Wednesday, October 14, 2009

WH II: 15 October 2009


Make-Up Test, 20 Question, multiple-choice Test on Chapter 10.

Current events:

We will consider Part II of this interview.

Today's lesson plan and HW is available on the blog:


The Shanawiki page ( has updated class information.

The online version of a portion of the Textbook is available.

LibraryThing has bibliographic resources.

I moved the "Blog Archive" to the top right on the blog page so it should be easier to find the daily lesson, HW, and other class material.

Sr. has advised students to check online teaching materials (as we have been doing since the first day of school).

We can consider the results of the Slideshare assignment.

Map of France

Chapter 11 (newer edition Ch. 18): The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815

Chapter Overviews

Poverty, social divisions, and economic crisis led to the French Revolution and a reign of terror. Napoleon Bonaparte took power in a coup d'etat and tried to overthrow Europe's old order. After his costly military campaigns, he was defeated at Waterloo, Belgium, and exiled.

Section 1 The French Revolution Begins

Poverty and deep social divisions were the backdrop of the French Revolution. On the eve of the revolution, financial crisis gripped the government of Louis XVI. Rather than accept higher taxes, the commoners in France's legislative body, the Estates-General, broke off to form a National Assembly. Anticipating an attack by the king's forces, commoners then stormed the Bastille prison, marking the start of the Revolution. The new Assembly took control of the Catholic Church and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. The document was inspired in part by the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The Assembly then wrote a constitution establishing a limited monarchy and a Legislative Assembly. France was soon at war with Austria, where some feared the revolution might spread. Louis XVI was taken captive by the Paris Commune. The Commune called for a National Convention and forced the revolution into a more violent phase.

Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

During the first years of the revolution, a republic was established, Louis XVI was executed, and thousands of people were killed on suspicion of opposing the revolution. While factions fought over control within France, European states fearing the spread of revolution made plans to invade France. The National Convention responded by forming a Committee of Public Safety. The committee led a 12-month Reign of Terror, executing close to 40,000 suspected enemies and expunging signs of Catholic influence. The committee also raised the largest army in European history and repelled the invading armies. With the crisis past, the National Convention ended the Reign of Terror and executed its zealous leader, Maximilien Robespierre. Power shifted into the hands of more moderate middle-class leaders who produced a constitution in 1795. The constitution called for a two-house legislative body and an executive committee, called the Directory. The Directory faced mounting problems. In 1799 a popular General, Napoleon Bonaparte, seized power in a coup d'état.

Section 3 The Age of Napoleon

Napoleon formed a new government, the consulate, in which he held absolute power. In 1802 he was crowned emperor and signed a peace treaty with Russia, Great Britain, and Austria. At home, he made peace with the Catholic Church and created a functioning bureaucracy. His Napoleonic Code preserved many of the rights gained in the revolution. War was soon renewed. By 1807, Napoleon had created a French empire. In parts of the empire, Napoleon sought to spread the revolution. However, his invasions had contributed to the spread of nationalism as well. This, along with British sea power, would spell his defeat. After a disastrous invasion of Russia, other European nations attacked Napoleon's army and captured Paris. Napoleon was exiled from France, and the monarchy was restored. Napoleon returned to power briefly, only to face final military defeat against a combined Prussian and British force at Waterloo and to be exiled once again.

After surveying the Chapter, we begin in Section 1 The French Revolution Begins

We can consider the "Causes of the French Revolution."

To cover the entire French Revolution is a lofty task but to deal with the subject as best we can there is a good reference in the "Detailed Guide to the Revolution."

One of the most interesting characters of the period is "Marie Antoinette," sometimes referred to as the Teen Queen, not to be confused with later teen queens.

Or, alternatively, we can listen to "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution" in song.

If someone is studying French, perhaps they can translate the anthem of the republican Revolution:

The Marseillaise (War Song for the Army of the Rhine)

( Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin)

Allons enfants de la patrie!
Le jour de gloire est arrivé;
Contre nous de la tyrannie
L'étendard sanglant est levé.
L'étendard sanglant est levé.

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes
Mugir ces féroces soldats?
Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras
Egorger vos fils, vos compagnes!


Aux armes, citoyens, formez vos bataillons,
Marchez, marchez, qu'un sang impur
abreuve nos sillons.

Que veut cet horde d'esclaves,
De traîtres, de rois conjurés?
Pour qui ces ignobles entraves,
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés?
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés?

Francais! Pour nous, ah quel outrage!
Quels transports il doit exciter!
C'est nous qu'on ose méditer
De rendre à l'antique esclavage?


Amour sacré de la patrie,
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs
Liberté, Liberté chérie!
Combats avec tes défenseurs
Combats avec tes défenseurs

Sous nos drapeaux que la Victoire
Accourt à tes mâles accents:
Que tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire


One of the most arresting images of the Revolution, no pun intended, is the guillotine.

Chapter 11 Section 1 The French Revolution Begins


*Describe the social divisions of France’s old order.
*List reasons for France’s economic troubles in 1789.
*Explain why Louis XVI called the Estates-General and summarize what resulted.
*Understand why Parisians stormed the Bastille.

Witness History

The Loss of Blood Begins (Audio)

On July 14, 1789, after a daylong hunting expedition, King Louis XVI returned to his palace in Versailles. Hours earlier, armed Parisians had attacked the Bastille. They had cut the chains of the prison drawbridge, crushing a member of the crowd, and poured into the courtyard. Chaos ensued as shots rang out, blood was spattered, and heads were paraded down the streets on spikes. When Louis heard the news, he exclaimed, “Then it’s a revolt?” “No, sire,” replied the duke bearing the news, “it’s a revolution!” The French Revolution had begun. Witness History relates the fall of the Bastille.

The Conquerors of the Bastille before the Hotel de Ville, painted by Paul Delaroche


Chapter Focus Question

What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era?

Background to the Revolution

The Three Estates

French Society Divided (Audio)

In 1789, France, like the rest of Europe, still clung to an outdated social system that had emerged in the Middle Ages. Under this ancien régime, or old order, everyone in France was divided into one of three social classes, or estates. The First Estate was made up of the clergy; the Second Estate was made up of the nobility; and the Third Estate comprised the vast majority of the population.
The Clergy Enjoy Wealth

During the Middle Ages, the Church had exerted great influence throughout Christian Europe. In 1789, the French clergy still enjoyed enormous wealth and privilege. The Church owned about 10 percent of the land, collected tithes, and paid no direct taxes to the state. High Church leaders such as bishops and abbots were usually nobles who lived very well. Parish priests, however, often came from humble origins and might be as poor as their peasant congregations.

The First Estate did provide some social services. Nuns, monks, and priests ran schools, hospitals, and orphanages. But during the Enlightenment, philosophes targeted the Church for reform. They criticized the idleness of some clergy, the Church’s interference in politics, and its intolerance of dissent. In response, many clergy condemned the Enlightenment for undermining religion and moral order.

Nobles Hold Top Government Jobs

The Second Estate was the titled nobility of French society. In the Middle Ages, noble knights had defended the land. In the 1600s, Richelieu and Louis XIV had crushed the nobles’ military power but had given them other rights—under strict royal control. Those rights included top jobs in government, the army, the courts, and the Church.

At Versailles, ambitious nobles competed for royal appointments while idle courtiers enjoyed endless entertainments. Many nobles, however, lived far from the center of power. Though they owned land, they received little financial income. As a result, they felt the pinch of trying to maintain their status in a period of rising prices.

Many nobles hated absolutism and resented the royal bureaucracy that employed middle-class men in positions that once had been reserved for them. They feared losing their traditional privileges, especially their freedom from paying taxes.

Analyzing Political Cartoons

The Old Regime

This cartoon represents the social order in France before the French Revolution. While a member of the Third Estate is beginning to express anger and rise up, a nobleman representing the Second Estate and a priest, representing the First Estate, recoil in surprise and fear.

1. How does the cartoonist portray the Third Estate? Explain why.

2. What were the differences among the social classes in pre-revolutionary France?

Third Estate Is Vastly Diverse

The Third Estate was the most diverse social class. At the top sat the bourgeoisie (boor zhwah zee), or middle class. The bourgeoisie included prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers, as well as lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professors. The bulk of the Third Estate, however, consisted of rural peasants. Some were prosperous landowners who hired laborers to work for them. Others were tenant farmers or day laborers.

The poorest members of the Third Estate were urban workers. They included apprentices, journeymen, and others who worked in industries such as printing or cloth making. Many women and men earned a meager living as servants, stable hands, construction workers, or street sellers of everything from food to pots and pans. A large number of the urban poor were unemployed. To survive, some turned to begging or crime.

Vocabulary Builder

urban—(ur bun) adj. of, relating to, or characteristic of a city

From rich to poor, members of the Third Estate resented the privileges enjoyed by their social “betters.” Wealthy bourgeois families in the Third Estate could buy political office and even titles, but the best jobs were still reserved for nobles. Urban workers earned miserable wages. Even the smallest rise in the price of bread, their main food, brought the threat of greater hunger or even starvation.

Because of traditional privileges, the First and Second Estates paid almost no taxes. Peasants were burdened by taxes on everything from land to soap to salt. Though they were technically free, many owed fees and services that dated back to medieval times, such as the corvée (kawr vay), which was unpaid labor to repair roads and bridges. Peasants were also incensed when nobles, hurt by rising prices, tried to reimpose old manor dues.


What Is the Third Estate?

In towns and cities, Enlightenment ideas led people to question the inequalities of the old regime. Why, people demanded, should the first two estates have such great privileges at the expense of the majority? Throughout France, the Third Estate called for the privileged classes to pay their share.


What was the social structure of the old regime in France?

Financial Crisis (Audio)

Economic woes in France added to the social unrest and heightened tensions. One of the causes of the economic troubles was a mushrooming financial crisis that was due in part to years of deficit spending. This occurs when a government spends more money than it takes in.

National Debt Soars

Louis XIV had left France deeply in debt. The Seven Years’ War and the American Revolution strained the treasury even further. Costs generally had risen in the 1700s, and the lavish court soaked up millions. To bridge the gap between income and expenses, the government borrowed more and more money. By 1789, half of the government’s income from taxes went to paying the interest on this enormous debt. Also, in the late 1780s, bad harvests sent food prices soaring and brought hunger to poorer peasants and city dwellers.

To solve the financial crisis, the government would have to increase taxes, reduce expenses, or both. However, the nobles and clergy fiercely resisted any attempt to end their exemption from taxes.

Economic Reform Fails

The heirs of Louis XIV were not the right men to solve the economic crisis that afflicted France. Louis XV, who ruled from 1715 to 1774, pursued pleasure before serious business and ran up more debts. Louis XVI was well-meaning but weak and indecisive. He did, however, wisely choose Jacques Necker, a financial expert, as an advisor. Necker urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform government, and abolish burdensome tariffs on internal trade. When Necker proposed taxing the First and Second Estates, however, the nobles and high clergy forced the king to dismiss him.

As the crisis deepened, the pressure for reform mounted. The wealthy and powerful classes demanded, however, that the king summon the Estates-General, the legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates, before making any changes. A French king had not called the Estates-General for 175 years, fearing that nobles would use it to recover the feudal powers they had lost under absolute rule. To reform-minded nobles, the Estates-General seemed to offer a chance of carrying out changes like those that had come with the Glorious Revolution in England. They hoped that they could bring the absolute monarch under the control of the nobles and guarantee their own privileges.

Primary Source

Poorer peasants and city dwellers in France were faced with great hunger as bad harvests sent food prices soaring. People began to riot to demand bread. In the countryside, peasants began to attack the manor houses of the nobles. Arthur Young, an English visitor to France, witnessed these riots and disturbances. Why did the poor attack the nobles’ homes?

Primary Source

“Everything conspires to render the present period in France critical: the [lack] of bread is terrible: accounts arrive every moment from the provinces of riots and disturbances, and calling in the military, to preserve the peace of the markets.”

—Arthur Young, Travels in France During the Years 1787, 1788, 1789


What economic troubles did France face in 1789, and how did they lead to further unrest?

Reading Check
What groups were part of the Third Estate?

From Estates-General to National Assembly

Reading Check
Why did the Third Estate object to each estate's having one vote in the Estates-General?

The Destruction of the Old Regime

Declaration of the Rights of Man

The King Concedes

Church Reforms

A New Constitution and New Fears

War with Austria

Rise of the Paris Commune

Reading Check
What was the significance of the Constitution of 1791?


Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

HW: email me at

The Old Regime

This cartoon represents the social order in France before the French Revolution. While a member of the Third Estate is beginning to express anger and rise up, a nobleman representing the Second Estate and a priest, representing the First Estate, recoil in surprise and fear.

1. How does the cartoonist portray the Third Estate? Explain why.

2. What were the differences among the social classes in pre-revolutionary France?

AP Economics: 15 October 2009

As announced, a 20 Question multiple-choice Test (the Make-up Test) will be administered, Test #1, Chapter 2.

Current Events:

Larry Kudlow, and his expert from the Wall Street Times, states that the harm to the economy is deliberate.

Today's lesson plan and HW is available on the blog:


The Shanawiki page ( has updated class information.

LibraryThing has bibliographic resources.

I moved the "Blog Archive" to the top right on the blog page so it should be easier to find the daily lesson, HW, and other class material.

Chapter Three Overview, Demand and Supply

Every Graph You Need to Know for the Exam: Supply and Demand (Illustrated)

The introduction of the idea of a market (using a number of examples, including
financial markets and textbook sales) is followed by the analysis of demand, supply, equilibrium, and the effects on market equilibrium when demand and supply
curves shift.

Chapter Outline


The Price System

Checkpoint: Markets


The Relationship Between Quantity Demanded and Price

The Law of Demand

The Demand Curve

Market Demand Curves

Determinants of Demand

Tastes and Preferences


Prices of Related Goods

The Number of Buyers

Expectations About Future Prices, Incomes, and Product Availability

Changes in Demand Versus Changes in Quantity Demanded

Changes in Demand

Changes in Quantity Demanded

Checkpoint: Demand


The Relationship Between Quantity Supplied and Price

The Law of Supply

The Supply Curve

Market Supply Curves

Determinants of Supply

Production Technology

Costs of Resources

Prices of Other Commodities


The Number of Sellers

Taxes and Subsidies

Changes in Supply versus Changes in Quantity Supplied

Checkpoint: Supply

Market Equilibrium

Moving to a New Equilibrium: Changes in Supply and Demand

Predicting the New Equilibrium When One Curve Shifts

Predicting the New Equilibrium When Both Curves Shift

Summarizing Shifts and Equilibrium

Checkpoint: Market Equilibrium

Putting Supply and Demand to Work

Excess Grape Supply and Two-Buck Chuck

Trek Bicycles and Lance Armstrong

Ideas for Capturing Your Classroom Audience

■ Track a product on eBay. Work with at least one other study partner, or members in your small group. Students should select an item and watch it as its auction
progresses. Consider products that students think will be highly desired as
opposed to other less popular products.

Chapter Checkpoints

Market: Financial Markets

From Friday: Questions for discussion on Shanawiki: Demand: Hybrid Cars
Question: Sales of hybrid cars are on the rise. The Toyota Prius, while priced above comparable gasoline-only cars, is selling well. Other manufacturers are adding hybrids to their lines as well. What has been the cause of the rising sales of hybrids? Is this an increase in demand or an increase in quantity demanded?

Supply: iPods, iTunes, and MP3 players
Question: What has been the impact of the iPod, iTunes, and MP3 players in general
on high-end stereo equipment sales? Has the same impact been at work with CD
music sales since downloading of individual songs was introduced by Apple?

Equilibrium: China and India
Question: As China and India (both with huge populations and rapidly growing
economies) continue to develop, what do you think will happen to their demand for
energy and specifically oil? What will suppliers of oil do in the face of this demand? Will this have an impact on world energy (oil) prices? What sort of policies or events could alter your forecast about the future price of oil?

Extended Examples in the Chapter

Putting Demand and Supply to Work

Both of the following examples use supply and demand analysis as a framework for
predicting how market participants will act, and what the resulting price and output might be.

Excess Grape Supply and Two-Buck Chuck

The great California wine of the 1990s put California wine on the map. Demand,
prices, and exports grew rapidly. Over planting of new grape vines was a result.
Driving along Interstate 5 or Highway 101 north of Los Angeles, grape vineyards
extend for miles as far as the eye can see, and most were planted in the mid to late 1990s. The 2001 recession reduced the demand for California wine, and a rising dollar made imported wine relatively cheaper. The result was a sharp drop in demand for California wine and a huge surplus of grapes. Bronco Wine Company President Fred Franzia made an exclusive deal with Trader Joe’s (an unusual supermarket that features exotic food and wine products), bought the excess grapes at distressed prices, and with his modern plant produced inexpensive wine under the Charles Shaw label. Selling for $1.99 a bottle, Two-Buck Chuck as it is known is available in Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, and Sauvignon Blanc. Consumers have flocked to Trader Joe’s and literally haul cases of wine out by the carload. Today, Two-Buck Chuck sells well over a million cases a month. This is not rot-gut: the 2002 Shiraz beat out 2,300 other wines to win a double gold medal at the 2004 28th Annual International Eastern Wine Competition.

Two-Buck Chuck was such a hit that other supermarkets were forced to offer their
own discount wines. This good, low-priced wine has had the effect of opening up
markets. As an illustration can be demonstrated, people who previously avoided wine because of the cost have begun drinking more (demand curves do slope down and to the right).

As The Economist has noted, the entire industry may benefit because “Wine
drinkers who start off drinking plonk often graduate to upmarket varieties.”

For more information about this wine and conditions in the wine industry, visit the following Web sites:

From CBS News, a story titled “ ‘Two Buck Chuck’ Wine Cult” points out that it is
the surplus of grapes that makes the wine so inexpensive. On the web at: http:// (from the Bay Area of California) has a story titled “‘Two Buck Chuck’
Changing Wine Habits” which makes the point that “quality does not necessarily follow price.”

Trek Bikes and Lance

When Lance Armstrong won his seventh Tour de France cycling championship in
July, 2005, he rode a bicycle made by Trek of the United States.2 So on the demand
side, we can expect demand for the victor’s brand of bicycles to go up. This in fact happened, in both the United States and Europe. On the supply side, U.S. bicycle manufacturers such as Trek and Cannondale were willing to increase output as shown in Figure 15 (note that the supply curve didn’t change, only quantity supplied).

This process worked well in the U.S. but proved tougher in Europe, not so
much in the actual production of the bicycles but in getting stores to stock them. Up to a few years ago, racing bicycles were almost exclusively made by European companies.

1 “California Drinking,” The Economist, June 7th, 2003, p. 56.
2 See Ian Austen, “U.S. Bike Makers Seek Dominance in Europe,” The New York Times,
December 30, 2003, p. W1.

The Market for Bicycles

Using our supply and demand analysis, we see that demand increased. Since no
determinant of supply changed, we know that just output will increase, and prices
for Trek bicycles will rise. Our supply and demand analysis gives us a useful framework for predicting how market participants will act, and what the resulting price and output might be.

For More Information

In an article titled “Trek Bicycle Coup: Tour de Force” in Baseline (on the web at,1397,1618016,00.asp), the author details the
technology used in making the bikes, as well as providing data on prices and quantities.

The phrase “limitless tolerance on price” is a good introduction to the topic
of elasticity (to be covered in an upcoming chapter).

Examples Used in the End-of-Chapter Questions

Question 10 discusses the market for virtual goods. Based on Rob Walker, “The
Buying Game: A real market, overseen by a real corporation selling things that don’t really exist,” (The New York Times Magazine, October 16, 2005, p. 28), the question asks students to consider the markets for goods used in on-line games such as EverQuest II. This example encourages students to see that markets “really” exist even in “virtual” worlds.

For a further demonstration, visit the homepage of Second Life (at and see how much in U.S. dollars has been spent…in just 24 hours!

Question 11 is based on a Wall Street Journal story by Peter Sanders and Stephanie
Kang, (“Wipeout for Key Player in Surfboard Industry,” The Wall Street Journal,
December 8, 2005, p.B1) that discusses the closing of Clark Foam. The key point of
the example is that the firm was a manufacturer of a critical input needed to make
surfboards. It provides a good illustration about how a change in price and availability of a resource carries over into product markets.

For another story and some good visuals, see the page on the web at http://www.,21214,1138359,00.htm.
Question 12 examines the effect of increased demand in the market for polysilicon,
used in making solar panels. It is based on the story by John Carey, “What’s Raining on Solar’s Parade” (Business Week, February 6, 2006, p. 78). The key point for discussion here is the impact of uncertainty, which is another way to talk about the role of expectations on demand and supply.

For more about the dynamics of the polysilicon market, see the story from IndustrialControl Designline on the web at

Question 13 provides a good example of how synthetic substitute products can be
developed when “natural” products become scarce. Based on the story by James
Altucher, “Supply, demand and edible orchids” (The Financial Times, September
20, 2005, p.12), it presents students with a data set, requires them to graph and analyze the data, and then illustrate the effects of changes in demand and supply.
Particular attention is given to the idea that even as supply is changing, demand may also be changing (in this case, due to the development of a synthetic).

Did you know that vanilla is the most labor-intensive agricultural product in the
world? You can find out just about everything there is to know about vanilla on the web at

For Further Analysis

The Supply and Demand Effects of the Increased Use of Ethanol

Handout 3-1 is an in-class group exercise with your small group.

Students are asked to draw graphs illustrating shifts in demand and supply
and changes in quantity demanded and supplied. Asking students to document
research about specifics in this topic (for example, changes in planted acreage).

Learning objectives: application of concepts of changes in quantity demanded
and quantity supplied versus changes in demand and supply; demonstration of mastery of graphing techniques; and reinforcement of critical thinking skills.

Web-based Exercise

What’s Been Driving Gasoline Prices?

This example can be used as an in-class group exercise.

Asking students to perform (and document) additional research allows you
to use it as a case study or group project as well. For example, students can be
asked to document gasoline sales to see if, as predicted, an increase in demand
results in both a higher price and a greater quantity sold.

Learning objectives: application of concepts of changes in quantity demanded
and quantity supplied versus changes in demand and supply; demonstration of mastery of graphing techniques; and reinforcement of critical thinking skills.

The Supply and Demand Effects of the Increased Use of Ethanol

Draw a supply and demand graph showing the market for corn in equilibrium. Label the demand curve as “DOld” and the supply curve as “S”. Then illustrate the effect of an increased demand for corn due to its being used to produce ethanol. Explain the changes in price and equilibrium quantity using the vocabulary of “changes in quantity demanded,” and “changes in quantity supplied,” as well as “change in demand” and “change in supply.”

Use a supply and demand graph to illustrate and explain the impact of a higher price of corn on any one of a wide variety of food products; be sure to include the effect on the cost of high-fructose corn syrup.

You do not need to send HW in email to for this exercise.

1. ■ Track a product on eBay. Work with at least one other study partner, or members in your small group. Students should select an item and watch it as its auction progresses. Consider products that students think will be highly desired as opposed to other less popular products.