about fifty musicians or fewer) is called a chamber orchestra. A full-size orchestra (about 70-100 musicians) may sometimes be called a symphony orchestra or philharmonic orchestra; these modifiers do not necessarily indicate any strict difference in either the instrumental constitution or role of the orchestra, but can be useful to distinguish different ensembles based in the same city (for instance, the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra). A symphony orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. A leading chamber orchestra might employ as many as fifty musicians; some are much smaller than that. The term concert orchestra may sometimes be used (e.g., BBC Concert Orchestra; RTÉ Concert Orchestra)—no distinction is made on size of orchestra by use of this term, although their use is generally distinguished as for live concert. As such they are commonly chamber orchestras. There are several types of amateur orchestras, including school orchestras, youth orchestras and community orchestras.

Orchestras are usually led by a conductor who directs the performance by way of visible gestures. The conductor unifies the orchestra, sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble.[2] Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies, overtures, concertos, and music for operas and ballets.

How to Conduct an Orchestra, 2:14

The conductor demonstrates some of the basic hand motions involved in his craft.

Symphonic Form 828

        The String Quartets of Joseph Haydn 829

        Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Classical Complexity 829

        The Popularization of Opera 830

China and Europe: Cross-Cultural Contact 832

    The Arts in the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) 834


    25.1 from “Law of Nature or Natural Law,” from Diderot’s Encyclopédie (1751–72) 821

    25.2 from Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Confessions, Book 1 (completed 1770, published 1780) 839

The Confessions is an autobiographical book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In modern times, it is often published with the title The Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau in order to distinguish it from Saint Augustine's Confessions. Covering the first fifty-three years of Rousseau's life, up to 1765, it was completed in 1769, but not published until 1782, four years after Rousseau's death, even though Rousseau did read excerpts of his manuscript publicly at various salons and other meeting places.
Dancing Confessions; Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1:47

A dance interpretation of Confessions by Jean Jacques Rousseau

    25.3 from Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book 1, Chapter 4 (“Slavery”) (1762) 823

Jean-Jacques Rousseau contends that in a contract of self-enslavement, there is no mutuality. The slave loses all. The contract negates his interests and his rights. It is entirely to his disadvantage. Since the slave loses his status as a moral agent once the slave contract is enforced, the slave cannot act to enforce anything owed to him by his master. Rousseau contrasted this to the social contract, in that the subjects of the government have control over their masters.[5]

    25.4 from Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality among Men (1755) 823

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of an idealized indigene, outsider, or "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness. In English, the phrase first appeared in the 17th century in John Dryden's heroic play The Conquest of Granada (1672), wherein it was used in reference to newly created man. "Savage" at that time could mean "wild beast" as well as "wild man".[2]

The phrase later became identified with the idealized picture of "nature's gentleman", which was an aspect of 18th-century sentimentalism. The noble savage achieved prominence as an oxymoronic rhetorical device after 1851, when used sarcastically as the title for a satirical essay by English novelist Charles Dickens, whom some believe may have wished to disassociate himself from what he viewed as the "feminine" sentimentality of 18th and early 19th-century romantic primitivism.[a] The idea that humans are essentially good is often attributed to the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, a Whig supporter of constitutional monarchy.

In his Inquiry Concerning Virtue (1699), Shaftesbury had postulated that the moral sense in humans is natural and innate and based on feelings, rather than resulting from the indoctrination of a particular religion. Shaftesbury was reacting to Thomas Hobbes's justification of an absolutist central state in his Leviathan, "Chapter XIII", in which Hobbes famously holds that the state of nature is a "war of all against all" in which men's lives are "solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short".

Hobbes further calls the American Indians an example of a contemporary people living in such a state. Although writers since antiquity had described people living in pre-civilized conditions, Hobbes is credited with inventing the term "State of Nature". Ross Harrison writes that "Hobbes seems to have invented this useful term."[4] Contrary to what is sometimes believed, Jean-Jacques Rousseau never used the phrase noble savage (French bon sauvage). However, the character of the noble savage appeared in French literature at least as early as Jacques Cartier (coloniser of Québec, speaking of the Iroquois) and Michel de Montaigne (philosopher, speaking of the Tupinamba) in the 16th century.

As a result, Rousseau has earned the distinction of being associated with the phrase.

    25.5 from Voltaire, Candide (1758) 840

Candide (in five minutes), 5:08

A short summary of Voltaire's Candide


    CLOSER LOOK Watteau’s The Signboard of Gersaint 814

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The End of the Rococo 837

26 The Rights of Man


    The American and French Revolutions 845

        The Road to Revolt in America: War and Taxation 845

        The Declaration of Independence 846

        The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 847

    The Rights of Woman 851

        Olympe de Gouges: The Call for Universal Rights 852

        Mary Wollstonecraft: An Englishwoman’s Response to the French Revolution 852

    The Neoclassical Spirit 853

        Neoclassicism in Britain and America 853

        The British Influence: Robert Adam and Josiah Wedgwood 854

        Jacques-Louis David and the Neoclassical Style in France 860

    Napoleon and Neoclassical Paris 864

        The Consulate and the Napoleonic Empire: 1799–1815 864

        Art as Propaganda: Painting, Architecture, Sculpture 865

    The Issue of Slavery 869

    Autobiographical and Fictional Accounts of Slavery 870

    The Economic Argument for Slavery and Revolution: Free Trade 872


The economic doctrine that held sway between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries is commonly described as mercantilism.[38][43] This period, the Age of Discovery, was associated with the geographic exploration of foreign lands by merchant traders, especially from England and the Low Countries. Mercantilism was a system of trade for profit, although commodities were still largely produced by non-capitalist production methods.[44] Most scholars consider the era of merchant capitalism and mercantilism as the origin of modern capitalism,[45][46] although Karl Polanyi argued that the hallmark of capitalism is the establishment of generalized markets for what he referred to as the "fictitious commodities": land, labor, and money. Accordingly, he argued that "not until 1834 was a competitive labor market established in England, hence industrial capitalism as a social system cannot be said to have existed before that date".[47]

Robert Clive after the Battle of Plassey. The battle began East India Company rule in India.
England began a large-scale and integrative approach to mercantilism during the Elizabethan Era (1558–1603). A systematic and coherent explanation of balance of trade was made public through Thomas Mun's argument England's Treasure by Forraign Trade, or the Balance of our Forraign Trade is The Rule of Our Treasure. It was written in the 1620s and published in 1664.[48]

European merchants, backed by state controls, subsidies, and monopolies, made most of their profits from the buying and selling of goods. In the words of Francis Bacon, the purpose of mercantilism was "the opening and well-balancing of trade; the cherishing of manufacturers; the banishing of idleness; the repressing of waste and excess by sumptuary laws; the improvement and husbanding of the soil; the regulation of prices ..."[49]

The British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company inaugurated an expansive era of commerce and trade.[50][51] These companies were characterized by their colonial and expansionary powers given to them by nation-states.[50] During this era, merchants, who had traded under the previous stage of mercantilism, invested capital in the East India Companies and other colonies, seeking a return on investment.

Industrial capitalism

A Watt steam engine. The steam engine fuelled primarily by coal propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.[52]
A new group of economic theorists, led by David Hume[53] and Adam Smith, in the mid-18th century, challenged fundamental mercantilist doctrines such as the belief that the amount of the world's wealth remained constant and that a state could only increase its wealth at the expense of another state.

During the Industrial Revolution, the industrialist replaced the merchant as a dominant factor in the capitalist system and affected the decline of the traditional handicraft skills of artisans, guilds, and journeymen. Also during this period, the surplus generated by the rise of commercial agriculture encouraged increased mechanization of agriculture. Industrial capitalism marked the development of the factory system of manufacturing, characterized by a complex division of labor between and within work process and the routine of work tasks; and finally established the global domination of the capitalist mode of production.[43]
Britain also abandoned its protectionist policy, as embraced by mercantilism. In the 19th century, Richard Cobden and John Bright, who based their beliefs on the Manchester School, initiated a movement to lower tariffs.[54] In the 1840s, Britain adopted a less protectionist policy, with the repeal of the Corn Laws and the Navigation Acts.[43] Britain reduced tariffs and quotas, in line with David Ricardo's advocacy for free trade.

Milton Friedman - Capitalism, Slavery and Colonialism, 5:22

Did western democracies gain their wealth through slavery and colonialism? Professor Friedman answers. Source: Milton Friedman Speaks Buy it:

Dr. Walter Williams Highlights from - Testing Milton Friedman, 3:35

Dr.Walter Williams joins the discussion table, and expresses his opinions on equal opportunity, slavery, free market and so much more. The three-part series of "Testing Milton Friedman" can be streamed from our FreeToChoose.TV website here: Check out our Facebook page here: Visit our media website to find other programs here: Connect with us on Twitter here: Learn more about our company here: Shop for related products here: Stream from FreeToChoose.TV here:

    The Abolitionist Movement in Britain and America 872

    The African Diaspora 874


    26.1 from the Declaration of Independence (1776) 846

    26.2 from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) 849

    26.3 from Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791) 852

    26.4 from Mary Wollstonecraft, Introduction to A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) 852

    26.5 from Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789) 877

    26.5a from Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African (1789) 870

    26.6 Phillis Wheatley, “’Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land” (1773) 871

    26.7 from Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, or The Royal Slave (1688) 879


    CLOSER LOOK David’s The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons 862

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Romantics and Napoleon 875

Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven


Colonial Empires and the American Revolution

Colonial Empires and the American Revolution

In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to control Brazil, while Spain established an empire in the Western Hemisphere that included parts of North America and most of Latin America. Portugal and Spain held onto their Latin American colonies for over 300 years. During that time, they profited richly by exporting Latin American gold, silver, and other natural resources and farm products. Spanish and Portuguese officials and Christian missionaries played important roles in Latin American societies. In North America, British control over its colonies began to unravel over issues of taxation. Multiple crises led the Americans to declare their independence in 1776 and to fight Britain until its defeat in 1783. The Articles of Confederation that formed the United States were soon replaced with a Constitution, which created a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights added important freedoms derived from the natural rights expressed by the philosophes.

Main Ideas
The colonies of Latin America and British North America were developing in ways that differed from their European mother countries.

The American colonies revolted against Great Britain and formed a new nation.

*Describe characteristics of Britain and the 13 English colonies in the mid-1700s.
*Outline the events that led to the American Revolution. *Summarize the events and significance of the American Revolution.
*Analyze how the new Constitution reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment.

Terms, People, and Places
federal system
Additional Terms, People, and Places
George III
Stamp Act
George Washington
Thomas Jefferson
popular sovereignty
Yorktown, Virginia
Treaty of Paris
James Madison
Benjamin Franklin
federal republic

British and British North America

By 1750, a string of 13 prosperous colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America.
They were part of Britain’s growing empire. Colonial cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia were busy commercial centers that linked North America to the West Indies, Africa, and Europe. Colonial shipyards produced many vessels for this trade.

Britain applied mercantilist policies to its colonies in an attempt to strengthen its own economy by exporting more than it imported. To this end, in the 1600s, Parliament had passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing. For the most part, however, these acts were not rigorously enforced. Therefore, activities like smuggling were common and not considered crimes by the colonists.

By the mid-1700s, the colonies were home to diverse religious and ethnic groups. Social distinctions were more blurred than in Europe, although wealthy landowners and merchants dominated government and society. In politics, as in much else, there was a good deal of free discussion. Colonists felt entitled to the rights of English citizens, and their colonial assemblies exercised much control over local affairs. Many also had an increasing sense of their own destiny separate from Britain.

In your own words, what does Adams mean that liberty will reign in America?

John Adams, "Liberty will reign in America," 1:30
John Adams speaks in Boston (in HBO mini-series, that is) after he is announced as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Observe the sources he draws from in articulating an "Ideology of Resistance:" English common law, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment, and the Whig and republican strands of the English political tradition.

The American Revolution
The Seven Years’ War and the French and Indian War in North America had drained the British treasury. King George III and his advisors thought that the colonists should help pay for these wars. To increase taxes paid by colonists, Parliament passed the Sugar Act in 1764, which imposed import taxes, and the Stamp Act in 1765, which imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets. “No taxation without representation,” the colonists protested. They believed that because they had no representatives in Parliament, they should not be taxed. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, but then passed a Declaratory Act that said it had complete authority over the colonists.

A series of violent clashes intensified the colonists’ anger. In March 1770, British soldiers in Boston opened fire on a crowd that was pelting them with stones and snowballs. Colonists called the death of five protesters the Boston Massacre. Then in December 1773, a handful of colonists hurled a cargo of recently arrived British tea into the harbor to protest a tax on tea. The incident became known as the Boston Tea Party. When Parliament passed harsh laws to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of the tea, other colonies rallied to oppose the British response.

As tensions increased, fighting spread. Finally, representatives from each colony gathered in Philadelphia and met in a Continental Congress to decide what action to take. Among the participants were the radical yet fair-minded Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, who had defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre in their trial; Virginia planter and soldier George Washington; and political and social leaders from all 13 colonies.

Paine’s Common Sense

Early in 1776, English colonists in North America eagerly read the newly published Common Sense, by Thomas Paine. This pamphlet called on them to declare their independence from Britain and echoed the themes of the Enlightenment. “Tis repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things, to all examples from former ages, to suppose that this Continent can long remain subject to any external power.” —Thomas Paine, Common Sense
The War Begins

In April 1775, the ongoing tension between the colonists and the British exploded into war in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. This war is known as the Revolutionary War, or the American Revolution. The Congress met soon after and set up a Continental Army, with George Washington in command. Although many battles ended in British victories, the colonists were determined to fight at any cost. In 1776, the Second Continental Congress took a momentous step, voting to declare independence from Britain. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, a document that reflects John Locke’s ideas of the government’s obligation to protect the people’s natural rights to “life, liberty, and property.”


Picture yourself as a witness to the actual battle during this historical re-enactment. What would your reaction be?

On the Saturday of Patriot's Day weekend, the Battle Road event takes place in Minute Man National Historical Park, MA. This honors the first battle of the American Revolution at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, 2:26

The Declaration of Independence stands as one of the most important documents in all of history. It still serves as inspiration for people around the world.

Where did some of the ideas of the Declaration originate?

In your own words, describe Adams' ideas on freedom.

John Adams' speech before the Continental Congress on Freedom and the reading of The Declaration Of Independence, 7:00

Primary Source
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”

Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776

The Declaration included another of Locke’s ideas: people had the right “to alter or to abolish” unjust governments—a right to revolt. The principle of popular sovereignty, which states that all government power comes from the people, is also an important point in the Declaration. Jefferson carefully detailed the colonists’ grievances against Britain. Because the king had trampled colonists’ natural rights, he argued, the colonists had the right to rebel and set up a new government that would protect them. Aware of the risks involved, on July 4, 1776, American leaders adopted the Declaration, pledging “our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor” to creating and protecting the new United States of America.


Picture yourself during the re-enactment of Congress' approval.

What would you think of the Declaration of Independence at that time?

Part of this video repeats what you have heard and seen already.

The resolution carries: why don't the delegates cheer or appear happy?

Congress approves the Declaration of Independence, 5:55

At first, the American cause looked bleak. The British had a large number of trained soldiers, a huge fleet, and greater resources. About one third of the American colonists were Loyalists, or those who supported Britain. Many others refused to fight for either side. The Americans lacked military resources, had little money to pay soldiers, and did not have a strategic plan.

Still, colonists had some advantages. One was the geography of the diverse continent. Since colonists were fighting on their own soil, they were familiar with its thick woods and inadequate roads. Other advantages were their strong leader, George Washington, and their fierce determination to fight for their ideals of liberty.
To counteract these advantages, the British worked to create alliances within the colonies. A number of Native American groups sided with the British, while others saw potential advantages in supporting the colonists’ cause. Additionally, the British offered freedom to any enslaved people who were willing to fight the colonists.

Foreign Support and British Defeat

The first turning point in the war came in 1777, when the Americans triumphed over the British at the Battle of Saratoga. This victory persuaded France to join the Americans against its old rival, Britain. The alliance brought the Americans desperately needed supplies, trained soldiers, and French warships. Spurred by the French example, the Netherlands and Spain added their support.

Hard times continued, however. In the brutal winter of 1777–1778, Continental troops at Valley Forge suffered from cold, hunger, and disease. Throughout this crisis and others, Washington was patient, courageous, and determined. He held the ragged army together.

In 1781, the French fleet blockaded the Chesapeake Bay, which enabled Washington to force the surrender of a British army at Yorktown, Virginia. With that defeat, the British war effort crumbled. Two years later, American, British, and French diplomats signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the war. In that treaty, Britain recognized the independence of the United States of America. The Americans’ victory can be attributed to their resilient dedication to attaining independence.

The Birth of a New Nation

Benjamin Franklin

"A Republic Madame, if you can keep it," 10:36

Very few Americans understand our form of Government. All too often citizens think majority rules or that we live in a democracy. Some advocate no Government at all. But our Founding Fathers had something a little different in mind. Choosing to avoid the entrapments inherent in Monarchy's and Dictatorships, while protecting State's rights, they settled on a Republic.

1. In-class assignment, what is the difference between a democracy and a republic?
2. How are we to understand the political spectrum?
3. What is the role of the government in the U.S.?
4. What are the five forms of government?
5. What is the most common form of government?
6. What does the word democracy mean?
7. What is the flaw in democracy?
8. What does the word Republic mean?
9. What can a lynch mob teach us about the difference between a democracy and a republic?
10. Does the word democracy appear in American founding documents, Constitution, or state constitutions?
11. Why did the Founders look upon democracy with contempt?
12. What did Solon and the Romans suggest to the Founders?
13. What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?
14. What are our two choices?


George Washington

When George Washington (1732–1799) was chosen to lead the American army, the British thought he would be a failure.

Washington indeed faced many challenges, including an army that did not have weapons, uniforms, or bedding. He struggled to incorporate order and discipline and to instill pride and loyalty in his soldiers. Washington persevered to American victory. His success as a leader continued when he became the nation’s first President.

How did Washington hold the army together through difficult times?

One aspect of American leadership has been Washington's reluctance to highlight himself personally at the expense of the Republic.

Washington was often compared to Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (519 BC – 438 BC)--an aristocrat and political figure of the Roman Republic, who served as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC--for his willingness to give up near-absolute power once the crisis of the American Revolution had passed and victory had been won.

Cincinnatus was regarded by the Romans, especially the aristocratic patrician class, as one of the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman virtue and simplicity. Washington is in Cincinnatus' tradition.

The Society of the Cincinnati is a historical association founded in the aftermath of the American

Revolutionary War to preserve the ideals of the military officer's role in the new American Republic.

Washington disdained personal pomp and circumstance and he steadfastly refused to be equated as a King. He began the tradition of simply being referred to as "Mr. President" as a title, and thus equated himself with the ordinary respect and dignity afforded to any person.

He viewed the Presidency as a solemn duty to perform for the Republic. He would have preferred a private life at his estate Mt. Vernon.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The original description: statue of Cincinnatus, Cincinnati, OH, 2004, by Rick Dikeman.

"With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer."

Does any other political group in history employ the fasces as a symbol of power?

James Madison

James Madison (1751–1836) arrived at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in May 1787 with his thick notebooks on history and government. Madison chose a seat in front of the president’s chair and kept detailed notes of the debates. Madison was greatly respected and quickly became the Convention’s floor leader. His notebooks remained unpublished for more than 50 years, but they are now our main source of information about the birth of the Constitution.

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) was a philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat. Sent by Congress to France in 1776 to seek financial and military support for the war, he soon became popular in France because of his intellect and wit. Those who admired America’s goal of attaining freedom also admired Franklin. When Franklin returned to America after nine years, he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention as the eldest of the delegates.

The Constitution

The Articles of Confederation was the nation’s first constitution. It proved to be too weak to rule the new United States effectively. To address this problem, the nation’s leaders gathered once more in Philadelphia. Among them were George Washington, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. During the hot summer of 1787, they met in secret to redraft the articles of the new constitution. The result was a document that established a government run by the people, for the people.

The Bill of Rights

In-class assignment:

Bill of Rights Rap - Smart Songs, 3:38

What did the states advise stating before approving the Constitution? Summarize the ten Bill of Rights.

WEBSITE: DOWNLOAD: LIKE US ON FACEBOOK:!/smartsongsmusic Beat by Drizzle & Swizzle. Lyrics by Shoeless Jeff and Scott Free. From the Album: Trip to DC
The Framers of the Constitution had studied history and absorbed the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. They saw government in terms of a social contract into which “We the People of the United States” entered. They provided not only for an elective legislature but also for an elected president rather than a hereditary monarch. For the first President, voters would choose George Washington.

The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal, or national, government and the states. A central feature of the new federal government was the separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, an idea borrowed directly from Montesquieu. Within that structure, each branch of government was provided with checks and balances on the other branches.
The Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, was important to the passage of the Constitution. It recognized the idea that people had basic rights that the government must protect, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press. The Bill of Rights, like the Constitution, put the philosophes’ Enlightenment ideas into practice.

In 1789, the Constitution became the supreme law of the land, which means it became the nation’s fundamental law. This remarkable document has endured for more than 200 years. The Constitution of the United States created the most freest government of its day, and most likely for all time. From the start, the new republic was a symbol of freedom to European countries and reformers in Latin America. Its constitution would be copied or adapted by many lands throughout the world. The Enlightenment ideals that had inspired American colonists brought changes in Europe too. In 1789, a revolution in France toppled the monarchy in the name of liberty and equality. Before long, other Europeans would take up the cry for freedom as well.

Eyewitness to History

We can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz.

The Road to Revolution Game

And now we can consider the situation of the 13 colonies. For access at home: Visit: Web Code: nap-1731
Map Skills
1. Locate
a) Philadelphia
b) Massachusetts
c) Boston
2) Which colony had two pieces of land?
3) What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map?

USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world. It was first launched in 1797. Constitution is one of six ships ordered for construction by George Washington to protect America's growing maritime interests. The ships greatest glory came during the war of 1812 when she defeated four British frigates which earned her the nickname "Old Ironsides," because cannon balls glanced off her thick hull. The ship was restored in 1927 with contributions from the nation's school children. The Charlestown Navy Yard was built on what was once Mouton's or Morton's Point, the landing place of the British army prior to the Battle of Bunker Hill. It was one of the first shipyards built in the United States. During its 174 year history, hundreds of ships were built, repaired and modernized, including the World War II destroyer USS Cassin Young. Today, thirty acres of the Navy Yard are preserved by the National Park Service as part of Boston National Historical Park.
The U.S.S. Constitution.
What can you find out about this remarkable ship, nicknamed "Old Ironsides?"
References: References Abuses inherited as a result of a controlling aristocracy may be seen clearly in this work. Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act by E.P. Thompson

Events That Changed the World For: Interactive map, audio, and more Visit: Web Code: nap-1733
The American and the French Revolution

Give Me Liberty! 2:51

Stop the Reign of Terror! 2:43

Pre-Built Course Content

pp. 839-841


In your small groups, read, discuss, and answer the "Reading Critically" questions.

Blog Reference

Week 3 Discussion

"Classical Music; Early Abolitionist Art and Literature" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  •  Listen to one (1) composition (for a symphony) by Haydn or Mozart, either at the Websites below or in this week's Music Folder. Identify the work that you have chosen, and describe the way in which the composition expresses the specific qualities of the Classical music style. Use the key terms from the textbook that are related to that particular music style, and explain what you like or admire about the work. Compare it to a specific modern musical work for which you might use the term "classic" or "classical".
  • Explain whether you think an autobiographical or fictional account by a slave (such as Phillis Wheatley and Olaudah Equiano) is more persuasive than a biographical or fictional account by a white author (such as John Gabriel Stedman or Aphra Behn). Explain whether you believe the representations of slavery in the visual arts (such as William Blake’s illustrations, William Hackwood’s cameo, or John Singleton Copley’s painting) were more compelling and convincing of the injustices of slavery than the literary representations already mentioned. In your explanations, use specific examples and consider both audience and the content and nature of the work. Identify the literary or art form in modern times that you think is most effective at depicting injustice.
Classical Music
 Early Abolitionist Art & Literature
Tariq Ramadan and Ayaan Hirsi Ali - Debate (1/3) - YouTube.flv