Tuesday, January 04, 2011

Honors World History: 4 January 2011

Current Events:

Cf. ICXT SkyWatch promo video.

SkyWatch Frontier

The SkyWatch Frontier was developed with the intention of being deployed with our military forces and, as such, provides optional ballistic capabilities for those areas in which enemy activity is at its highest. Due to this inherent design, the SkyWatch Frontier can meet the rigors of expeditionary missions not only for the military, but for border patrol and high level security arenas as well.
Cf. http://www.icxt.com/products/icx-surveillance/integrated-platforms/skywatch/skywatch-applications/

A Skywatch has been deployed at a Wal-mart in Hickory, NC, funded with stimulus funds; they are being deployed in other locations as well.

DHS Secretary Napolitano Announces Expansion of If You See Something, Say Something Campaign to Walmart Stores Across the Nation

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

The Fourth Amendment

The Ch. 11 Make-Up Test is today.

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Moodle - Nationalism

The Chapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon Make-Up Quiz is today.

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+World+History+II+Fall+2010+Chapter+11+Section+3+The+Age+of+Napoleon+Quiz+Prep+Page

#19. should have listed: "d) Anne Louise Germaine de Staël"

#20. do not answer, skip the question entirely, go on to #21.

Standard feature:

The electronic edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer is available. We have the Sunday edition, available on Mondays, in addition to the Tuesday through Friday editions on the other days.

Please follow the steps below:

URL: http://nie.philly.com
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
Username: bshsinky@shanahan.org
Password: 10888

Cf. http://vozme.com/index.php?lang=en

Cf. http://www.xtranormal.com/

Cf. http://www.wordle.net/create

ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm

Or, http://www.glogster.com/login/

Revolutionary Outbursts

Greek soldiers

Recognize Sequence: keep track of the sequence of events that led to German unification by completing a chart like the one below. Add more boxes as needed.

Checkpoint for assignment:

What was the German Confederation?

Otto von Bismarck The Iron Chancellor 1815-1898

Individual in-class assignment:

When was Bismarck born?
When did he die?
When was he Chancellor?
What country was he from?

What was a main objective of Bismarck's?

ANSWERS: to "Otto von Bismarck The Iron Chancellor 1815-1898"

1. When was Bismarck born?

1 April 1815

2. When did he die?

30 July 1898

3. When was he Chancellor?

21 March 1871 - 20 March 1890

4. What area was he from?


Additional question:

What was a main objective of Bismarck's?

A main objective of Bismarck's was to prevent other major powers allying with France.

8th to enjoy:

The rise and fall of Prussia, 4:36

In-class assignment: with a partner, consider the rise and fall of Prussia.

1. What are the five modern great powers?

2. Which is the only one that disappeared from Europe?

3. In what year did Prussia gain independence from the State of the Teutonic Order?

4. What is Prussia's great rival (Hint: not France but another German-speaking state)?

5. What exactly was Prussia?

6. Where was it located?

7. Why did it disappear?

8. What were the dates of an independent Prussia?

9. What was the predominant religion (Protestantism or Roman Catholicism)?

10. What was the main dynasty?

Some traces of Prussia in history:
- the Iron Cross
- the Prussian mentality can be seen back in the present-day Germans
- the black and white colours in German national football team (black and white are colours of the Prussian flag)
- Borussia Dortmund (Borussia is the Latin name for Prussia)
- Prussian blue


1. Prussia was one of the five modern great powers. The other great powers were Austria, France, Russia and the United Kingdom.

2. Prussia is the only country of these which disappeared from the European map. The Prussian borders changed very often.

3. In 1525 Prussia gained independence from the State of the Teutonic Order. Prussia had a great influence on German and European history.

4. Its rival was Austria, because Prussia and Austria both wanted to control the rest of Germany.

5. The leading German-speaking state of the time.

6. Prussia was located in northern, central Europe. After Bismarck, Prussia was incorporated into a greater Germany.

7. Why did it disappear?

As a result of the German loss in World War I and II. The Allies decided to end it once and for all.

8. What were the dates of an independent Prussia?

1525-1947, a total of 422 years.

9. What was the predominant religion (Protestantism or Roman Catholicism)?


10. What was the main dynasty?

The Hohenzollerns.

Quotes from Bismarck, 3:49

In-class assignment: individually, pick out one quote you find interesting and explain why.





German Unification

Bismarck pictured greeting representatives at the Congress of Berlin.

Otto von Bismarck succeeded where others had failed. Bismarck came from Prussia’s Junker (yoong kur) class, made up of conservative landowning nobles.

“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power. . . . The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions—that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron!”

—Otto von Bismarck, 1862

Although Bismarck was the architect of German unity, he was not really a German nationalist. His primary loyalty was to the Hohenzollerns (hoh un tsawl urnz), the ruling dynasty of Prussia, who represented a powerful, traditional monarchy. Through unification, he hoped to bring more power to the Hohenzollerns.

Royal house medal of the Hohenzollerns

Prussia Declares War With Denmark and Austria

In-class assignment:

Franco-Prussian War (1870), 6:10

When did the war start?
Which country declared war?
How many dead or wounded did Germany and France have?

Bismarck furthered the crisis (with France) by rewriting and then releasing to the press a telegram that reported on a meeting between King William I and the French ambassador. Bismarck’s editing of the “Ems dispatch” made it seem that William I had insulted the Frenchman. Furious, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia, as Bismarck had hoped.

A Political Game of Chess

This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.

1. How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church?

2. How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s?

On the domestic front, Bismarck applied the same ruthless methods he had used to achieve unification. The Iron Chancellor, as he was called, sought to erase local loyalties and crush all opposition to the imperial state. He targeted two groups—the Catholic Church and the Socialists. In his view, both posed a threat to the new German state.

Crankshaw, one of Bismarck's biographers, describes the tragedy of Bismarck. It is not that he "subordinated morality to the supposed needs of the state," many politicians do that; it is that "his countrymen surrendered to the principle (pp. 413-414)."

The German people saw it happening and lacked the will to stop it. Bismarck and the people each corrupted the other. To say that Bismarck was a direct precursor of Hitler is evidently untrue; but it is not untrue, I think, to say that those aspects of the German character which made it possible for Bismarck to rule for just on thirty years were those same aspects which made it too easy for a Hitler to take power and keep it (p. 414).
The Hungarian Parliament Passes Legislation Funding an Army Against the Hapsburg Empire, 1848

The mixed symbols on the flag of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Italy Before 1861

Nationalism in the United States

Graphic Notes: "Downfall of Mother Bank," depicting President Andrew Jackson holding up an "Order of the Removal of the Public Money" during the fight over the Bank of the United States, 1833. E.W. Clay lithograph.

Citation: American Antiquarian Society, 185 Salisbury St, Worcester, MA 01609-1634 and the Library of Congress.

Reading Check


How did the election of Andrew Jackson influence American politics?
The divisions between Americans eventually led to fighting in the Civil War.

You can learn more about music from the period by listening to:
"When Johnny Comes Marching Home." In this exercise you can 1) view the exhibit; 2) read the lyrics; 3) learn more; and, 4) rewrite the song.

The Emergence of a Canadian Nation

Reading Check


How did the British North American Act change the government of Canada?

Map: The Dominion of Canada in the Nineteenth Century

A novel about the Crimean War:

Master George by Beryl Bainbridge
Visit an interactive exhibit about the gold rush.

The American Civil War.

Everyday life of a Civil War soldier

Civil War diary accounts

The Civil War: A Film by Ken Burns

Short animated movie about the American Civil War


Ch. 12 Sec. 4 Romanticism and Realism

Ch. 12 Sec. 4 Culture: Romanticism and Realism
Main Ideas

At the end of the eighteenth century, romanticism (Cf. PowerPoint on Romanticism) emerged as a reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment.

Intro to video:

Nineteenth-century Romanticism—with its escape from an increasingly complex and industrialized world to the simplicity and purity of nature—is experienced through the literature of Hugo, Brontë, Shelley and Byron. In a scene from Les Miserables, Victor Hugo sees society as the force that makes men evil. Attitudes toward passions are typified in scenes from Wuthering Heights. Ideals of life and death are brought home in the reenactment of Shelley's funeral pyre on the beach, as his friend and fellow poet, Lord Byron, swims out to sea for a better view.

5th to enjoy

In-class assignment:

Romanticism, 1:45

Who according to the video is considered the most Romantic of composers?

What characterizes Romanticism in music?

What do the Romantics believe in?

What, for example, did Romantic painters, paint?

Are the Romantics pessimists or optimists?

The Industrial Revolution created a new interest in science and helped produce the realist movement.

5th to enjoy

Video intro: a commentary on Realism and Naturalism.

Literary Realism and Naturalism, 2:53

How do Realists portray things?

How would you contrast the Romantic writers?

How are the naturalists an extension of the Realists?

For Literary Naturalism, what is the formula which explains their writing?

Can you name at least two of these writers?

Key Terms



organic evolution

natural selection


Objectives, at the end of the section the student should:

*Understand what themes shaped romantic art, literature, and music.
*Explain how realists responded to the industrialized, urban world.
*Describe how the visual arts changed.

People to Identify

Ludwig van Beethoven

Louis Pasteur

Charles Darwin

Charles Dickens

Additional Terms, People, and Places

William Wordsworth

William Blake

Lord Byron

Victor Hugo

Gustave Courbet

Louis Daguerre

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. It was taken by Daguerre in late 1838 or early 1839. It was captioned as follows:

English: Boulevard du Temple, Paris, IIIe arrondissement, Daguerreotype. The first picture of a person. The image shows a busy street, but because exposure time was over ten minutes, the traffic was moving too much to appear. The exception is the man at the bottom left, who stood still getting his boots polished long enough to show. Note that the image is a mirror image.


Claude Monet

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. In 1872, Monet is credited with beginning the style known as Impressionism, with his painting, "Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant)," for which the Impressionist movement was named. In the 1800s, “The Salon,” an annual exhibition that accepted only traditional paintings, dominated the Parisian art scene. In 1874, a group of artists held their own exhibition at a local photographer’s studio. Claude Monet’s Impression: Sunrise was one of the works displayed. Monet’s painting demonstrates several characteristics of impressionist work, including short, visible brush strokes and an idealized depiction of a landscape.

Edgar Degas, The Dancing Class, c. 1873–1875

This painting by Edgar Degas shows the influence of the newly invented camera. Impressionists’ paintings moved away from the traditional placement of subjects in favor of off-center compositions. Figures were also painted on the outermost parts of the canvas. Much like photographs, impressionist paintings were often snapshots of life rather than elaborate portraits.

Berthe Morisot, Eugène Manet and His Daughter at Bougival, c. 1881

French impressionist painter Berthe Morisot also participated in the first impressionist exhibit in 1874. Morisot’s delicate, subtle paintings often portrayed her family and friends—as this one of her husband and daughter.

Impressionism was one of the most important art movements of the 1800s. It marked a departure from tradition, both in subject matter and painting technique. Artists sought to depict the human eye’s first perception of a scene. Characterized by the use of unmixed primary colors and small, visible brush strokes, impressionism attempted to show the effects of direct or reflected light. Impressionist artists often painted outdoors for maximum effect.

Thinking Critically

1. Summarize

How did impressionism depart from tradition?

2. Draw Conclusions

What are the advantages and disadvantages of painting outdoors?

Vincent van Gogh


This self-portrait of Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh shows his bandaged ear, which he cut off in a state of depression. What postimpressionist features are demonstrated in Van Gogh’s self-portrait?

The Postimpressionists

Later painters, called postimpressionists, developed a variety of styles. Georges Seurat (suh rah) arranged small dots of color to define the shapes of objects. Vincent van Gogh experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors. His unique brushwork lent a dreamlike quality to everyday subjects. Paul Gauguin (goh gan) also developed a bold, personal style. In his paintings, people look flat, as in “primitive” folk art. But his brooding colors and black outlining of shapes convey intense feelings and images.

Note Taking

Reading Skill:
Identify Supporting Details

Fill in a table like the one below with details about the artistic movements in the 1800s.

Albert Bierstadt, Hetch Hetchy Canyon, 1875

Witness History

Sunset: Audio
In the 1800s, many writers turned away from the harsh realities of industrial life to celebrate nature. The English poet William Wordsworth described the peace and beauty of sunset (recited below, :52):

“It is a beauteous evening, calm and free,
The holy time is quiet as a Nun

Breathless with adoration; the broad sun

Is sinking down in its tranquillity.”
—William Wordsworth, Complete Poetical Works
"It is a beauteous evening," by William Wordsworth, :52.

A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from William Wordsworth (1770-1850); born on Apr 7. English poet; His "Lyrical Ballads," 1798 are noted for their worship of nature and humanitarianism; poet laureate, 1843-50, 1:07.


Romanticism does not refer to romance in the sense of an affectionate relationship, but rather to an artistic style emphasizing imagination, freedom, and emotion. Romanticism was a reaction to the neoclassical writers of the Enlightenment, who had turned to classical Greek and Roman literature and ideals that stressed order, harmony, reason, and emotional restraint. In contrast to Enlightenment literature, the works of romantic writers included simple, direct language, intense feelings, and a glorification of nature. Artists, composers, and architects were also followers of the movement.

The Romantic Hero

The following clip, released on 1 June 1981, is rated by the MPAA: PG.

If you object to the content please let me know and I will make other arrangements.

Indiana Jones: The American Romantic Hero

This video is a look at Indiana Jones, and how he is portrayed as a true American Romantic Hero throughout the first film. It was created for an 11th grade class, 7:29.

Romantic writers created a new kind of hero—a mysterious, melancholy figure who felt out of step with society. “My joys, my grief, my passions, and my powers, / Made me a stranger,” wrote Britain’s George Gordon, Lord Byron. He himself was a larger-than-life figure equal to those he created. After a rebellious, wandering life, he joined Greek forces battling for freedom. When he died of a fever there, his legend bloomed. In fact, public interest in his poetry and adventures was so great that moody, isolated romantic heroes came to be described as “Byronic.”

A Romantic Love Story, Byronic Hero, and Wordsworth's "Lucy," 2:21.

From Romanticism to pop culture, we have had numerous, mysterious, and melancholy figures who are out of step with society. These are Romantic, Byronic, figures.

One of the first rebels in pop culture was Marlon Brando in "The Wild One."

The Wild One is a 1953 outlaw biker film. It is remembered for Marlon Brando's portrayal of the gang leader Johnny Stabler as a juvenile delinquent, dressed in a leather jacket and driving a 1950 Triumph Thunderbird 6T. Acting opposite of Brando was Lee Marvin as a rival gang leader. This low-budget production had Brando playing a rebel without a cause two years before James Dean.
The film version was based on a January, 1951 short story in Harper's Magazine "The Cyclists' Raid" by Frank Rooney that was published in book form as part of "The Best American Short Stories 1952." The story took a cue from an actual biker street party on the Fourth of July weekend in 1947 in Hollister, California that was elaborately trumped up in Life Magazine (dubbed the Hollister riot) with staged photographs of wild motorcycle outlaw revellers. The Hollister event is now celebrated annually. In the film, the town is located somewhere in California.
Deemed scandalous and dangerous, the film was banned by the British Board of Film Censors from showing in the United Kingdom for fourteen years. Its first UK public showing, to a mostly Rocker audience being at the then famous 59 Club of Paddington in London.

In a famous exchange from the movie Brando's character is asked: "What are you rebelling against?"

Brando's character slyly responds: "What have you got?"

The rebellious pop image was thereafter popularized by James Dean:

Arguably the most famous Byronic rebel was Elvis.

In a well-known scene from one of his first movies, 'Jailhouse Rock', 1957, Elvis' character, a former penitentiary inmate (also starring Judy Tyler), has a chance to meet the parents.

The Byronic figure in pop culture can be seen in diverse figures from Jim Morrison, to Michael Jackson, and many others such as Tupac Shakur.

The romantic hero often hid a guilty secret and faced a grim destiny. German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (gur tuh) wrote the dramatic poem Faust. The aging scholar Faust makes a pact with the devil, exchanging his soul for youth. After much agony, Faust wins salvation by accepting his duty to help others. In Jane Eyre, British novelist Charlotte Brontë weaves a tale about a quiet governess and her brooding, Byronic employer, whose large mansion conceals a terrifying secret.

Faust Fragments: Prologue in Heaven and Faust Monologue bilingual German/English, 4:52.

Faust is a tragic play. It takes place in multiple settings, the first of which is heaven. Mephistopheles makes a bet with God: he says that he can deflect God's favorite human being (Faust), who is striving to learn everything that can be known, away from righteous pursuits. The next scene takes place in Faust's study where Faust, despairing at the vanity of scientific, humanitarian and religious learning, turns to magic for the showering of infinite knowledge.
Faust makes an arrangement with the devil: the devil will do everything that Faust wants while he is here on Earth, and in exchange Faust will serve the devil in Hell.
Video and Music by Independent Basement Production Ltd.

Michael O'Neill: Visions Rise, and Change - Emily Brontë's Poetry and Romanticism, The Brontë Society Conference 2009 July 31 - August 2 at The University of York, 2:43.

Inspired by the Past

Romantic writers combined history, legend, and folklore. Sir Walter Scott’s novels and ballads evoked the turbulent history of Scottish clans or medieval knights. Alexandre Dumas (doo mah) and Victor Hugo re-created France’s past in novels like The Three Musketeers and The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

Sir Walter Scott and Ivanhoe, 5:41.

Alexandre Dumas (doo mah) re-created France’s past in a novel like The Three Musketeers. The romantic adventure between D'Artangnan and Lady de Winter ends in a disaster. Milady tries to kill the Musketeer after he discovered her bad secret: Lana Turner, Gene Kelly star, 5:45.

Victor Hugo re-created France’s past in his novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame: here is an excerpt from Disney's version, "Heaven's Light" - The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996), 1:31.

Architects, too, were inspired by old styles and forms. Churches and other buildings, including the British Parliament, were modeled on medieval Gothic styles. To people living in the 1800s, medieval towers and lacy stonework conjured up images of a glorious past.

Music Stirs Emotions

Romantic composers also tried to stir deep emotions. Audiences were moved to laughter or tears at Hungarian Franz Liszt’s piano playing.

Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist and teacher. Liszt became renowned throughout Europe for his great skill as a performer; during the 1800s many considered him to be the greatest pianist in history. He was also an important and influential composer, a notable piano teacher, a conductor who contributed significantly to the modern development of the art, and a benefactor to other composers and performers, notably Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz. As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the "Neudeutsche Schule" ("New German School"). He left behind a huge and diverse body of work, in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated some 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem, developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form and making radical departures in harmony.
Victor Borge - Franz Liszt - Hungarian Rhapsody #2, 2:48. This is a humorous clip from a typical variety show of the past.

Biography: Audio

Ludwig van Beethoven

An accomplished musician by age 12, composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) agonized over every note of every composition. The result was stunning music that expresses intense emotion. The famous opening of his Fifth Symphony conveys the sense of fate knocking at the door. "Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, which he began in 1804, was first performed in Vienna in December 1808 (Cf. Hickok, Music, p. 206)."

The passionate music of German composer Ludwig van Beethoven combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound. He was the first composer to take full advantage of the broad range of instruments in the modern orchestra. In all, Beethoven produced nine symphonies, five piano concertos, a violin concerto, an opera, two masses, and dozens of shorter pieces. To many, he is considered the greatest composer of his day.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.
Yngwie Malmsteen, a Swedish musician, plays here in a 1985 rock version of Beethoven`s 5th symphony, 1:29. Beethoven wrote Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 between 1804 and 1808. It comprises four movements: an opening sonata allegro, an andante, and a fast scherzo which leads attacca to the finale.

Otto Klemperer conducts Beethoven's 6th Symphony "Pastoral" - The Storm, by The New Philharmonia Orchestra, London, Royal Festival Hall, 1970, 3:49.

His Sixth Symphony captures a joyful day in the countryside, interrupted by a violent thunderstorm.

Beethoven’s career was haunted by perhaps the greatest tragedy a musician can face. In 1798, he began to lose his hearing. Still, he continued to compose music he could hear only in his mind. How did Beethoven’s music reflect romanticism?

Other romantic composers wove traditional folk melodies into their works to glorify their nations’ pasts. In his piano works, Frederic Chopin (shoh pan) used Polish peasant dances to convey the sorrows and joys of people living under foreign occupation.

Prelude for Piano No. 7 in A Major (The Polish Dance), :43.

Romanticism in Art

Painters, too, broke free from the discipline and strict rules of the Enlightenment. Landscape painters like J.M.W. Turner sought to capture the beauty and power of nature. Using bold brush strokes and colors, Turner often showed tiny human figures struggling against sea and storm.

Joseph Mallord William Turner RA (1775-1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style is said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting. [Cf. Wikipedia]

Music: They that go down to the sea in ship, by Herbert Whitton Sumsion (1899-1995)

Sumsion was organist of Gloucester Cathedral from 1928 to 1967.

The cloisters at Gloucester Cathedral are exquisite. They were used in the Harry Potter movies (1, 2, 6).

The music is by: St. Paul's Cathedral Choir, John Scott (conductor), Huw Williams (organ); Worcester Cathedral Choir, Donald Hunt (conductor), Adrian Partington (organ).

The music is from Psalms, 107:23-30 by Henry Purcell.

Purcell also wrote a hymn based on this psalm: "In thankfulness for a providential escape of the King from shipwreck, the Rev John Gostling, who had been of the royal party, put together some verses from the Psalms in the form of an anthem, and requested Purcell to set them to music."

Romantics painted many subjects, from simple peasant life to medieval knights to current events. Bright colors conveyed violent energy and emotion. The French painter Eugène Delacroix (deh luh krwah) filled his canvases with dramatic action. In Liberty Leading the People, the Goddess of Liberty carries the revolutionary tricolor as French citizens rally to the cause.

This was a school task. The topic was to create the paraphrase of a random painting. I chose Delacroix: Liberty Leading the People, which i reimagined as a fictional Nintendo game. Not interactive....sadly. :)

Artwork: ‘Viva La Vida’
Here is a little background about this amazing work of art. It’s by Eugène Delacroix (French Romantic Painter) and was painted in 1830 titled “Liberty Leading The People”. Eugene Delacroix is numbered among the greatest and most influential of French painters. He is most often classified as an artist of the Romantic school. His remarkable use of colour was later to influence impressionist painters and even modern artists such as Pablo Picasso.

Liberty Leading The People; Painted on 28 July 1830, to commemorate the July Revolution that had just brought Louis-Philippe to the French throne; Louvre.

This painting, which is a sort of political poster, is meant to celebrate the day of 28 July 1830, when the people rose and dethroned the Bourbon king. Alexandre Dumas tells us that Delacroix’s participation in the rebellious movements of July was mainly of a sentimental nature. Despite this, the painter, who had been a member of the National Guard, took pleasure in portraying himself in the figure on the left wearing the top-hat. Although the painting is filled with rhetoric, Delacroix’s spirit is fully involved in its execution: in the outstretched figure of Liberty, in the bold attitudes of the people following him contrasted with the lifeless figures of the dead heaped up in the foreground, in the heroic poses of the people fighting for liberty, there is without a doubt a sense of full participation on the part of the artist, which led Argan to define this canvas as the first political work of modern painting.

Liberty Leading the People caused a disturbance. It shows the allegorical figure of Liberty as a half-draped woman wearing the traditional Phrygian cap of liberty and holding a gun in one hand and the tricolour in the other. It is strikingly realistic; Delacroix, the young man in the painting wearing the opera hat, was present on the barricades in July 1830. Allegory helps achieve universality in the painting: Liberty is not a woman; she is an abstract force.

Live performance of "Viva La Vida" by Coldplay in pop temple Paradiso, Amsterdam and was a secret gig for only 300 fans.

I used to rule the world
Seas would rise when I gave the word
Now in the morning I sleep alone
Sweep the streets I used to own

I used to roll the dice
Feel the fear in my enemies' eyes
Listen as the crowd would sing
"Now the old king is dead, long live the king!"

One minute I held the key
Next the walls were closed on me
And I discovered that my castle stands
Upon pillars of salt, and pillars of sand

I hear Jerusalem bells a'ringing
Roman cavalry choirs are singing
Be my mirror, my sword and shield
My missionaries in a foreign field
For some reason I can't explain
Once you'd gone it was never
Never an honest word
That was when I ruled the world

It was the wicked and wild wind
Blew down the doors to let me in
Shattered windows and the sound of drums
People couldn't believe what I'd become

Revolutionaries wait
For my head on a silver plate
Just a puppet on a lonely string
Oh...who would ever wanna be king

I hear Jerusalem bells were ringing
Roman Cavalry choirs were singing
Be my mirror, my sword and shield
My missionaries in a foreign field
For some reason I can't explain
I know St. Peter won't call my name
Never an honest word
But that was when I ruled the world


(Whoa) hear Jerusalem bells were ringing
(Whoa) roman Cavalry choirs were singing
(Whoa) be my mirror, my sword and shield
(Whoa) my missionaries in a foreign field
(Whoa) for some reason I can't explain
(Whoa) I know St. Peter won't call my name
Never an honest word
But that was when I ruled the world

Oooh ooooh oooh ooooh.

The lyrics are reproduced here for educational purposes only; the original copyright remains with the lawful owners.


How did romantic writers, musicians, and artists respond to the Enlightenment?


Focus Question

What artistic movements emerged in reaction to the Industrial Revolution?


William Wordsworth, along with William Blake, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Bysshe Shelley among others, was part of a cultural movement called romanticism. From about 1750 to 1850, romanticism shaped Western literature and arts.

Reading Check, p. 389


How did the popularity of Ivanhoe reflect the interests of the nineteenth century?

A New Age of Science
British broadcaster Sir David Attenborough presents his views on Charles Darwin, natural selection, and how the Bible conflicts with Darwin's views of the natural world in an exclusive interview for Nature Video, 4:27.

In addition, to celebrate Darwin's bicentenary Darwin 200 in Nature is also providing selected content free online, including continuously updated news, research and analysis on Darwin's life, his science and his legacy.

Baba Brinkman performs "Natural Selection" from "The Rap Guide to Evolution" at the launch party of the Cambridge Darwin Festival, Cambridge Botanic Gardens, July 5 2009, 3:30.

This video shows results from a research project involving simulated Darwinian evolutions of virtual block creatures. A population of several hundred creatures is created within a supercomputer, and each creature is tested for their ability to perform a given task, such the ability to swim in a simulated water environment. Those that are most successful survive, and their virtual genes containing coded instructions for their growth, are copied, combined, and mutated to make offspring for a new population. The new creatures are again tested, and some may be improvements on their parents. As this cycle of variation and selection continues, creatures with more and more successful behaviors can emerge.

The creatures shown are results from many independent simulations in which they were selected for swimming, walking, jumping, following, and competing for control of a green cube.

A similar experiment in musical evolution has been tried with Darwin Tunes by professors at the Imperial College, London. You can participate and let the organizers know what you think of the evolving music. As they state:
The organic world – animals, plants, viruses – is the product of Darwinian evolution by natural selection. Natural selection expresses the idea that organisms (more accurately their genes) vary and that variability has consequences. Some variants are bad and go extinct; others are good and do exceptionally well. This process, repeated for two billion years, has given us the splendours of life on earth.

It has also given us the splendours of human culture. This may seem like a bold claim, but it is self-evidently true. People copy cultural artefacts – words, songs, images, ideas – all the time from other people. Copying is imperfect: there is "mutation". Some cultural mutants do better than others: most die but some are immensely successful; they catch on; they become hits. This process, repeated for fifty thousand years, has given us all that we make, say and do; it is the process of "cultural evolution".

However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. For example, how important is human creative input compared to audience selection? Is progress smooth and continuous or step-like? We set up DarwinTunes as a test-bed for the evolution of music, the oldest and most widespread form of culture; and, thanks to your participation, these questions will soon be answered.
DarwinTunes: a test-tube for cultural evolution

One of the most important scientific thinkers of our day is Richard Dawkins. Dawkins explains his thoughts on Charles Darwin and Natural Selection.

Reading Check, p. 390


How did Darwin's theory of natural selection influence the way in which people viewed the world?

The Call to Realism: Audio

By the mid-1800s, a new artistic movement, realism, took hold in the West. Realism was an attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism. Realists often focused their work on the harsh side of life in cities or villages. Many writers and artists were committed to improving the lot of the unfortunates whose lives they depicted.

Novels Depict Grim Reality

The English novelist Charles Dickens vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers, including children. In Oliver Twist, Dickens tells the story of a nine-year-old orphan raised in a grim poorhouse. In response to a request for more food, Oliver is smacked on the head and sent away to work. Later, he runs away to London. There he is taken in by Fagin, a villain who trains homeless children to become pickpockets. The book shocked many middle-class readers with its picture of poverty, mistreatment of children, and urban crime. Yet Dickens’s humor and colorful characters made him one of the most popular novelists in the world.
Oliver! (1968) - Theatrical Trailer - © Columbia Pictures
Starring: Mark Lester as Oliver Twist, an orphan, Ron Moody, Shani Wallis, Oliver Reed, Jack Wild. Directed by: Carol Reed. Story written by: Charles Dickens "Oliver Twist" (novel). Screenplay & Dialogues written by: Vernon Harris. Distributed by: © Columbia Pictures. Theatrical Release Date: September 26, 1968 (UK).

"Oliver!" is a 1968 musical film directed by Carol Reed. The film is based on the stage musical Oliver!, with book, music and lyrics written by Lionel Bart. The screenplay was written by Vernon Harris.

Both the film and play are based on the famous Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. The musical includes several musical standards, including "Food, Glorious Food", "Consider Yourself", "As Long as He Needs Me", "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two", "Oom-Pah-Pah" and "Where is Love?".

The film version was a Romulus Films production and was distributed internationally by Columbia Pictures. It was filmed in Shepperton Film Studio in Surrey and various other locations in England.

In 1968 Oliver! won Six Academy Awards, including awards for Best Picture, Carol Reed Best Director.

Oliver Twist is sold to a Dunstable undertaker after asking for more dinner at the orphanage. Escaping to London he is taken in by Fagin to join his gang of child pickpockets. Wrongly accused of a theft he meets a more kindly gentleman who takes him in, to the concern of one of Fagin's old pupils, the violent Bill Sykes. In the middle is Nancy, Sykes' girl whom Oliver has come to trust.

French novelists also portrayed the ills of their time. Victor Hugo, who moved from romantic to realistic novels, revealed how hunger drove a good man to crime and how the law hounded him ever after in Les Misérables (lay miz ehr ahb). The novels of Émile Zola painted an even grimmer picture. In Germinal, Zola exposed class warfare in the French mining industry. To Zola’s characters, neither the Enlightenment’s faith in reason nor the romantic movement’s feelings mattered at all.

Realism in Drama

Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen brought realism to the stage. His plays attacked the hypocrisy he observed around him. A Doll’s House show a woman caught in a straitjacket of social rules. In "An Enemy of the People," a doctor discovers that the water in a local spa is polluted. Because the town’s economy depends on its spa, the citizens denounce the doctor and suppress the truth. Ibsen’s realistic dramas had a wide influence in Europe and the United States.

Part 1 of 12. Arthur Miller's adaptation of Ibsen's "An Enemy Of the People," which first aired in 1966 on "NET Playhouse." Stars Emmy-award winner James Daly, Kate Reid, George Voskovec, James Olson, William Prince, Philip Bosco and Ken Kercheval. All copyrights acknowledged. For research and commentary purposes only.

Arts Reject Romantic Ideas

Painters also represented the realities of their time. Rejecting the romantic emphasis on imagination, they focused on ordinary subjects, especially working-class men and women. “I cannot paint an angel,” said the French realist Gustave Courbet (koor bay) “because I have never seen one.” Instead, he painted works such as The Stone Breakers, which shows two rough laborers on a country road.
The Stone Breakers, Gustave Courbet, 1849, this is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.

This is a "mockumentary" about Courbet, the French realist painter. You can see puppets bring to life the intriguing story of the man brave enough to use a pallette knife and stand against the wave of current trends.

Later in the century, The Gross Clinic, by Philadelphia painter Thomas Eakins, shocked viewers with its realistic depiction of an autopsy conducted in a medical classroom.
The Gross Clinic, Thomas Eakins, 1875, this is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.

Gross Clinic Bounce: Excerpt, :40, a clip from the 2009 Penn Reading Project music video by The Indoorfins.

David Fox, the Director of New Student Orientation, introduces the 2009 Penn Reading Project: Thomas Eakins' "The Gross Clinic," 4:15.

Dr. David B. Brownlee discusses ways of looking at art more deeply, Penn Reading Project: Learning to Look, 11:57.

Dr. Kathleen Howard and Dr. David B. Brownlee discuss 19th-century Philadelphia artist Thomas Eakins to help prepare the discussion leaders for the 2009 Penn Reading Project, 1:14:48.

Vocabulary Builder

emphasis—(em fuh sis) n. special attention given to something to make it stand out


How did the realism movement differ from the romantic movement?

Reading Check, p. 391


What factors helped to produce the movement known as realism?


A slide collection of Courbet's paintings (not available for classroom viewing), 5:08.

Beethoven 5th Symphony 5 (7:38, graphical score animation):

Wikipedia on the composer Beethoven is instructive.

Chuck Berry - "Roll over Beethoven," 3:32, 1972 live on the Beat Club (German TV):


I'm gonna write a little letter,
Gonna mail it to my local dj.
Its a rockin' rhythm record
I want my jockey to play.
Roll over Beethoven, I gotta hear it again today.

You know, my temperatures risin
And the jukebox blows a fuse.
You know, my hearts beatin rhythm
And my soul keeps on singin the blues.
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Well if you reel and rock it,
Go get your lover, reel and rock it
Roll it over and move on up just
A trifle further and reel and rock it,
one another
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.


Well, well,Well, early in the mornin Im a-givin you a warnin
Dont you step on my blue suede shoes.
Hey diddle diddle, I am playin my fiddle,
Aint got nothin to lose.
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Electric Light Orchestra - "Roll Over Beethoven," 4:37

ELO performing on the Midnight Special in 1973.

William Wordsworth updated in hip-hop style, 2:02.

Die Leiden des jungen Werther - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Frederic Chopin - Nocturne In E Flat Major, Op.9 No. 2, 4:09.

Warning: rated PG-13 for language and simulated medical procedures. The full clip will not be shown in class. Penn celebrates Thomas Eakins' masterpiece "The Gross Clinic" with a music video featuring The Indoorfins. Created for the Penn Reading Project 2009 at the University of Pennsylvania.

The Indoorfins: www.myspace.com/theindoorfins

Sources on Darwin.

Sources on Dawkins.

History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century by G. P. Gooch.

Modern European Intellectual History: Reappraisals and New Perspectives by Dominick LaCapra.

Music in the 20th Century, from Debussy Through Stravinsky by William W. Austin.

Exploring Music
by Robert Hickok.

The Understanding of Music by Charles R. Hoffer.

Books on Flaubert.


Preview Questions:

1. What were the major features of romanticism and realism?

2. How did the Scientific Revolution lead to secularization?

3. You should finish reading Ch. 12 Sec. 4.

4. Reading Check, p. 389


How did the popularity of Ivanhoe reflect the interests of the nineteenth century?

5. Reading Check, p. 390


How did Darwin's theory of natural selection influence the way in which people viewed the world?

6. Reading Check, p. 391


What factors helped to produce the movement known as realism?

The Romantics - "What I Like About You," 3:04

Robert Schumann - Piano Quintet op. 44 (1/4), 8:55

Robert Schumann (8 June 1810 - 29 July 1856) was a German composer; he is one of the most famous and important Romantic composers of the 19th century.

Schumann was the first romantic composer to pair the piano with the string quartet. The ensemble was later used by many composers; some of the well-known quintets are by Johannes Brahms, Antonín Dvořák, César Franck, Edward Elgar, and Dmitri Shostakovitch.

Schumann had hoped to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist, however, when a self-inflicted hand injury prevented those hopes from being realized, he decided to focus his musical energies on composition.

In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with his piano instructor (Wieck), Schumann married Wieck's daughter, pianist Clara Wieck, who also composed music and had a considerable concert career, including premieres of many of her husband's works.

Robert Schumann died in middle age; for the last two years of his life, after an attempted suicide, he was confined to a mental institution at his own request.

The Kinks - Apeman 1970, 3:42

The Kinks - Apeman 1970

I think I'm sophisticated
cos I'm living my life like a good homosapien
But all around me everybodys multiplying
Till theyre walking round like flies man
So I'm no better than the anI'mals sitting in their cages
In the zoo man
cos compared to the flowers and the birds and the trees
I am an ape man

I think I'm so educated and I'm so civilized
cos I'm a strict vegetarian
But with the over-population and inflation and starvation
And the crazy politicians
I dont feel safe in this world no more
I dont want to die in a nuclear war
I want to sail away to a distant shore
and make like an ape man

I'm an ape man, I'm an ape ape man
I'm an ape man I'm a king kong man I'm ape ape man
I'm an ape man

Cos compared to the sun that sits in the sky
Compared to the clouds as they roll by
Compared to the bugs and the spiders and flies
I am an ape man

In mans evolution he has created the cities and
The motor traffic rumble, but give me half a chance
And I'd be taking off my clothes and living in the jungle
cos the only time that I feel at ease
Is swinging up and down in a coconut tree
Oh what a life of luxury to be like an ape man

I'm an ape, I'm an ape ape man, I'm an ape man
I'm a king kong man, I'm a voo-doo man
I'm an ape man

I look out my window, but I cant see the sky
cos the air pollution is fogging up my eyes
I want to get out of this city alive
And make like an ape man

Come and love me, be my ape man girl
And we will be so happy in my ape man world

I'm an ape man, I'm an ape ape man, I'm an ape man
I'm a king kong man, I'm a voo-doo man
I'm an ape man

I'll be your tarzan, you'll be my jane
I'll keep you warm and youll keep me sane
And well sit in the trees and eat bananas all day
Just like an ape man

I'm an ape man, I'm an ape ape man, I'm an ape man
I'm a king kong man, I'm a voo-doo man
I'm an ape man.

I dont feel safe in this world no more
I dont want to die in a nuclear war
I want to sail away to a distant shore
And make like an ape man.

La la la la la la la.

Lyrics reproduced for educational purposes only; copyright remains in the hand of the legal owners.

HW: email (or hard copy) me at gmsmith@shanahan.org.

Tuesday HW
1. p. 387, Summarizing Information (fill out chart).
2. Read Ch. 12 Sec. 4.
Wednesday HW
1. p. 388, History Through Architecture
2. Reading Check, Examining, p. 389.
Thursday HW
1. Reading Check, Describing, p. 390.
2. Picturing History, p. 390.
Friday HW
p. 391, History Through Art.