Monday, December 04, 2017

HUM 112 Week 10 Fall 2017

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

One 15 minute break at 8:00 pm

 I will take roll early before you are dismissed.

The Death of Liberalism


JFK: Democrat or Republican? 4:49

Why Did the Democratic South Become Republican? 5:19

The south used to vote Democrat. Now it votes Republican. Why the switch? Was it, as some people say, because the GOP decided to appeal to racist whites? Carol Swain, Professor of Political Science at Vanderbilt University, explains.

39 Multiplicity and Diversity: Cultures of Liberation and Identity in the 1960s and 1970s
Black Identity
Gil Scott-Heron
The Vietnam War: Rebellion and the Arts
100 Years of Rock, Visualized
Pink Floyd
Grateful Dead
Jefferson Airplane
Velvet Underground
Lou Reed
Bill Graham
Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young
Joni Mitchell

High and Low: The Example of Music
The Birth of the Feminist Era
Questions of Male Identity
Focus: James Rosenquist, F-111, 1965
C & C: The Global Village

40 Without Boundaries: Multiple Meanings in a Postmodern World
Postmodern Architecture: Complexity, Contradiction, and Globalization
Pluralism and Postmodern Theory
Pluralism and Diversity in the Arts
A Plurality of Styles in Painting
Multiplicity in Postmodern Literature
A Diversity of Cultures: The Cross-Fertilization of the Present
A Multiplicity of Media: New Technologies
Focus: Basquiat’s Charles the First
C & C: The Environment and the Humanist Tradition


Black Identity


James Brown, Say It Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud, 5:57

"Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" is a funk song performed by James Brown and written with his bandleader Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis in 1968. It was released as a two-part single which held the number-one spot on the R&B singles chart for six weeks, and peaked at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100.[1][2] Both parts of the single were later included on James Brown's 1968 album A Soulful Christmas and on his 1969 album sharing the title of the song. "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" was Brown's first recording to feature trombonist Fred Wesley.

The song addresses the Black Power movement of 1968: but how it addresses black power is the interesting aspect of the song.

Brown is distancing himself from the radical Black Power movement emerging in 1968.

Consider that Brown's lyrics "We've been 'buked and we've been scorned/We've been treated bad, talked about as sure as you're born" in the first verse of the song paraphrases the spiritual "I've Been 'Buked" by Mahalia Jackson.

From Mahalia and the March on Washington we can understand that relying on "Jesus" and "God" are important. Themes from Peter, Paul, and Mary, as well as Bob Dylan, indicate that social change is coming ringing in justice and freedom for my brothers and my sisters. The Civil Rights movement is a Judeo-Christian, American movement that James Brown is tapping into.

Several other Brown singles from the same era as "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud", notably "I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing (Open Up the Door, I'll Get It Myself)", explored similar themes of black empowerment and self-reliance. And, coupled with his "America Is My Home" tune we can see that American Jews and Christians are relying on their talent, hard work, and education to bring about social change.

Will only Judeo-Christian, American forces be the only important political movement of the decade?


Black Identity: I'm Black and I'm Proud, 2:20

Pluralism: Anything Goes! 2:42

Pre-Built Course Content


Pre-Built Course Content

Click the image below to learn more about Black Identity and Pluralism.

I'm Here, We're Here: A journey from Civil Rights achievements to postmodern pluralism.

This week's music clips relate to chapters 39 and 40.  Actually, only chapter 39 applies, as chapter 40 covers no music.

Preliminary clips:  

1963 March on Washington:  Mahalia Jackson sings her "How I Got Over": (lyrics at

"How I Got Over" - Mahalia Jackson, 2:18

Jackson also did a show-stopper before the famous speech, an old African American spiritual called "I've been 'buked" (lyrics at  

On p. 1282 (in chap. 39), our class text discusses the 1963 March on Washington and the brief performance by a white folk trio called Peter, Paul and Mary, singing"Blowin' in the Wind" (written by Bob Dylan); They also sang"If I Had a Hammer" (written by Pete Seeger and Lee Hays).  

I've been buked and I've been scorned, I've been buked and I've been scorned, Children, I've been buked and I've been scorned, Tryin' to make this journey all alone You may talk about me sure as you please Talk about me sure as you please Children, talk about me sure as you please Your talk will never drive me down to my knees Jesus died to set me free Jesus died to set me free Children, Jesus died to set me free Nailed to that cross on Calvary I've been buked and I've been scorned I've been buked and I've been scorned Children, I've been buked and I've been scorned Tryin' to make this journey all alone

Here are the clips: and

Peter, Paul & Mary - If I Had A Hammer, 2:38

This link goes to an interesting article on music at that major event in 1963:

Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech was the heart and soul of the Great March on Washington, the historic gathering that drew 250,000 to the nation's capital 50 years ago.

Like most big social and political events before and after, it had a soundtrack. Musicians at the rally whipped up fervor for the cause of racial equality, perhaps none more crucially than Mahalia Jackson. She, along with Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Odetta, Marian Anderson and Peter, Paul & Mary, sang tunes befitting the occasion, but the gospel singer also played a pivotal role in King's performance.

After the charismatic activist wrapped up his prepared text, Jackson shouted, "Tell them about the dream, Martin!" King set aside his notes and extemporaneously delivered the most famous speech of the 20th century.

A dozen songs with ties to the 1963 march:

Sister Rosa.The Neville Brothers tune focuses on Rosa Parks, the black seamstress who refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger in 1955 in Montgomery, Ala. Her defiant act was one of the sparks of the civil rights era and King's activism, and it led to a 381-day boycott that ended bus segregation. Parks was in the crowd at the 1963 march.

Only a Pawn in Their Game. Bob Dylan wrote this about the assassination of activist Medgar Evers and sang it at the march podium months before it was released on The Times They are a-Changin'. It stirred controversy for suggesting that Evers' killer shared responsibility for the crime with the wealthy elite who pitted poor whites against blacks. Evers' murder was a catalyst for the 1963 march.
Bob Dylan performs "Only A Pawn In Their Game" at March on Washington, Aug. 28, 1963, 3:31

A bullet from the back of a bush took Medgar Evers’ blood
A finger fired the trigger to his name
A handle hid out in the dark
A hand set the spark
Two eyes took the aim
Behind a man’s brain
But he can’t be blamed
He’s only a pawn in their game

A South politician preaches to the poor white man
“You got more than the blacks, don’t complain.
You’re better than them, you been born with white skin,” they explain.
And the Negro’s name
Is used it is plain
For the politician’s gain
As he rises to fame
And the poor white remains
On the caboose of the train
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game

The deputy sheriffs, the soldiers, the governors get paid
And the marshals and cops get the same
But the poor white man’s used in the hands of them all like a tool
He’s taught in his school
From the start by the rule
That the laws are with him
To protect his white skin
To keep up his hate
So he never thinks straight
’Bout the shape that he’s in
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game

From the poverty shacks, he looks from the cracks to the tracks
And the hoofbeats pound in his brain
And he’s taught how to walk in a pack
Shoot in the back
With his fist in a clinch
To hang and to lynch
To hide ’neath the hood
To kill with no pain
Like a dog on a chain
He ain’t got no name
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game.

Today, Medgar Evers was buried from the bullet he caught
They lowered him down as a king
But when the shadowy sun sets on the one
That fired the gun
He’ll see by his grave
On the stone that remains
Carved next to his name
His epitaph plain:
Only a pawn in their game

Copyright © 1963, 1964 by Warner Bros. Inc.; renewed 1991, 1996 by Special Rider Music

Mississippi Goddam. Evers' slaying also inspired an angry response from Nina Simone in her song about naïve churches and a dawdling government. She wrote it the night Evers died, hours after hearing President Kennedy address the nation. The bitter song hurt the jazz singer's career for several years.

We Shall Overcome. Adapted from Charles Tingley's 1900 gospel song I'll Overcome Some Day and popularized by folk icons Pete Seeger and Joan Baez, this became a global civil rights anthem. Bruce Springsteen's version, from 2006's Seeger Sessions, conveys the hope and passion of King's message.

All My Trials. Part folk song, part spiritual, All My Trials expressed both the weariness and optimism of the struggle for freedom in the '50s and '60s. In the adapted Bahamian lullaby, a dying mother comforts her children. Baez sang it at the march.

Oh Freedom. Odetta sang this at the march (with its gutsy line, "Before I'll be a slave, I'll be buried in my grave, and go home to my Lord and be free"), along with Come and Go With Me to That Land and I'm On My Way. The Alabama-born Odetta, whom King anointed "the Queen of American folk music," died in 2008. She was Rosa Parks' favorite singer.

Eyes on the Prize. Its origins unknown, Prize was tooled for the civil rights movement in the 1950s by Alice Wine, who altered verses, and performed at the march by Dylan. Mavis Staples submits one of the era's more potent versions.

I've Been 'Buked, and I've Been Scorned. Mahalia Jackson fired up the D.C. throng with this stinging spiritual. Ebony editor Lerone Bennett later wrote, "There is a nerve that lies beneath the smoothest of black exteriors, a nerve 400 years old and throbbing with hurt and indignation. Mahalia Jackson penetrated the facade and exposed the nerve to public view. ... The button-down men in front and the old women in the back came to their feet screaming and shouting. They had not known that this thing was in them and that they wanted it touched. From different places, in different ways, with different dreams, they had come and now, hearing this sung, they were one."

How I Got Over. Jackson also sang this hymn, composed in 1951 by Clara Ward after she and others driving to Atlanta were stopped and taunted by white men furious that blacks were riding in a Cadillac. They finally fled after Ward's mother pretended to be possessed by the devil. The Blind Boys of Alabama recorded a stunning version on 2008's Down in New Orleans.

People Get Ready. King's speech and the march moved Curtis Mayfield to write this hopeful, soulful tune for The Impressions, who scored a hit in 1965. King was a fan of the song, which became a staple at rallies and was covered by many, including Al Green, Springsteen, Alicia Keys, Rod Stewart, Sting, Prince and Glen Campbell.

Long Walk to D.C. Best known for gospel and soul, the Staple Singers sang many freedom songs, including 1968's rousing tribute to the march written by Homer Banks and produced by Steve Cropper. "It's a long walk to D.C. but I got my walkin' shoes on," Mavis sings.

In Chapter 39, on pp. 1296-1298, our class text summarizes some of the early Rock and Roll and Rock artists and folk singers who wrote and performed in the 1960s and 1970s in a period of social protest and discontent.
  1. Gyorgy Ligeti, Lux Aeterna (chap. 39, pp. 1298-1299) 
Lux Aeterna is a piece for 16-part mixed choir, written by György Ligeti in 1966. It is most famous for its use in Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey.

The text (in Latin) is from the Roman Catholic Requiem Mass: Lux aeterna luceat eis, Domine, cum sanctis tuis in aeternum, quia pius es. Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine; et lux perpetua luceat eis, which means "May everlasting light shine upon them, O Lord, with thy saints in eternity, for thou art merciful. Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, and may everlasting light shine upon them."

The piece features many of Ligeti's characteristic styles, including:

Micropolyphony, which Ligeti describes as "The complex polyphony of the individual parts[,] embodied in a harmonic-musical flow in which the harmonies do not change suddenly, but merge into one another; one clearly discernible interval combination is gradually blurred, and from this cloudiness it is possible to discern a new interval combination taking shape."

Cluster chords, where every note within a given interval is sung simultaneously A focus on timbre instead of melody, harmony, or rhythm

Read carefully the description of this work on pp. 1298-1299 (in chap. 39).  This music was used in the famous movie, 2001: A Space Odyssey. 
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay, written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, was partially inspired by Clarke's short story "The Sentinel". Clarke concurrently wrote the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, published soon after the film was released. The film follows a voyage to Jupiter with the sentient computer Hal after the discovery of a mysterious black monolith affecting human evolution. The film deals with the themes of existentialism, human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life. It is noted for its scientifically accurate depiction of space flight, pioneering special effects, and ambiguous imagery. It uses sound and minimal dialogue in place of traditional narrative techniques; the soundtrack consists of classical music such as The Blue Danube and Also sprach Zarathustra.

Financed and distributed by American studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer,[8][9] 2001: A Space Odyssey was filmed and edited almost entirely in England, using the studio facilities of the MGM-British Studios and those of Shepperton Studios, mostly because of the availability of much larger sound stages than in the United States. Production was subcontracted to Kubrick's production company and care was taken that the film would be sufficiently British to qualify for subsidy from the Eady Levy.[8]:98 Having already shot his previous two films in England, Kubrick decided to settle there permanently during filming.

Despite initially receiving mixed reactions from critics and audiences, 2001: A Space Odyssey garnered a cult following and slowly became the highest-grossing North American film of 1968. It was nominated for four Academy Awards, and received one for its visual effects. A sequel directed by Peter Hyams was released in 1984.

Today, 2001: A Space Odyssey is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential films ever made. In 1991, it was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.[10] The critics' polls in the 2002 and 2012 editions of Sight & Sound magazine ranked 2001: A Space Odyssey sixth in the top ten films of all time; it also tied for second place in the directors' poll of the same magazine. In 2010, it was named the greatest film of all time by The Moving Arts Film Journal.

2001 A SPACE ODYSSEY - 11 Lux Aeterna

2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY Soundtrack combines the "Also sprach Zarathustra theme", various Johann and Richard Strauss segments, and a ballet suite by Aram Khachaturian--all of which prove how much Stanley Kubrick's film attempts to avoid the soundtrack clichés of most science-fiction movies. Instead of the expected sci-fi effects, there is a more ironic application of music that would be otherwise incongruous to the celestial settings.

Here, "The Blue Danube" complements scenes involving weightlessness and descending spacecraft, while Gyorgy Ligeti's creepy "monolith" music connotes Armageddon more than interplanetary exploration.

The tracks play as they had appeared on the original soundtrack release back in the '60s, but there is also previously unreleased supplemental material and a dialogue montage entitled "HAL 9000."

Joseph Lanza

2001: A Space Oddysey OST# 11 - Lux Aeterna, 6:03

  1. John Adams, Nixon in China, Act 1, Scene 1 (chap. 39, p. 1299)  
Nixon in China is an opera in three acts by John Adams, with a libretto by Alice Goodman. Adams' first opera, it was inspired by U.S. President Richard Nixon's visit to China in 1972. The work premiered at the Houston Grand Opera on October 22, 1987, in a production by Peter Sellars with choreography by Mark Morris. When Sellars approached Adams with the idea for the opera in 1985, Adams was initially reluctant, but eventually decided that the work could be a study in how myths come to be, and accepted the project. Goodman's libretto was the result of considerable research into Nixon's visit, though she disregarded most sources published after 1972.

To create the sounds he sought, Adams augmented the orchestra with a large saxophone section, additional percussion, and electronic synthesizer. Although sometimes described as "minimalist", the score displays a variety of musical styles, embracing minimalism after the manner of Philip Glass alongside passages echoing 19th-century composers such as Wagner and Johann Strauss. With these ingredients, Adams mixes Stravinskian 20th-century neoclassicism, jazz references, and big band sounds reminiscent of Nixon's youth in the 1930s. The combination of these elements varies frequently, to reflect changes in the onstage action.
Following the 1987 premiere, the opera received mixed reviews; some critics dismissed the work, predicting it would soon vanish. However, it has been presented on many occasions since, in both Europe and North America, and has been recorded twice. In 2011, the opera received its Metropolitan Opera debut, a production based on the original sets, and in the same year was given an abstract production in Toronto by the Canadian Opera Company. Recent critical opinion has tended to recognize the work as a significant and lasting contribution to American opera.

It is interesting to hear President Nixon and Chairman Mao sing--and opera!  Read carefully p. 1299 and consider Adams' thinking in composing and staging this opera.  
Nixon In China (Opera): Act I Scene 1 - News, 5:34

John Adams's first opera Nixon In China, produced by Peter Sellars, with libretto by Alice Goodman, about the visit of Richard Nixon to China in 1972, where he met with Mao Zedong and other Chinese officials. Act I Opening - The opera begins at Beijing Airport. As the soldiers wait, an airplane taxis and lands on the stage - the Nixons and Henry Kissinger disembark and are greeted by Chou Enlai. As Nixon is introduced to various Chinese officials by Chou, he sings of his hopes and fears for his historic visit. - Quote from Lyrics: (Nixon 尼克遜)"News, news, news, news, news -- has a... has a...has a... has a kind of mystery has a...has a... has a kind of mystery ...... Who, who, who, who are our enemies? Who, who, who, who are our friends?"

  1. Robert Wilson and Philip Glass-- Einstein on the Beach (a Postmodern opera; 1976) (chap. 39, p. 1300)
  2. Einstein on the Beach is an opera in four acts (framed and connected by five "knee plays" or intermezzos), composed by Philip Glass and directed by theatrical producer Robert Wilson.[1] The opera eschews traditional narrative in favor of a formalist approach based on structured spaces laid out by Wilson in a series of storyboards.[2] The music was written "in the spring, summer and fall of 1975."[3] Glass recounts the collaborative process: "I put [Wilson’s notebook of sketches] on the piano and composed each section like a portrait of the drawing before me. The score was begun in the spring of 1975 and completed by the following November, and those drawings were before me all the time." [4] The premiere took place on July 25, 1976, at the Avignon Festival in France. The opera contains writings by Christopher Knowles, Samuel M. Johnson and Lucinda Childs.[5] It is Glass's first and longest opera score, taking approximately five hours in full performance without intermission; given the length, the audience is permitted to enter and leave as desired.[5] The work became the first in Glass's thematically related Portrait Trilogy, along with Satyagraha (1979), and Akhnaten (1983). These three operas were described by Glass as portraits of people whose personal vision transformed the thinking of their times through the power of ideas rather than by military force.[5]
The music was composed by famous minimalist Philip Glass; the opera itself was produced and directed by Robert Wilson. Read carefully pp. 1299-1300 (in chap. 39) to understanding the thinking and theory behind the composition.  Minimalist music meets post-modern opera.
01 Einstein on the Beach- Knee 1, 8:05

Unabridged "Einstein on the Beach" by Philip Glass, movement 1 "Einstein on the Beach" was an opera written and conducted by the minimalist composer Philip Glass, and directed by Robert Wilson. The opera in its complete form is 5 hours long, and has only been performed three times by the Philip Glass Ensemble. The opera portrays Albert Einstein, but was planned from the start to have no actual story line so that people watching could make their own personal connections with Einstein. The opera consists of four acts, which are separated by "Knees". These "knees" gave the stagehands the opportunity to change scenery between acts, as well as providing a connecting point between the acts, just as a human knee connects your upper and lower legs. They also served the music purpose of creating a recurring theme throughout the opera.

Laura Phillips "Laurie" Anderson (born June 5, 1947)[3] is an American experimental performance artist, composer, musician and film director who plays violin and keyboards and sings in a variety of experimental music and art rock styles.[not verified in body] Initially trained as a sculptor,[4] Anderson did her first performance-art piece in the late 1960s. Throughout the 1970s, Anderson did a variety of different performance-art activities. She became widely known outside the art world in 1981 when her single "O Superman" reached number two on the UK pop charts. She also starred in and directed the 1986 concert film Home of the Brave.[5]

Anderson is a pioneer in electronic music and has invented several devices that she has used in her recordings and performance art shows. In 1977, she created a tape-bow violin that uses recorded magnetic tape on the bow instead of horsehair and a magnetic tape head in the bridge. In the late 1990s, she developed a talking stick, a six-foot (1.8 m) long baton-like MIDI controller that can access and replicate sounds.[6]

Anderson started dating Lou Reed, a founding member of the ground breaking band, the Velvet Underground, associated with Andy Warhol, in 1992, and was married to him from 2008 until his death in 2013.[7][8]


  1. Laurie Anderson, United States (On p. 1300, Sayre calls this entire work a "four-part, four night, eight-hour multimedia" attempt at popular, rock-and-roll oriented "total art").

"O Superman (For Massenet)" is a 1981 song by experimental performance artist and musician Laurie Anderson. Part of the larger work United States Live, "O Superman", a half-sung, half-spoken song rose to #2 on the UK Singles Charts in 1981.[3] Prior to the success of this song, Anderson was little known outside the art world. First released as a single, the song also appeared on her debut album, Big Science.
The song topped the 1981 The Village Voice Pazz & Jop singles poll.

Laurie Anderson - O Superman [Official Music Video], 8:26

"O Superman," from Laurie Anderson's 1982 debut album, Big Science. Nonesuch released the re-mastered 25th anniversary edition of the album in 2007:


African American Artists of the Twentieth Century

Postmodern Architecture

Rock and Roll 



1960s and 1970s, a period of social protest and discontent.

Gil Scott-Heron 
Gil Scott-Heron - The Revolution Will Not Be Televised, 2:50

"You will not be able to plug in, turn on, and cop out."

"There will be no pictures of pigs shooting down brothers in the instant replay."

"The revolution will not be televised; the revolution will be live."

Thus, when did the revolution occur?

Gil Scott Heron

Gil Scott-Heron - The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (Full Band Version), 3:08

No need to post about the Julia reference. I understand it now, thanks to those who told me. :)


Julia Baker is a young African-American woman working as a nurse. She is also a widow (her husband died in Vietnam) trying to raise a young son alone. This was the first television series featuring an African-American lead in a non-stereotypical role.
Creator: Hal Kanter
Stars: Diahann Carroll, Lloyd Nolan

FACT 1. Over 1,400 more black Americans murdered other blacks in two years than were lynched from 1882 to 1968.

FACT 2. Black People (mostly men) commit a grossly disproportionate amount of crime.

FACT 3. Despite making up just 13% of the population, blacks committed half of homicides in the United States for nearly 30 years.

FACT 4. Chicago’s death toll is almost equal to that of both wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, combined.

FACT 5. It would take cops 40 years to kill as many black men as have died at the hands of others black men in 2012 alone.

James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer and dancer. One of the founding fathers of funk music and a major figure of 20th-century popular music and dance, he is often referred to as "The Godfather of Soul". In a career that spanned six decades, Brown influenced the development of several music genres.

Brown began his career as a gospel singer in Toccoa, Georgia. Joining an R&B vocal group called the Avons that later evolved to become The Famous Flames, Brown served as the group's lead singer. First coming to national public attention in the late 1950s as a member of The Famous Flames with the hit ballads "Please, Please, Please" and "Try Me", Brown built a reputation as a tireless live performer with the singing group The Famous Flames and his backing band, sometimes known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra. Brown's success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", "I Got You (I Feel Good)" and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World". During the late 1960s, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music-making that influenced the development of funk music. By the early 1970s, Brown had fully established the funk sound after the formation of The J.B.'s with records such as "Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine" and "The Payback". Brown also became notable for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud". Brown continued to perform and record for the duration of his life until his death in 2006 from congestive heart failure.

Brown recorded 16 number-one singles on the Billboard R&B charts. Brown also holds the record as the artist to have charted the most singles on the Billboard Hot 100 which did not reach number one on that chart. Brown was honored by many institutions including inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Songwriters Hall of Fame. In Joel Whitburn's analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Hot R&B Songs, James Brown is ranked as number one in The Top 500 Artists. Brown is ranked seventh on the music magazine Rolling Stone's list of its 100 greatest artists of all time.

James Brown. Views on Martin Luther King, Jr., Vietnam and Promised Land speech, April 3, 1968, 1:11
James Brown. A clip from the documentary, "The Night James Brown Saved Boston", features his views on Dr. King speaking out on Vietnam. James Brown believed as a religious leader Dr. King should not have spoken out about the Vietnam War. The clip also includes an excerpt of the Promised Land speech by Martin Luther King. Jr. given on April 3, 1968. Video transcript:Those were the most difficult days for Martin because he was being pulled apart by two movements. The Civil Rights movement and the war in Vietnam. When Dr. King spoke out against the Vietnam war, Mr. Brown thought he was wrong because Mr. Brown thought that he is a religious leader. He is not a politician. He is getting out of his bag, as we would say, he is getting out of what he stands for and he can create a problem for himself. Because the powers that be are not going to stand for this.Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: I just want to do God's will, and he has allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over and I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land.

James Brown vs. Martin Luther King


During the 1968 presidential campaign, Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies. Brown began supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to perform at Nixon's inaugural ball in January 1969. Brown's endorsement of Nixon during the 1972 presidential election negatively impacted his career during that period with several national Black organizations boycotting his records and protesting at his concert shows. Brown stated he was neither Democratic nor Republican despite his support of Republican presidents such as Nixon and Ronald Reagan. In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the magazine asked him to name a hero in the 20th century, Brown mentioned John F. Kennedy and 96-year-old, former Dixiecrat Senator Strom Thurmond, stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democratic or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.' And that's great for our country. He's like a grandfather to me." In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a D.C. fundraiser for the National Republican Senatorial Committee. Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his friend Ray Charles, Brown said to CNN, "I'm kind of in an uproar. I love the country and I got – you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard."

The Night James Brown Saved Boston 8/1, 9:41

Can leaders pacify angry crowds? How and in what way?

James Brown, I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing, MDS 1969, 4:06

Embedding disabled by request

June 30, 1969: JB doin' the tune "I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing (Open Up The Door I'll Get It Myself)"

The JB'S-You Can Have Watergate,But Gimme Some Bucks (1973), 6:10

Brown's band went on to sing this topical, political song during the Watergate era.

America Is My Home (Pt. 1), 3:20

Provided to YouTube by Universal Music Group International America Is My Home (Pt. 1) · James Brown & The Famous Flames The 50 Greatest Songs ℗ 1967 Universal Records, a Division of UMG Recordings, Inc. Released on: 2007-01-01 Producer: James Brown Composer, Author: Haywood E. Moore Composer, Author: James Brown Music Publisher: Intersong Music Ltd

"America Is My Home"
Talking 'bout me leaving America
You gotta be crazy, man, I like
All the nice thing, Jack
Colonial suits and things, look at here
Now I am sorry for the man
Who don't love this land
Now black and white, they may fight
But when up the enemy come
We'll get together and run about all side
I love it
The sun don't come out in rainy weather
But when you ball it down they are still together
Now let's not overlook the fact that we are, we are still in reach
You got to chance to make it and you got a freedom of speech
Say what you wanna, tell 'em how you feel
There may be a lot of places, a lot of places that you like to go
But believe me if you get an education you can blow
You can all it blow, dig this
Now you tell me if I'm wrong
America is still the best country
And that's without a doubt
America is still the best country
Without a doubt
And if anybody says it ain't, you can try to put him out
They ain't going nowhere, you got a good fight
When I tell you one time that I was a shoeshine boy
Every word I said, I meant
But name me any other country
You can start out as a shoeshine boy
And shake hand with the president
It ain't gonna help you gotta had that royal blood to make it
And I ain't got nothing royal but me
So I can take the chances, I'm gonna stay home
And look at here I got a brand new jet
When I need to move
I saw a brother made it
Now it ain't that a rule
So look at here
Brothers and sisters and friends, dig this
So quit your dreaming all night
Stop beatin' yourself and get up and fight
Don't give up, you might give up, but just don't give out
I know if you give out don't give up
There's no quick going, I mean like keep it moving you know
'Cause if you stop like a ball quit rolling
Now we got two of the [Incomprehensible] from Florida to Rome
Which we know there's one thing we'll never forget
America's still our home, hit it bad
God bless America, I'm talking about me too
You know I'm American myself, I like that kind of thing, look at here

Hayward Epps Moore;James Brown
Published by


James Brown managed to criticize the state and yet he was proud to be an American. As a result, he accurately reflects the American notion of civil disobedience similar to Henry David Thoreau. Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849. In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice. Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican–American War (1846-1848).

The challenge within the black power movement, as in all protests movements, would be to balance criticism of the state against the denunciation of America.

There was a division between those aligned with Martin Luther King, Jr. and those aligned with Stokely Carmichael, marked by their respective slogans, "Freedom Now" and "Black Power."[27]
Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American revolutionary active in the Civil Rights Movement, and later, the global Pan-African movement. Growing up in the United States from the age of 11, he graduated from Howard University. He rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and finally as a leader of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP).[1]


Jews had comprised a disproportionate number of the white supporters of the southern civil rights movement. The subsequent rejection of white activists from groups like SNCC and CORE, accompanied by ideological factors such as the shift in emphasis to a revolutionary anti-colonialist struggle, and anti-Zionist sympathy for the Palestinians, led to a permanent souring of relations in America between blacks and Jews.
In 1970 Carmichael proclaimed: "I have never admired a white man, but the greatest of them, to my mind, was Hitler."[27]


In November 1964 Carmichael made a joking remark in response to a SNCC position paper written by his friends Casey Hayden and Mary E. King on the position of women in the movement. In the course of an irreverent comedy monologue he performed at a party after SNCC's Waveland conference, Carmichael said, "The position of women in the movement is prone."[28] A number of women were offended. In a 2006 The Chronicle of Higher Education article, historian Peniel E. Joseph later wrote:

While the remark was made in jest during a 1964 conference, Carmichael and black-power activists did embrace an aggressive vision of manhood — one centered on black men's ability to deploy authority, punishment, and power. In that, they generally reflected their wider society's blinders about women and politics.[29]

Despite the anti-woman aspects of the radical black power movement women, such as Hillary Rodham, were involved.

Stokely Carmichael vs. Liberals, Liberal Racism, Alinsky-Obama

Racist white society

Portion of speech by Kwame Ture, then still known as Stokely Carmichael, chairman of the militant Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), delivered it in front of the Mississippi State Capitol at Jackson on June 26, 1966.

SNCC was successful in the South with poor blacks.

Black Power

Stokely Carmichael, Black Power, 8:03

The first popular use of the term "Black Power" as a political and racial slogan was by Stokely Carmichael (later known as Kwame Ture) and Willie Ricks (later known as Mukasa Dada), both organizers and spokespersons for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). On June 16, 1966, in a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi, after the shooting of James Meredith during the March Against Fear, Stokely Carmichael said:[5][6]

This is the twenty-seventh time I have been arrested and I ain't going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin' us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin' now is Black Power!

Carmichael saw the concept of "Black Power" as a means of solidarity between individuals within the movement. It was a replacement of the "Freedom Now!" slogan of Carmichael's contemporary, the non-violent leader Martin Luther King. With his use of the term, Carmichael felt this movement was not just a movement for racial desegregation, but rather a movement to help end how American racism had weakened blacks. He said, "'Black Power' means black people coming together to form a political force and either electing representatives or forcing their representatives to speak their needs."[7]

Carmichael split from Martin Luther King as well as Liberal racism.

Today, who might be representative of liberal racism?

"Soft bigotry"

Harry Reid "Obama Electable Because he is Light Skinned with no Negro Dialect,"


White Liberals

Biden: clean and articulate Obama, :40

In contemporary politics, several themes have emerged since the revolution will be not be televised. First, there is a split between the religious, American social movement of civil rights; second, black power emerged as a split from the Martin Luther King movement but it also identified liberal racism. Finally, the respectable type of radical, following Alinsky, has emerged.

D' Sousa Talks About Alinsky & Obama, 4:42

Nonetheless, and in contrast to the Alinsky or Black Power radicals, the American, hard-working ethic of African-Americans is well-represented by Berry Gordy.

Berry Gordy, Jr. was born to the middle-class family of Berry Gordy II (also known as Berry Gordy, Sr.), who had relocated to Detroit from Oconee in Washington County, Georgia, in 1922. The first Berry Gordy was the son of a white plantation owner in Georgia and his female slave. Berry Gordy, Sr. was lured to Detroit by the job opportunities for black people offered by the booming automotive businesses.[2] He developed his interest in music by writing songs and opening the 3-D Record Mart, a record store featuring jazz music.[3] The store was unsuccessful, and Gordy sought work at the Lincoln-Mercury plant, but his family connections put him in touch with Al Green (no relation to the singer Al Green), owner of the Flame Show Bar Talent Club, where he met the singer Jackie Wilson.

In 1957 Wilson recorded "Reet Petite", a song Gordy had co-written with his sister Gwen and writer-producer Billy Davis. It became a modest hit, but had more success internationally, especially in the UK, where it reached the Top 10 and even later topped the chart on re-issue in 1986. Wilson recorded six more songs co-written by Gordy over the next two years, including "Lonely Teardrops", which topped the R&B charts and got to number 7 in the pop chart. Berry and Gwen Gordy also wrote "All I Could Do Was Cry" for Etta James at Chess Records.

Motown Record Corporation

Gordy reinvested the profits from his songwriting success into producing. In 1957, he discovered the Miracles (originally known as the Matadors) and began building a portfolio of successful artists. In 1959, with the encouragement of Miracles leader Smokey Robinson, Gordy borrowed $800 from his family to create an R&B record company. Originally, Gordy wanted to name the new label Tammy Records, after the song recorded by Debbie Reynolds. However, that name was taken, and he chose the name Tamla Records. The company began operating on January 21, 1959. "Come to Me" by Marv Johnson was issued as Tamla 101. United Artists Records picked up "Come to Me" for national distribution, as well as Johnson's more successful follow-up records such as "You Got What It Takes", co-produced and co-written by Gordy. His next release was the only 45 ever issued on his Rayber label, featuring Wade Jones with an unnamed female backup group. The record did not sell well and is now one of the rarest issues from the Motown stable. Berry's third release was "Bad Girl" by the Miracles, the first release on the Motown record label. "Bad Girl" was a solid hit in 1959 after Chess Records picked it up. Barrett Strong's "Money (That's What I Want)" initially appeared on Tamla and then charted on Gordy's sister's label, Anna Records, in February 1960.
The Tamla and Motown labels were then merged into a new company, Motown Record Corporation, incorporated on April 14, 1960. In 1960, Gordy signed an unknown singer, Mary Wells, who became the fledgling label's first star, with Smokey Robinson penning her hits "You Beat Me to the Punch", "Two Lovers", and "My Guy". The Miracles' hit "Shop Around" peaked at No. 1 on the national R&B charts in late 1960 and at No. 2 on the Billboard pop charts on January 16, 1961 (No. 1 pop, Cash Box), which established Motown as an independent company worthy of notice. Later in 1961, the Marvelettes' "Please Mr. Postman" made it to the top of both charts.

Berry Gordy House, known as the Motown mansion, in Detroit's Boston-Edison Historic District[4]
Gordy's gift for identifying and bringing together musical talent, along with the careful management of his artists' public image, made Motown initially a major national and then international success. Over the next decade, he signed such artists as the SupremesMarvin Gayethe TemptationsJimmy Ruffinthe Contours, the Four TopsGladys Knight & the Pipsthe Commodoresthe VelvelettesMartha and the VandellasStevie Wonder and the Jackson 5. Though he also signed various white acts on the label, he largely promoted African-American artists but carefully controlled their public image, dress, manners and choreography for across-the-board appeal.

Motown Message Songs

“Greetings” appeared nearly a decade before Motown allowed Marvin Gaye’s protest anthem “What’s Going On” to hit the airwaves on January 20, 1971.

Gaye’s masterpiece followed on the heels of such politically charged hit singles as the Temptations’ “Ball of Confusion” (May 7, 1970) and Edwin Starr’s “War” (June 9, 1970), which paved the way for Gaye’s effort.
Marvin Gaye - What's Going On, 3:51

The radicals though were emerging during the period.

In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science.[18] During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans;[19][20] with this Rockefeller Republican-oriented group.[21]

In her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy.[26] Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty.[26]
Rodham wrote her senior thesis about the radical community organizer Saul Alinsky.[29] (Years later, while she was first lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation.[29])

Saul David Alinsky (January 30, 1909 – June 12, 1972) was a Jewish American community organizer and writer. He is generally considered to be the founder of modern community organizing. He is often noted for his 1971 book Rules for Radicals.

In the course of nearly four decades of political organizing, Alinsky received much criticism, but also gained praise from many public figures. His organizing skills were focused on improving the living conditions of poor communities across North America. In the 1950s, he began turning his attention to improving conditions in the African-American ghettos, beginning with Chicago's and later traveling to other ghettos in California, Michigan, New York City, and a dozen other "trouble spots".

His ideas were adapted in the 1960s by some U.S. college students and other young counterculture-era organizers, who used them as part of their strategies for organizing on campus and beyond.[5] Time magazine wrote in 1970 that "It is not too much to argue that American democracy is being altered by Alinsky's ideas."[6] Conservative author William F. Buckley, Jr. said in 1966 that Alinsky was "very close to being an organizational genius".[7]

Hillary's Mentor: From Hell

 Shortly before his death Alinsky had discussed life after death in Playboy:[4]

ALINSKY: ... if there is an afterlife, and I have anything to say about it, I will unreservedly choose to go to hell.
ALINSKY: Hell would be heaven for me. All my life I've been with the have-nots. Over here, if you're a have-not, you're short of dough. If you're a have-not in hell, you're short of virtue. Once I get into hell, I'll start organizing the have-nots over there.
PLAYBOY: Why them?
ALINSKY: They're my kind of people.

After graduating from college, Hillary worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthful conditions).

Hillary Clinton's Letters To Saul Alinsky, Read By Dana Loesch, 2:05

Hillary's radical politics is shared with another young man in college during the era. In his autobiography, he states:

"To avoid being mistaken for a sellout, I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos. The Marxist professors and structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets. We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets. At night, in the dorms, we discussed neocolonialism, Franz Fanon, Eurocentrism, and patriarchy. When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling conventions. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated.

But this strategy alone couldn't provide the distance I wanted, from Joyce or my past. After all, there were thousands of so-called campus radicals, most of them white and tenured and happily tolerant. No, it remained necessary to prove which side you were on, to show your loyalty to the black masses, to strike out and name names."

The young man identified with radical blacks, foreigners, and Marxists while rejecting the culture of the Western humanities and middle-class society that we have been studying in this class as represented by the Irish novelist James Joyce.

Does anyone recognize the young, radical college student's quote and who it is?

The young radical introduced the Marxist professor, Derrick Bell, at Harvard, 1:44

Bell advocates Critical Race Theory which hold that racism is engrained in the fabric and system of the American society. The individual racist need not exist but all of American culture is institutionally racist. CRT contends that these power structures are based on white privilege and white supremacy, which perpetuates the marginalization of people of color.[11]

Derrick Bell

The young radical is of course:

-- Barack Obama

BREITBART: Sowell Destroys 'Totalitarian' Derrick Bell on 'Hannity'; 'Ideological Intolerance' 5:02

Thomas Sowell (/soʊl/; born June 30, 1930) is an American economist, social theorist, political philosopher, and author.

Perhaps it is best to introduce him as a high school drop-out from Harlem.

He is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Sowell was born in North Carolina, but grew up in Harlem, New York. He dropped out of high school and served in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War. He received a bachelor's degree, graduating magna cum laude[3] from Harvard University in 1958 and a master's degree from Columbia University in 1959. In 1968, he earned his Doctorate in Economics from the University of Chicago.

Sowell has served on the faculties of several universities, including Cornell University and University of California, Los Angeles. He has also worked for think tanks such as the Urban Institute. Since 1980, he has worked at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He writes from a libertarian conservative perspective, advocating supply-side economics. Sowell has written more than thirty books (a number of which have been reprinted in revised editions), and his work has been widely anthologized. He is a National Humanities Medal recipient.

The emerging type of American culture highlights race in contrast to Dr. King's admonition to judge people by their character and not by the color of their skin. However, since the late 1960s, Dr. King's ideas have fallen out of favor so as to judge race over character. For example, consider how Muhammad Ali has been glorified at his passing. Yet, he called his opponents names and insulted some of them unmercifully.

Is it funny to call people names like "gorilla?"

Is it acceptable for "Smokin' Joe" Frazier to be `black and proud?'

Fearless Funny MAN Muhammad Ali vs The Gorilla in Manila Ali at His BEST 1975

Alinsky Revolutionaries

Hillary, Obama and the Cult of Alinsky"True revolutionaries do not flaunt their radicalism, Alinsky taught. He urged them to cut their hair, put on suits, and infiltrate the system from within

Alinsky viewed revolution as a slow, patient process. The trick was to penetrate existing institutions such as churches, unions and political parties. 


You say you want a revolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
You tell me that it's evolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world

But when you talk about destruction
Don't you know that you can count me out

Don't you know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright

You say you got a real solution
Well, you know
We'd all love to see the plan
You ask me for a contribution
Well, you know
We're all doing what we can

But if you want money for people with minds that hate
All I can tell you is brother you have to wait

Don't you know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright, al...

You say you'll change the constitution
Well, you know
We all want to change your head
You tell me it's the institution
Well, you know
You'd better free your mind instead

But if you go carrying pictures of Chairman Mao
You ain't going to make it with anyone anyhow

Don't you know know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright

Alright, alright
Alright, alright
Alright, alright
Alright, alright 

As noted earlier, for the 1963 March on Washington,  Mahalia Jackson, and she sung her "How I Got Over" and an old African American spiritual called "I've been 'buked."

Protest music was also present with Peter, Paul and Mary, singing"Blowin' in the Wind" (written by Bob Dylan); and, they sang"If I Had a Hammer" (written by Pete Seeger and Lee Hays). 

In 1963 through James Brown's era American critics were able to articulate their dissatisfaction with how the country was going as opposed to attacking American culture, and America and Americans, as such. Later radicals were not so balanced. 

Early Trump

What were the non-radical, non-Alinsky types such as Berry Gordy and James Brown doing during this time?

Trump attended Fordham University in the Bronx for two years. He entered the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, as Wharton then offered one of the few real estate studies departments in U.S. academia.[25] While there, he worked at the family's company, Elizabeth Trump & Son, named for his paternal grandmother.[26] Trump graduated from Wharton in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in economics.[27][28]

Trump was not drafted into the Vietnam War, for several reasons: student deferments, a medical deferment, and then a lucky high number in the draft lottery.[29] While in college, he obtained four student deferments.[29] He was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical examination in 1966, and was briefly classified as fit by a local draft board in 1968, but was then medically disqualified later in 1968.[29] Trump has attributed his medical deferment to "heel spurs" in both feet according to a 2015 biography.[24] Selective Service records from the National Archives confirm that Trump received the medical deferment and eventually received a high selective service lottery number in 1969.[30][nb 2] Trump put it this way in 2011: "I actually got lucky because I had a very high draft number".[30]
25 Years Ago 


The Rise of Youth Culture in the 1950s, 11:31

Welcome to week two of The History of Rock Part One, here on Coursera.

This week, we're gonna talk about the birth and first flourishing of rock and roll.
So that's the period from 1950 till the end of the decade, 1959, 1960.
In this video, we're gonna talk about the rise of youth culture during that period.
But before we do, let's briefly review what we talked about in week one. And remember that, one of the main points of week one, is that there were three principle marketing categories, or divisions of popular music in the period up to 1955. That was mainstream pop, Country and Western, in Rhythm and Blues, and we went through each of those, the history of each of those styles a bit to get a sense of what was going on leading up to 1955. We also raised the question why is 1955 the birth of Rock and Roll, why should we choose that particular here.

So now, we're gonna focus in on 1955 and see if we can understand how it is Rock and Roll took off the way it did, and why it should be seen as something different from the styles that came before, and I'll give the story away a little bit by saying one of the main ideas that What's often taught with regard to the beginning of Rock and Roll, is that Rock and Roll constitutes the blending of Country and Western, and Rhythm and Blues, with mainstream pop.

So it's the blend of those three. With some gospel thrown in on the side and some doo-wop as well that really create what rock and roll is. What I will say is that rock and roll happens when these styles become mainstream pop styles. That is when Rhythm and Blues and Country and Western things crossover from their individual markets into the mainstream pop market and that's what we're going to talk about this week.
So let's start with talking a little bit about the entire flow of what we'll say this week about the chapter. The period from 1955 through 1959 is considered the first wave of Rock and Roll. That basically divides up into the period before Elvis that is right at 1954/1955 in that period. Elvis, 1956, and then what happened Elvis, well not after Elvis in the sense that he was gone but after Elvis's initial success. May be better to say in the wake of Elvis. So that's the way we'll divide it up.

You may be surprised to find out that Elvis is actually not really at the very beginning of rock and roll, but doesn't make his biggest impact until other artists have in some sense cleared the way for him. I should also take a minute to point out that what you're learning in the Coursera course that we're doing here is really an American perspective on the history of rock music. It's the way this history looks in the United States.
We will find out especially when we start to talk about the Beatles and the British Invasion that in many ways, the history of rock and roll looks different in the UK. Some of the same things we're talking about that are going on in the music here are balanced in different kinds of ways in the UK.

So for those of you who are taking the course who aren't in the United States please understand that we're talking about the course talking about the subject and the way it looks from the American perspective. The American market being the biggest market really in the world for this music at the time.

But that's my caveat. With regard to that. Well, let's now talk about, dig into this idea of the rise of youth culture in the 1950s and talk about the invention of the American teenager. What can I possibly mean by the invention of the American teenager during these years. After all, haven't we always had teenagers?
What is it, before Rock and Roll people went from the age of 12 to the age 20 and never went 13 through 19. Of course there's always been teenagers, but up to this point the culture had never really separated teenagers out as their own, sort of, separate, entity in the culture.

So, kind of the way it worked is you went to school until you graduated from high school and then when you moved onto college or into a career or something like that. You put childish things away and became an adult.

There wasn't really a transition period that was celebrated in a particular type of way. And there weren't goods and services and products and those types of things that were devoted to teenagers.
But what starts to happen during this period Is that parents start to develop maybe a greater sort of care. Well, maybe it's nor fair to say care, because that makes it seem like the parents before, they weren't caring as much about their kids. But they start to really focus more on the children.

Maybe that's because coming out of the second world war, a lot of these people, the fathers had been away at work, people came back, war had been a tough time, now the war was over.

They wanted to get back to as normal kind of life as they could, and they really focused on doing what they thought was best for their kids, so these kids were a little bit more pampered, maybe, than earlier generations were. There was a lot more focus put on their educations and their general sort of emotional health and this kinda thing, and what that generated was a bunch of kids who, it turned out, had their own clothes, their own language, their own cars, their own ideas of what teen romance was, lot's of leisure time and disposable income. And most importantly, their own music. And Rock and Roll would become the music of that.
The idea that all of a sudden kids could be teenagers for a while in a period of time when they were no longer children but weren't quite adults. And there was a whole kind of culture that they could go into that could have all kinds of things that were exclusive to that.

This was new in the 1950's and the importance of rock and roll is it was the soundtrack of this new teenage experience. If you want to get an idea of what life was like in the 1950's. For this kind of kid, you might think of films like the 1973 film, American Graffiti, that was one of the early George Lucas films, it was actually set in 1962, but it captures a lot of Of that late 50s kind of ambiance. The television show Happy Days.

A lot of people have heard that, have seen it. If you've ever seen the movie Back to the Future with Michael J Fox where they sort of go back to the 50s. Now a lot of that is idealized. There were a lot more problems and there were all kinds of other issues that happened in the 50s that you don't really sort of see in that idealized view of what the 50s were. But that's the idea. A time of innocence. A time of teenagers. It's a Potsie and Ralph Mouth down at the malt shop this kind of thing you know, dancing to the jukebox and this is what the American teenager thing is. I've got friend, some colleagues about the same age as me who didn't have teenage years, or didn't have a sort of teenager culture when they were growing up in the UK at that time.

And so, they talk about this as the American invention of the teenager. For us what's important is that it opens up a market for product. And in the second half of the 1950's music will be sold to these teenagers as the music that sets them apart from their parent's generation that's the important thing. We should also talk about the construction of rock n' roll youth and juvenile delinquency that starts to develop at this time.

A real concern, because people were concerned with their kids growing up the right way, a real concern that they might take the wrong path and juvenile delinquency, the idea of kids going bad, kids going wrong, really started to become a thing that people were talking about in the culture. You can see this especially in three films that came out just about in the mid 1950's.

There's a film from 1953 staring Marlon Brando called The Wild One and one of the main characters, the one played by Brando was a character by the name of Johnny. His motorcycle gang are called The Beatles, sound familiar? We'll get to that in a couple of weeks. Anyway, Johnny is a rebel, and when asked at one point in the movie what he's rebelling against he turns to the person who asked him and says I don't know, what do you got? In other words it was almost rebellion for its own sake but it was certainly viewed as a kind of juvenile delinquency.

Another film like that, featured James Dean from 1955 it was called Rebel Without A Cause. Well there you go, rebellion with no reason, rebellion for the sake of rebellion itself. A misunderstood youth. Who, you know, meets tragedy at the end of the film. And that's further reinforced by the fact that the actor, James Dean, actually did meet with a tragic death. And, to a certain extent, that sort of solidifies this idea of dying young, rebellion the thing about The Wild One and Rebel Without A Cause, however, is the music that appears in those movies is not Rock and Roll at all.

And so there is not the direct connection with Rock and Roll. But the third movie, Blackboard Jungle, from 1955, starring Glenn Ford and Sidney Poitier is about some kids in an inner-city school, and how they're struggling, and their music teacher, one of their teachers likes to play music to try to connect up and in the movie, the music he uses is Jazz to try and talk to these kids, but over the opening credits and later in the movie, the song Rock around the Clock by Bill Hailey and the Comets is played.

And with that, with Rock Around the Clock, and Blackboard Jungle, and this whole sense of juvenile delinquency and the concern about it, you get this linking together of rock and roll with troubled youth that will in fact become part of the identity of rock and roll for the rest of its history. What's interesting about that movie, and I guess you'd really have to use your imagination to imagine this happening, is the playing of Rock Around the Clock in the theater when people went to see the film. And the film starts out with this sort of crawling text. That says juvenile delinquency in our country is a big problem, this kinda thing, and then out comes Rock Around the Clock, and kids got so excited about the music when they were seeing this film that they actually started to riot in theaters. There were reports of people tearing out theater seats and this kinda thing.

Well, what could more reinforce this idea of rock and roll whipping these kids up into a demonic fever that we needed to do something about in our culture. Keep these kids from going over to the dark side, this kind of thing. Anyway, these films, the youth culture, all this sort of pulled together to create an environment that makes it possible for rock and roll to begin to flourish.

Bill Haley's Rock Around the Clock was one of the top Pop hits of 1955. In 1955, we really start to see songs that we would think of as rock and roll songs now as top hits on the pop charts. Not just crossing over but being some of the biggest records of that year. Many, of course, records followed. And many R&B songs will start to cross over in the pop, onto the pop charts, and we'll talk about that in just a minute.

Blackboard Jungle Trailer 1955 Movie Starring Glenn Ford

In this episode of Hollywood Teen Movies we flashback to the Fabulous 1950s to catch the trailer for the controversial high school film "Blackboard Jungle" starring Glenn Ford & Anne Francis. Considered by many to be the original JD film, this gritty teen drama features Vic Morrow & Sidney Poitier in supporting roles. On a trivia note, Blackboard Jungle is the film that featured the Bill Haley song Rock Around The Clock. Thanks for watching & don't forget to subscribe for more retro movie trailers.

Now some would argue that there was so much R&B crossing over in 1955 into the pop charts, that what we call rock n roll, would really be better just to be called white rhythm and blues, white R&B. But I'll try to fashion an argument for you, and present an argument for you that shows that rock n roll is really, in some ways a changing of what R&B is, and is worth separating out but for now let's just think about the youth culture that made it possible for rock and roll to happen in this country and turn our attention in the next lecture to how was it that white teens came to hear rhythm and blues in the first place.

1950s Rock and Roll + Youth Culture, 4:18


In Chapter 39, on pp. 1296-1298, our class text summarizes some of the early Rock and Roll and Rock artists and folk singers who wrote and performed in the 1960s and 1970s in a period of social protest and discontent.

Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley in Jailhouse Rock (1957)
Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
Born Elvis Aaron Presley
(1935-01-08)January 8, 1935
Tupelo, Mississippi, U.S.
Died August 16, 1977(1977-08-16) (aged 42)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Signature Elvis Presley Signature.png
Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as "the King of Rock and Roll", or simply, "the King".

Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and when he was 13 years old, he and his family relocated to Memphis, Tennessee. His music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was an early popularizer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who managed the singer for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the leading figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines that coincided with the dawn of the Civil Rights Movement, made him enormously popular—and controversial.

In November 1956, he made his film debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service. He resumed his recording career two years later, producing some of his most commercially successful work before devoting much of the 1960s to making Hollywood movies and their accompanying soundtrack albums, most of which were critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed televised comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of highly profitable tours. In 1973, Presley was featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of prescription drug abuse severely damaged his health, and he died in 1977 at the age of 42.

Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century. Commercially successful in many genres, including pop, blues and gospel, he is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music, with estimated record sales of around 600 million units worldwide. He won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Forbes named Elvis Presley as the 2nd top earning dead celebrity with $55 million as of 2011.

Life and Career of Elvis Presley, 6:06

In this video, takes a look at the life and career of the king of rock and roll, otherwise known as Elvis Presley. Look for the standup early bass guitar which was characteristic of early rock 'n' roll, rockabilly, and of course, at Elvis' first recording studio, Sun Studio.

Sun Studio is a recording studio opened by rock-and-roll pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 3, 1950. It was originally called Memphis Recording Service, sharing the same building with the Sun Records label business. Reputedly the first rock and roll single, Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' "Rocket 88" was recorded there in 1951 with song composer Ike Turner on keyboards, leading the studio to claim status as the birthplace of rock & roll. Blues and R&B artists like Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Little Milton, B.B. King, James Cotton, Rufus Thomas, and Rosco Gordon recorded there in the early 1950s.

Rock and roll, country music, and rockabilly artists, including Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Charlie Feathers, Ray Harris, Warren Smith, Charlie Rich, and Jerry Lee Lewis, recorded there throughout the mid-to-late 1950s until the studio outgrew its Union Avenue location. Sam Phillips opened the larger Sam C. Phillips Recording Studio, better known as Phillips Recording, in 1959 to replace the older facility. Since Phillips had invested in the Holiday Inn Hotel chain earlier, he also recorded artists starting in 1963 on the label Holiday Inn Records for Kemmons Wilson. In 1957, Bill Justis recorded his Grammy Hall of Fame song "Raunchy" for Sam Phillips and worked as a musical director at Sun Records.

In 1969, Sam Phillips sold the label to Shelby Singleton, and there was no recording-related or label-related activity again in the building until the September 1985 Class of '55 recording sessions with Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash, produced by Chips Moman.

In 1987, the original building housing the Sun Records label and Memphis Recording Service was reopened by Gary Hardy as "Sun Studio," a recording label and tourist attraction that has attracted many notable artists, such as U2, Def Leppard, Bonnie Raitt, and Ringo Starr.

In 2005, Brian Setzer (of Stray Cats fame) released his Rockabilly Riot Vol. 1: A Tribute To Sun Records album, recorded at Sun and featuring various Sun Records recordings, some hits and other more obscure songs. In 2007, Canadian rockabilly band the Kingmakers recorded a selection of originals and classics such as Elvis Presley's "That's All Right" at Sun Studio, released as their first CD "Live at SUN Studio". In May 2009, Canadian blues artist JW-Jones recorded with blues legend Hubert Sumlin, Larry Taylor and Richard Innes for his 2010 release at the studio. In July 2009, John Mellencamp recorded nine songs for his album No Better Than This at the studio. In 2011, Chris Isaak released "Beyond the Sun," a collection of songs recorded at Sun Studio, most of which are cover versions of songs originally released on Sun Records.
Samuel Cornelius Phillips (January 5, 1923 – July 30, 2003) was an American musician, businessman, record executive, music producer, and disc jockey who played an important role in the emergence and development of rock and roll and rockabilly as the major form of popular music in the 1950s. He was a producer, label owner, and talent scout throughout the 1940s and 1950s.

Sam Phillips

He was the founder of both Sun Studio and Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee. Through Sun, Phillips discovered such recording talent as Howlin' Wolf, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash. The height of his success culminated in his launching of Elvis Presley's career in 1954. He is also associated with several other noteworthy rhythm and blues, country, and rock and roll musicians of the period. Phillips sold Sun in 1969 to Shelby Singleton. He was an early investor in the Holiday Inn chain of hotels. He also advocated racial equality and helped break down racial barriers in the music industry.

Sam Phillips Talks About Elvis Presley

Memphis: Sun Studio - Home to Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, and Jerry Lee Lewis, 4:04

It's truly impossible to determine where rock 'n' roll was actually born, but Sun Studio in Memphis has as strong a claim as anywhere else. (Except, perhaps, Little Richard's loins.) Founded in 1950 by Sam Phillips, the studio—and its accompanying record label, Sun Records—was undeniably important in the history of the genre.Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis both graced Sun's tiny floors, but of course the most notable resident was Elvis Presley, who had a musical epiphany in the recording studio in 1953 with the song "That's All Right." In a way, Sun acted like indie labels did 20 years ago, nurturing young talent until bigger fish came along to snatch them away, as was the case with Elvis. After Presley moved on, Sun saw a serious dip in business, but his legacy eventually proved big enough to keep it afloat.U2 recorded a few songs at Sun for Rattle And Hum, and other artists have followed suit. According to our tour guide, Bob Dylan stopped by just to kiss the ground.These days, Sun offers tours during the day and still records bands at night. PBS recently began airing Sun Studio Sessions, with modern artists—from The Walkmen to Eli Reed—performing songs in the legendary space.

Ed Sullivan

Edward Vincent Sullivan (September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was an American television personality, sports and entertainment reporter, and longtime syndicated columnist for the New York Daily News. He is principally remembered as the creator and host of the television variety program The Toast of the Town, later popularly—and, eventually, officially—renamed The Ed Sullivan Show. Broadcast for 23 years from 1948 to 1971, it set a record as the longest-running variety show in US broadcast history.[2] "It was, by almost any measure, the last great TV show," proclaimed television critic David Hinckley. "It's one of our fondest, dearest pop culture memories."[3]

Sullivan was a broadcasting pioneer at many levels during television's infancy. As TV critic David Bianculli wrote, "Before MTV, Sullivan presented rock acts. Before Bravo, he presented jazz and classical music and theater. Before the Comedy Channel, even before there was the Tonight Show, Sullivan discovered, anointed and popularized young comedians. Before there were 500 channels, before there was cable, Ed Sullivan was where the choice was. From the start, he was indeed 'the Toast of the Town'."[4] In 1996 Sullivan was ranked No. 50 on TV Guide's "50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time".[5]

Interview: Ed Sullivan Biography, 3:23

In the 1950s and '60s, Sullivan was a respected starmaker because of the number of performers who became household names after appearing on the show. He had a knack for identifying and promoting top talent and paid a great deal of money to secure that talent for his show.

Although Sullivan was wary of Elvis Presley's "bad boy" image, and initially said that he would never book him, Presley became too big a name to ignore; in 1956 Sullivan signed him for three appearances.[14][15] In August 1956, Sullivan was injured in an automobile accident near his country home in Southbury, Connecticut, and missed Presley's first appearance on September 9. Charles Laughton wound up introducing Presley on the Sullivan hour.[16] After Sullivan got to know Presley personally, he made amends by telling his audience, "This is a real decent, fine boy."[17]

ELVIS PRESLEY "Hound Dog" on The Ed Sullivan Show, 1:04

Elvis Presley performed "Hound Dog" on The Ed Sullivan Show on October 28th, 1956. This was Elvis' second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Bob Dylan - Mini Bio, 3:56

Bob Dylan (/ˈdɪlən/; born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, artist, and writer. He has been influential in popular music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when his songs chronicled social unrest, although Dylan repudiated suggestions from journalists that he was a spokesman for his generation. Nevertheless, early songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the American civil rights and anti-war movements. Leaving his initial base in the American folk music revival, Dylan's six-minute single "Like a Rolling Stone" altered the range of popular music in 1965. His mid-1960s recordings, backed by rock musicians, reached the top end of the United States music charts while also attracting denunciation and criticism from others in the folk movement.

Bob Dylan, Blowin' In the Wind, (Live On TV, March 1963), 2:35

Dylan's lyrics have incorporated various political, social, philosophical, and literary influences. They defied existing pop music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Initially inspired by the performances of Little Richard, and the songwriting of Woody Guthrie, Robert Johnson and Hank Williams, Dylan has amplified and personalized musical genres. His recording career, spanning 50 years, has explored the traditions in American song—from folk, blues, and country to gospel, rock and roll, and rockabilly to English, Scottish, and Irish folk music, embracing even jazz and the Great American Songbook. Dylan performs with guitar, keyboards and harmonica. Backed by a changing line-up of musicians, he has toured steadily since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed the Never Ending Tour. His accomplishments as a recording artist and performer have been central to his career, but his greatest contribution is considered his songwriting.

Since 1994, Dylan has published six books of drawings and paintings, and his work has been exhibited in major art galleries. As a musician, Dylan has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time; he has received numerous awards including Grammy, Golden Globe and Academy Award; he has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and Songwriters Hall of Fame. The Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power."

Protest and Another Side[edit]

In May 1963, Dylan's political profile rose when he walked out of The Ed Sullivan Show. During rehearsals, Dylan had been told by CBS television's head of program practices that "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues" was potentially libelous to the John Birch Society. Rather than comply with censorship, Dylan refused to appear.[57]

Dylan said of "The Times They Are a-Changin'": "This was definitely a song with a purpose. I wanted to write a big song, some kind of theme song, with short concise verses that piled up on each other in a hypnotic way. The civil rights movement and the folk music movement were pretty close and allied together at that time."

By this time, Dylan and Baez were prominent in the civil rights movement, singing together at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963. Dylan's third album, The Times They Are a-Changin', reflected a more politicized and cynical Dylan. The songs often took as their subject matter contemporary stories, with "Only A Pawn In Their Game" addressing the murder of civil rights worker Medgar Evers; and the Brechtian "The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll" the death of black hotel barmaid Hattie Carroll, at the hands of young white socialite William Zantzinger. On a more general theme, "Ballad of Hollis Brown" and "North Country Blues" addressed despair engendered by the breakdown of farming and mining communities. This political material was accompanied by two personal love songs, "Boots of Spanish Leather" and "One Too Many Mornings".

By the end of 1963, Dylan felt both manipulated and constrained by the folk and protest movements. Accepting the "Tom Paine Award" from the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee shortly after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, an intoxicated Dylan questioned the role of the committee, characterized the members as old and balding, and claimed to see something of himself and of every man in Kennedy's assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald.

A spotlight shines on Dylan as he performs onstage.

Bobby Dylan, as the college yearbook lists him: St. Lawrence University, upstate New York, November 1963

Another Side of Bob Dylan, recorded on a single evening in June 1964, had a lighter mood. The humorous Dylan reemerged on "I Shall Be Free No. 10" and "Motorpsycho Nightmare". "Spanish Harlem Incident" and "To Ramona" are passionate love songs, while "Black Crow Blues" and "I Don't Believe You (She Acts Like We Never Have Met)" suggest the rock and roll soon to dominate Dylan's music. "It Ain't Me Babe", on the surface a song about spurned love, has been described as a rejection of the role of political spokesman thrust upon him. His newest direction was signaled by two lengthy songs: the impressionistic "Chimes of Freedom", which sets social commentary against a metaphorical landscape in a style characterized by Allen Ginsberg as "chains of flashing images," and "My Back Pages", which attacks the simplistic and arch seriousness of his own earlier topical songs and seems to predict the backlash he was about to encounter from his former champions as he took a new direction.

In the latter half of 1964 and 1965, Dylan moved from folk songwriter to folk-rock pop-music star. His jeans and work shirts were replaced by a Carnaby Street wardrobe, sunglasses day or night, and pointed "Beatle boots". A London reporter wrote: "Hair that would set the teeth of a comb on edge. A loud shirt that would dim the neon lights of Leicester Square. He looks like an undernourished cockatoo." Dylan began to spar with interviewers. Appearing on the Les Crane television show and asked about a movie he planned, he told Crane it would be a cowboy horror movie. Asked if he played the cowboy, Dylan replied, "No, I play my mother."

By 1965, Bob Dylan had achieved the status of leading songwriter of the American folk music revival.[a 1] The response to his albums The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan and The Times They Are a-Changin' led to him being labelled as the "spokesman of a generation" by the media.[1] In March 1965, Dylan released his fifth album, Bringing It All Back Home. Side One featured Dylan backed by an electric band. Side Two featured Dylan accompanying himself on acoustic guitar. On July 20, 1965, Dylan released his single, "Like a Rolling Stone", featuring a rock sound. On July 25, 1965, Dylan performed with a rock band at the Newport Folk Festival. Some sections of the audience booed Dylan's performance. Leading members of the folk movement, including Irwin Silber[a 2] and Ewan MacColl[a 3] criticized Dylan for moving away from political songwriting, and performing with an electric band.

Pete Seeger & his (re-)actions during Bob Dylan's electrified performance at Newport 1965, 1:48
In an interview with Democracy Now's Amy Goodman, Pete Seeger remembers his reactions to Bob Dylan's electrified performance with the Butterfield Blues Band at Newport Folk Festival, 1965.

Peter "Pete" Seeger (May 3, 1919 – January 27, 2014) was an American folk singer and social activist. A fixture on nationwide radio in the 1940s, he also had a string of hit records during the early 1950s as a member of the Weavers, most notably their recording of Lead Belly's "Goodnight, Irene", which topped the charts for 13 weeks in 1950. Members of the Weavers were blacklisted during the McCarthy Era. In the 1960s, he re-emerged on the public scene as a prominent singer of protest music in support of international disarmament, civil rights, counterculture and environmental causes.

A prolific songwriter, his best-known songs include "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?" (with Joe Hickerson), "If I Had a Hammer (The Hammer Song)" (with Lee Hays of the Weavers), and "Turn! Turn! Turn!" (lyrics adapted from Ecclesiastes), which have been recorded by many artists both in and outside the folk revival movement and are sung throughout the world. "Flowers" was a hit recording for the Kingston Trio (1962); Marlene Dietrich, who recorded it in English, German and French (1962); and Johnny Rivers (1965). "If I Had a Hammer" was a hit for Peter, Paul & Mary (1962) and Trini Lopez (1963), while the Byrds had a number one hit with "Turn! Turn! Turn!" in 1965.

Seeger was one of the folksingers most responsible for popularizing the spiritual "We Shall Overcome" (also recorded by Joan Baez and many other singer-activists) that became the acknowledged anthem of the Civil Rights Movement, soon after folk singer and activist Guy Carawan introduced it at the founding meeting of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960. In the PBS American Masters episode "Pete Seeger: The Power of Song", Seeger stated it was he who changed the lyric from the traditional "We will overcome" to the more singable "We shall overcome".

Bob Dylan on booing and walking out - 1966, 1:01

Yet another outtake from Scorsese's No Direction Home. And yet another favourite part of mine - you got to love the way he treats people's reaction to his acoustic versus eletric sets. (Still, it also can be very sad because he is visibly offended.)

When Dylan made his move from acoustic folk and blues music to a rock backing, the mix became more complex. For many critics, his greatest achievement was the cultural synthesis exemplified by his mid-1960s trilogy of albums—Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. In Mike Marqusee's words:

Between late 1964 and the middle of 1966, Dylan created a body of work that remains unique.

Drawing on folk, blues, country, R&B, rock'n'roll, gospel, British beat, symbolist, modernist and Beat poetry, surrealism and Dada, advertising jargon and social commentary, Fellini and Mad magazine, he forged a coherent and original artistic voice and vision. The beauty of these albums retains the power to shock and console."[403]

The Beatles on 'Ed Sullivan': 50 Years Later, 5:37

On the 50th anniversary of The Beatles landmark "Ed Sullivan Show" performance, Donovan, Peter Asher, Beatles scholar Martin Lewis and their secretary, Freda Kelly, reflect on the band's legacy and Beatlemania in America. (Photo: AP)
The Beatles
A square quartered into four head shots of young men with moptop haircuts. All four wear white shirts and dark coats.
The "Fab Four" Beatles lineup in 1964
Top: Lennon, McCartney
Bottom: Harrison, Starr
Background information
Origin Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
The Beatles were an English rock band that formed in Liverpool in 1960. With members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they became widely regarded as the greatest and most influential act of the rock era.[1] Rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the Beatles later experimented with several genres, ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock, often incorporating classical elements in innovative ways. In the early 1960s, their enormous popularity first emerged as "Beatlemania", but as the group's music grew in sophistication, led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, they came to be perceived as an embodiment of the ideals shared by the era's sociocultural revolutions.

The Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act and producer George Martin enhanced their musical potential. They gained popularity in the United Kingdom after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962. They acquired the nickname "the Fab Four" as Beatlemania grew in Britain over the following year, and by early 1964 they had become international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market. From 1965 onwards, the Beatles produced what many consider their finest material, including the innovative and widely influential albums Rubber Soul (1965), Revolver (1966), Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), The Beatles (commonly known as the White Album, 1968) and Abbey Road (1969).

After their break-up in 1970, they all enjoyed successful musical careers of varying lengths. McCartney and Starr, the surviving members, remain musically active. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980, and Harrison died of lung cancer in November 2001.

According to the RIAA, the Beatles are the best-selling music artists in the United States, with 178 million certified units. They have had more number-one albums on the British charts and sold more singles in the UK than any other act. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful "Hot 100" artists; as of 2015, they hold the record for most number-one hits on the Hot 100 chart with twenty. They have received ten Grammy Awards, an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. Collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people, they are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 600 million records worldwide.[2][3] The group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, with all four being inducted individually as well from 1994 to 2015.


A Brief History of The Beatles, 2:20

1966: controversy

Events leading up to final tour

Capitol Records, from December 1963 when it began issuing Beatles recordings for the US market, exercised complete control over format, compiling distinct US albums from the band's recordings and issuing songs of their choosing as singles. It was not until Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in 1967 that a Beatles album was released with identical track listings in both the UK and the US. In June 1966, Yesterday and Today, one of Capitol's compilation albums, caused an uproar with its cover, which portrayed the grinning Beatles dressed in butcher's overalls, accompanied by raw meat and mutilated plastic baby dolls. It has been incorrectly suggested that this was meant as a satirical response to the way Capitol had "butchered" the US versions of their albums. Thousands of copies of the LP had a new cover pasted over the original; an unpeeled "first-state" copy fetched $10,500 at a December 2005 auction. In England, meanwhile, Harrison met sitar maestro Ravi Shankar, who agreed to train him on the instrument.

During a tour of the Philippines the month after the Yesterday and Today furore, the Beatles unintentionally snubbed the nation's first lady, Imelda Marcos, who had expected them to attend a breakfast reception at the Presidential Palace. When presented with the invitation, Epstein politely declined on the band members' behalf, as it had never been his policy to accept such official invitations. They soon found that the Marcos regime was unaccustomed to taking no for an answer. The resulting riots endangered the group and they escaped the country with difficulty. Immediately afterwards, the band members visited India for the first time.

Almost as soon as they returned home, the Beatles faced a fierce backlash from US religious and social conservatives (as well as the Ku Klux Klan) over a comment Lennon had made in a March interview with British reporter Maureen Cleave.

"Christianity will go," Lennon had said. "It will vanish and shrink. I needn't argue about that; I'm right and I will be proved right. We're more popular than Jesus now; I don't know which will go first, rock 'n' roll or Christianity. Jesus was alright but his disciples were thick and ordinary. It's them twisting it that ruins it for me."

The comment went virtually unnoticed in England, but when US teenage fan magazine Datebook printed it five months later – on the eve of the group's August US tour – it sparked a controversy with Christians in the American "Bible Belt".

The Vatican issued a protest, and bans on Beatles' records were imposed by Spanish and Dutch stations and South Africa's national broadcasting service.

Epstein accused Datebook of having taken Lennon's words out of context; at a press conference Lennon pointed out, "If I'd said television was more popular than Jesus, I might have got away with it."

Lennon claimed that he was referring to how other people viewed their success, but at the prompting of reporters, he concluded: "If you want me to apologise, if that will make you happy, then okay, I'm sorry."[154]

In the era of toleration, Mick Jagger has supported the words of John Lennon on this issue (in some meaning). In 1995, Jagger said in The Rolling Stone Interview that The Beatles "were bigger than Jesus" in those years.

Jesus - John Lennon Controversy (Part 3 of 4), 4:23

Do you think that groups like the Ku Klux Klan, and their religious views, should be able to ban ideas? Music? Books?


As preparations were made for the US tour, the Beatles knew that their music would hardly be heard. Having originally used Vox AC30 amplifiers, they later acquired more powerful 100-watt amplifiers, specially designed by Vox for them as they moved into larger venues in 1964, but these were still inadequate. Struggling to compete with the volume of sound generated by screaming fans, the band had grown increasingly bored with the routine of performing live. Recognising that their shows were no longer about the music, they decided to make the August tour their last.

the beatles/the making of rubber soul, 3:05

the beatles discuss the recording,their attitudes, and where they were at during the recording of rubber soul...

With their increasingly sophisticated and complicated sound the Beatles after 1966 became strictly a studio band.

The Making of Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, 1:28

jimi hendrix - sgt peppers lonely hearts club band, 2:28

James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as "arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music".[1]

Born in Seattle, Washington, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15. In 1961, he enlisted in the US Army and trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division; he was granted an honorable discharge the following year. Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, and began playing gigs on the chitlin' circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers' backing band and later with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965. He then played with Curtis Knight and the Squires before moving to England in late 1966 after being discovered by Linda Keith, who in turn interested bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals in becoming his first manager. Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", and "The Wind Cries Mary". He achieved fame in the US after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the US; it was Hendrix's most commercially successful release and his first and only number one album. The world's highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970 before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27.

Jimi Hendrix 1965 Night Train Television Show, 2:51

Jimi in the backline of Buddy & Stacy doing "Shotgun" on the television show Night Train from 1965.

Hendrix was inspired musically by American rock and roll and electric blues. He favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, and was instrumental in utilizing the previously undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback. He helped to popularize the use of a wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock, and was the first artist to use stereophonic phasing effects in music recordings. Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: "Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source. Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began."[2]

Hendrix was the recipient of several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously. In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year, and in 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year. Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year. The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. Rolling Stone ranked the band's three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, and Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, and they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time.

Released in the UK on May 12, 1967, Are You Experienced spent 33 weeks on the charts, peaking at number two.[119][nb 19] It was prevented from reaching the top spot by the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.[121][nb 20] On June 4, 1967, Hendrix opened a show at the Saville Theatre in London with his rendition of Sgt. Pepper's title track, which was released just three days previous. Beatles manager Brian Epstein owned the Saville at the time, and both George Harrison and Paul McCartney attended the performance. McCartney described the moment: "The curtains flew back and he came walking forward playing 'Sgt. Pepper'. It's a pretty major compliment in anyone's book. I put that down as one of the great honors of my career."[122] Released in the U.S. on August 23 by Reprise Records, Are You Experienced reached number five on the Billboard 200.[123][nb 21]

British Blues

British blues is a form of music derived from American blues that originated in the late 1950s and which reached its height of mainstream popularity in the 1960s, when it developed a distinctive and influential style dominated by electric guitar and made international stars of several proponents of the genre including The Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, Fleetwood Mac and Led Zeppelin. A number of these moved into mainstream rock music and as a result British blues helped to form many of the subgenres of rock. Since then direct interest in the blues in Britain has declined, but many of the key performers have returned to it in recent years, new acts have emerged and there has been a renewed interest in the genre.

The History of The Rolling Stones, 6:16

In this video, takes a look at the history of British rock band, The Rolling Stones, which formed in 1962.

The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first settled line-up consisted of Brian Jones (guitar, harmonica), Ian Stewart (piano), Mick Jagger (lead vocals, harmonica), Keith Richards (guitar), Bill Wyman (bass) and Charlie Watts (drums). Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued as occasional pianist until his death in 1985. Jones departed the band less than a month prior to his death in 1969, having already been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1975. Subsequently, Ronnie Wood has been on guitar in tandem with Richards. Following Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has been the main bassist. Other notable keyboardists for the band have included Nicky Hopkins, active from 1967 to 1982; Billy Preston through the mid 1970s (most prominent on Black and Blue) and Chuck Leavell, active since 1982. The band was first led by Jones but after teaming as the band's songwriters, Jagger and Richards assumed de facto leadership.

The Rolling Stones were in the vanguard of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the US in 1964–65. At first noted for their longish hair as much as their music, the band are identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s. Critic Sean Egan states that within a year of the release of their 1964 debut album, they "were being perceived by the youth of Britain and then the world as representatives of opposition to an old, cruel order — the antidote to a class-bound, authoritarian culture."[1] They were instrumental in making blues a major part of rock and roll and of changing the international focus of blues culture to the less sophisticated blues typified by Chess Records artists such as Muddy Waters — writer of "Rollin' Stone", after which the band is named. After a short period of musical experimentation that culminated with the polarising and largely psychedelic album Their Satanic Majesties Request (1967), the group returned to its bluesy roots with Beggars' Banquet (1968) which—along with its follow-ups, Let It Bleed (1969), Sticky Fingers (1971) and Exile on Main St. (1972)—is generally considered to be the band's best work, their "Golden Age". It was during this period the band were first introduced on stage as "The World's Greatest Rock and Roll Band".[2][3] Musicologist Robert Palmer attributed the "remarkable endurance" of the Rolling Stones to being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone".[4]

The band continued to release commercially successful records in the 1970s and sold many albums, with Some Girls (1978) and Tattoo You (1981) being their two most sold albums worldwide. In the 1980s, a feud between Jagger and Richards about the band's musical direction almost caused the band to split but they managed to patch their relationship up and had a big comeback with Steel Wheels (1989), which was followed by a big stadium and arena tour. Since the 1990s, new recorded material from the group has been increasingly less well-received and less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones have continued to be a huge attraction on the live circuit, with big stadium tours in the 1990s and 2000s. By 2007, the band had made what were then four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time (Voodoo Lounge Tour (1994–95), Bridges to Babylon Tour (1997–99), Licks Tour (2002–03) and A Bigger Bang Tour (2005–07).[5]

The Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list, and their estimated album sales are above 250 million. They have released twenty-nine studio albums, eighteen live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed (1969) was their first of five consecutive number one studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers (1971) was the first of eight consecutive number one studio albums in the US. In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart.[6] In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary.

How Britain Got The Blues 03, 12:07

Third Part of this brilliant documentary about the British blues boom of the 1960s. Featuring the Yardbirds, the Animals, Manfred Mann, and the Pretty Things.

The Yardbirds are an English rock band formed in London in 1963 that had a string of hits during the mid-1960s, including "For Your Love", "Heart Full of Soul" and "Over Under Sideways Down". The group launched the careers of guitarists Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page and Jeff Beck. A blues-based band that broadened its range into pop and rock, the Yardbirds contributed to many electric guitar innovations of the mid-1960s, such as feedback, "fuzztone" distortion and improved amplification. After the Yardbirds broke up in 1968, lead guitarist Jimmy Page founded what became Led Zeppelin, while vocalist and harmonica player Keith Relf and drummer Jim McCarty formed the symphonic rock group Renaissance.
The bulk of the band's most successful self-written songs came from Relf, McCarty and bassist and producer Paul Samwell-Smith, who, with rhythm guitarist and bassist Chris Dreja, constituted the core of the group. The band reformed in the 1990s, featuring McCarty, Dreja and new members. The Yardbirds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992.[3] They were included in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", and VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock".[4][5]

The Animals were an English band of the 1960s, formed in Newcastle upon Tyne, during the early part of the decade. The band moved to London upon finding fame in 1964. The Animals were known for their gritty, bluesy sound and deep-voiced frontman Eric Burdon, as exemplified by their signature song and transatlantic No. 1 hit single, "The House of the Rising Sun", as well as by hits such as "We Gotta Get out of This Place", "It's My Life", "I'm Crying" and "Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood". The band balanced tough, rock-edged pop singles against rhythm and blues-oriented album material. They were known in the US as part of the British Invasion.

The Animals underwent numerous personnel changes in the mid-1960s and suffered from poor business management. Under the name Eric Burdon and the Animals, the much-changed act moved to California and achieved commercial success as a psychedelic and hard rock band with hits like "San Franciscan Nights", "When I Was Young" and "Sky Pilot", before disbanding at the end of the decade. Altogether, the group had ten Top Twenty hits in both the UK Singles Chart and the US Billboard Hot 100.

The original lineup had brief comebacks in 1975 and 1983. There have been several partial regroupings of the original era members since then under various names. The Animals were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994.

Manfred Mann was an English beat, rhythm and blues and pop band (with a strong jazz foundation) of the 1960s, named after keyboardist, Manfred Mann, who later led the successful 1970s group Manfred Mann's Earth Band.[1] Manfred Mann was regularly on the charts in the 1960s, and the first south-of-England-based group to top the US Billboard Hot 100 during the British invasion.[2] Three of the band's most successful singles, "Do Wah Diddy Diddy", "Pretty Flamingo" and "Mighty Quinn", topped the UK Singles Chart.[2]

The Pretty Things are an English rock band from London, who originally formed in 1963. They took their name from Willie Dixon's 1955 song "Pretty Thing". Their most commercially successful period was the mid-1960s, although they continue to perform to this day. David Bowie covered two of their songs on his album Pin Ups.[1]

The Rise of British Blues, 11:01

We turn now to the rise of British Blues. British Blues seem really as a, a very local kind of thing, and localized to London, and what was happening there. Now there were also other blues kinds of scenes happening around Northern England and places like that. But really, the intense activity was happening in London, and really, unless you came to London and actually physically saw some of these performances. In some of these venues we were talking about like the Ealing Club and and the Marquee, you wouldn't have even known it was happening. This interest on the part of British musicians, mostly middle aged men in traditional American music, especially music associated with African American and rural also rural American cultures is an interesting kind of phenomenon. Who knows sociologically exactly why it unfolded the way it did? Maybe there's a certain sense that America stands for freedom and stands for opportunity. And the British culture is, was at that time awfully stratified, and without the proper education, you really couldn't move up the ladder. And America seemed so much, so much freer from the kinds of traditions and institutions that maybe, sort of, people felt like, in Britain, held them back, who knows. But anyway, there was a very strong interest in some of these styles, blues being one of them. But blues, really, was one, one of a few m, that, that people were interested. May, maybe, maybe the most interesting and the earliest one after the Second World War, is the interest in traditional jazz. They, they would call it trad jazz, but we would call it Dixieland. That is the, the Dixie Land music coming out of New Orleans clarinets, banjos this kind of thing, trombones. And so, there were, there were a number of artists who sort of made their made their mark by imitating the trad jazz sound, also, some of the swing band big band stuff, as well. So, people like Acker Bilk, Kenny Ball, and Chris Barber, often called by pop historians the three B's of the trad jazz revival. These guys were all very active in pushing traditional jazz. Again with the sense that the American jazz out of New Orleans was the real thing. And they were doing their best to revive it and bring it to Britain. There was also another movement that came out of this called Skiffle, most most, probably best represented by Lonnie Donegan and his big hit the Rock Island Line. Which was not only a hit in Britain in the mid fifties, but also was a hit record in the United States, before the folk revival that brought us the Kingston Trio, and Peter, Paul, and Mary, and people like that. At the end of the 1950's and early sixties, so it anticipates that. Skiffle was kind of an upbeat version of folk music, and, you know, people who were interested in trad jazz and skiffle really tried to do their research. But the records that they needed the recordings, were not very available. And so there were very few who had them, the, the resources to actually go to America and hear the real thing. Or buy, buy recordings from American shops. Sometimes you would buy them via mail order. And sometimes you'd go to places like libraries, or the American Embassy, or places like that, and be able to listen to some of these recordings. But it was a bit of a kind of a scavenger hunt to find this music and put it together and do the original thing. Lonnie Donegan as a skiffle artist was a great student of American folk music, and again, Bill Ball and Barber, all big students of trad jazz and folk as well. In the 1950's, acoustic or country blues was really big in the UK, but as the fifties transitioned into the sixties, there was a real rise in interest in electric blues. Based on the Chicago blues scene. And there were a few artists that came through that kind of helped helped Britain's people in Britain get a sense of, of, of, how this music sounded live. Josh White would, would, would tour the UK, Bill Big Big Bill Broonzy is mentioned an awful lot by people, also Lonnie Johnson. The, one of the reasons why they didn't see more artists in the UK is because the musician, the British Musicians' Union had a kind of a deal where they, they kind of kept Americans from coming in. To do, too much live work, unless they would give a gig a reciprocal gig to a British musician to come to the US. And so, one of the reasons for that was a kind of a protectionism in terms of trying to keep Americans from stealing work or taking work away from British musicians. But what it meant was that there was not a lot of access to live performance of American artists, but somehow, Josh White, Big Bill Broonzy, and Lonnie Johnson all figured out a way around that. As I said earlier, earlier video, Alexis Korner Cyril Davies, a very important force forming this group called Blues Incorporated, often using a guy by the name of Long John Baldry on lead vocals. This group was very influential on the sixties, and into the seventies, rock scene for musicians coming out of London. The people who circulated in and out of this scene read like a kind of a who's who of British rock of the sixties. We have of course, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, Brian Jones. Charlie Watts played with Blues Incorporated for a short period of time. Jack Bruce, Eric Clapton, Ginger Baker, Paul Jones, Eric Burdon, John Mayall, Jimmy Page, and John, even John Paul Jones were sort of on the periphery of this scene for a while. All of this kind of happening around these, these club evenings on Sundays and Thursdays where there, you know, there, there weren't tons of people in the club at first. But these musicians, very interested in this music. There was a real eh, part of what made this scene work was a real embrace of authenticity and a rejection of a commercialism and the softening of rock. So what had happened in the British rock and roll scene is in the period between about '56 and '59, the rock and roll had been kind of rowdy, the way that American rock and roll was. Of course, the American rock and roll was playing on the charts there as well, but there were British artists who were imitating that, Tommy Steele Cliff Richard, people like that. But as the fifties transitioned the sixties, the British pop, or rock sound, softened, not unlike the, the American pop sound softened. As we started getting into the Brill Building era of the early sixties, and the girl groups, and the teen idols, and sweet soul and things like that. Well, a similar kind of thing was happening, and this was seen as real kind of a commercialization of the music, taking away all of its vital force, and kind of homogenizing it to make it polite. And so what blues offered, especially electric blues, was something a little bit more direct, something a little bit more visceral. And, and, and in so, in so doing a little bit more honest and, and, and, well, authentic, and so there was a real kind of attraction there. And that's a lot of what attracted the Rolling Stones to this music. Especially Brian Keith, and Mick. An important document, an important album if you have a chance to to, to listen to it, is called Blues Incorporated, R&B at The Marquee. It is probably the first UK electric blues record released. The significance of that is that blues records were hard to come by in the UK. So if you had that one that was made and distributed locally, that is in London, it was much more available to people who wanted to hear what this music sounded like. The album R&B at The Marquee was recorded in June of 1962 and released In November of '62. Alexis Korner initially thought of this as being kind of a business guard. We'll make an album, and we'll get it out on, on, on Decca, and then we'll, we'll circulate the album around and maybe get some more gigs, you know? And instead of doing auditions we can send the record around. He actually ended up using a few different backing musicians from the usual band. He wanted this to be as, as solid and tight as it could be. Interestingly, the song's mix, mix cover versions of Chicago electric blues tunes and traditional blues things with originals. You wouldn't think that a group that is dedicated to Chicago electric blues would have their own original tunes, but they did. They also really play in the blues, electric blues style, but they're not slavish imitators. So, the rule of thumb seemed to be, they, when they when they would do a number that Muddy Waters or Howlin' Wolf or somebody like that had done, they would do it in the style of that person and it could be. They, they gave themself enough license to say, it could be a performance that that person could have done. But it doesn't have to be the particular one on the record. So unlike a tribute band, say, that tries to match every single note and nuance. They allowed themselves a little bit more flexibility, and that gave the scene a kind of a vitality that it might not have had otherwise. So not slavish imitators but they play in the style. Now Alexis Korner favored a more improvisatory approach to blues. The idea of, you know, stretching the tunes with improv and this kind of thing, and of course John Mayall would pick up on that. The Yard Birds, of course, would pick up on that. And he'd be a big influence that way. Cyril Davies, on the other hand, preferred a more traditional approach to the music. And so there were kind of differences in clashes between Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies,and so they ended up splitting. Cyril Davies formed a group called the Cyril Davies All Stars. He recorded for Pye Records one of the big independents in the UK, and unfortunately died In January of 1964. And you were going to think about somebody who is really the kind of father figure of the British blues in the early 1960's. It would have to be Alexis Korner, who was a guy that as I said before, older than some of the rest of the guys. A sophisticated fella who, you know, had his own apartment, and, you know, stereo system and all these records that nobody else had, and he really was the guy who guided this initial British blues scene. Well, in the crowd, participating even, Mick Jagger singing along with the group were the Rolling Stones, Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, all part as kids. I mean, we're talking teenagers as part of this early scene age of 18, 19 years old that kind of thing, somehow getting in these clubs. It's out of that scene that the first version of the Rolling Stones emerges. And that's what we'll talk about the next version, in the next video, The Early Stones".


History of the Doors


Pink Floyd

History of Pink Floyd


Grateful Dead

History of the Grateful Dead
Jefferson Airplane
Velvet Underground
Lou Reed
Bill Graham
Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young
Joni Mitchell

All was not well during the late 1960s and from the height of the hippie era, Woodstock, we hit the lows with Altamont.

Rock history 11: Woodstock, Altamont, 7:08

The Woodstock Music & Art Fair—informally, the Woodstock Festival or simply Woodstock—was a music festival, billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music". It was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre (240 ha; 0.94 sq mi) dairy farm in the Catskills near the hamlet of White Lake in the town of Bethel, New York, from August 15 to 18, 1969. Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles (69 km) southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, in adjoining Ulster County.

During the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors before an audience of 400,000 young people. It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history. Rolling Stone listed it as one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll.

The festival is also widely considered to be the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation.

The event was captured in the 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, and Joni Mitchell's song "Woodstock", which commemorated the event and became a major hit for Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.

Woodstock poster.jpg

The Altamont Speedway Free Festival was a counterculture-era rock concert held on Saturday, December 6, 1969, at the Altamont Speedway in northern California, between Tracy and Livermore. The event is best known for considerable violence, including the death of Meredith Hunter and three accidental deaths: two caused by a hit-and-run car accident and one by drowning in an irrigation canal. Four births were reported during the event. Scores were injured, numerous cars were stolen and then abandoned, and there was extensive property damage.

The concert featured, in order of appearance: Santana, Jefferson Airplane, The Flying Burrito Brothers, and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, with the Rolling Stones taking the stage as the final act. The Grateful Dead were also scheduled to perform, but declined to play shortly before their scheduled appearance due to the increasing violence at the venue. "That's the way things went at Altamont—so badly that the Grateful Dead, prime organizers and movers of the festival, didn't even get to play," staff at Rolling Stone magazine wrote in a detailed narrative on the event, terming it in an additional follow-up piece "rock and roll's all-time worst day, December 6th, a day when everything went perfectly wrong."

Approximately 300,000 people attended the concert, and some anticipated that it would be a "Woodstock West." Filmmakers Albert and David Maysles shot footage of the event and incorporated it into a documentary film titled Gimme Shelter (1970).

Vietnam Protest Movement

The movement against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War began in the U.S. with demonstrations in 1964 and grew in strength in later years. The U.S. became polarized between those who advocated continued involvement in Vietnam and those who wanted peace.

Many in the peace movement were students, mothers, or anti-establishment hippies. Opposition grew with participation by the African-American civil rights, women's liberation, and Chicano movements, and sectors of organized labor. Additional involvement came from many other groups, including educators, clergy, academics, journalists, lawyers, physicians (such as Benjamin Spock), Civil Rights Movement leaders and military veterans. Opposition consisted mainly of peaceful, nonviolent events; few events were deliberately provocative and violent. In some cases, police used violent tactics against demonstrators. By 1967, according to Gallup Polls, an increasing majority of Americans considered US military involvement in Vietnam to be a mistake, echoed decades later by the then head of American war planning, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.[1]

Kent State Massacre, 6:46

In 1970, in response to Nixon's widening of the Vietnam War into Cambodia, students throughout the US protested. Nixon sent the National Guard to restore order to the Kent State campus. The resulting consequences changed the course of the war.

The Kent State shootings (also known as the May 4 massacre or the Kent State massacre) occurred at Kent State University in the US city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
Some of the students who were shot had been protesting the Cambodian Campaign, which President Richard Nixon announced during a television address on April 30. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance.

There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of four million students, and the event further affected public opinion—at an already socially contentious time—over the role of the United States in the Vietnam War.

Mott The Hoople Ohio 1970 with lyrics, 4:28

Vietnam and its protest movements, 5:15

What were John Kerry's politics during the protest era?

Who is John Kerry?

John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943)[1] is an American diplomat and Democratic Party politician who is the 68th and current United States Secretary of State. He previously served in the United States Senate, where he chaired the Senate Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Kerry was the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush.

Kerry was born in Aurora, Colorado and attended boarding school in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. He graduated from Yale University class of 1966 with a political science major. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, and during 1968–1969 served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam as officer-in-charge (OIC) of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal, and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War organization in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War. He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he deemed United States war policy in Vietnam to be the cause of war crimes.

After receiving his J.D. from Boston College Law School, Kerry worked in Massachusetts as an Assistant District Attorney. He served as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts under Michael Dukakis from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was re-elected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. In 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein", but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war.

In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War. He and his running mate, North Carolina Senator John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney. Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and then of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and then confirmed by the U.S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013.

Today, Kerry, Hillary, and Obama preside over the longest war in American history.

Following the September 11 attacks inside the United States in 2001, NATO invaded Afghanistan under Operation Enduring Freedom. The purpose of this was to defeat Al-Qaeda, to remove the Taliban from power, and to create a viable democratic state.

The United States still has troops in Afghanistan and during the Obama administration there has been the rise of the Islamic State.

John Kerry - Anti-War Speech (1971) [short clip] 3:05

On April 22nd, 1971, 27 year-old former Navy Lt. John Kerry testified against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War as a member of "Vietnam Veterans Against the War". Senator J. William Fulbright (D-Arkansas) chaired the committee. This event was filmed by NBC News.

Guess who's married to John Kerry's daughter?

Did you know that in 2009 the daughter of Secretary of State John Kerry, Dr. Vanessa Bradford Kerry, married an Iranian physician named Dr. Brian Vale Nahed.

Guess who was the best man at the wedding? Mohammad Javad Zarif.  So who is Mr. Zarif?  Zarif is the current minister of foreign affairs for Iran.

He was Kerry's chief counterpart in the nuclear deal negotiations. Kerry was dealing with his daughter's father-in-law?

Isn't this a lovely picture?

Kerry, Hillary, and Obama protested, as did much of popular music during the era, against the Establishment.

The Establishment generally denotes a dominant group or elite that holds power or authority in a nation or organization. The Establishment may be a closed social group which selects its own members (as opposed to selection by merit or election) or specific entrenched elite structures, either in government or in specific institutions.

Today, these former protestors are the Establishment.

Are Democrats violent?

Dan Rather states "I think we have a bunch of thugs here." 1:00

Dan Rather Convention Floor Fight 1968 ElectionWallDotOrg.flv ElectionWall.Org

1968 Democratic National Convention-, 1:45

Should police attack protestors?

Was the 1968 Democratic Party nominee to blame for the police riot?

It has now been 45 years since rallies outside of the 1968 Democratic National Convention turned violent. As the Chicago Police Department clashed with the protesters, news cameras rolled. This week, we present you with a short compilation of the footage that many concerned Americans around the country watched all those years ago -- scenes that left two legendary newsmen, Chet Huntley and David Brinkley, virtually speechless.

1968 DNC: Democratic nightmare in Chicago, 1:14

Chaos before Hubert Humphrey's nomination sets the modern standard for a harmful convention.

After Nixon's election in 1968 he was lampooned as "Tricky Dick."

The nomenclature was coined by Democratic politician Helen Gahagan Douglas.

Trump Supporters Attacked by Mob of Protesters, 2:53

Should police protect citizens being attacked for their attendance at a political rally?

The San Jose Police Department and their mayor issued a statement justifying police inaction. The statement said that the police held off arresting people involved in the assaults because it:

“… had the difficult task of weighing the need to immediately apprehend the suspect(s) against the possibility that police action involving the use of physical force under the circumstances would further [incite] the crowd and produce more violent behavior.”

San Jose police chief Eddie Garcia had to know that at the core of the violence were paid thugs recruited off of Craig’s list at $15 per hour.

Garcia is affiliated with the Mexican separatist extremist group La Raza and offered a screenshot from Garcia’s Twitter account:

So just what are the goals of La Raza? According to their founder, Professor Jose Angel Gutierrez, it is nothing but a Mexican terror group which preaches white genocide.

“We’re a new Mestizo nation. We have got to eliminate the gringo and what I mean by that is if the worst comes to worst, we have got to kill him. Our devil has pale skin and blue eyes.”

"For What It's Worth" is a song written by Stephen Stills. It was performed by Buffalo Springfield, recorded on December 5, 1966, and released as a single in January 1967; it was later added to the re-release of their first album, Buffalo Springfield. The single peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. This song is currently ranked #63 on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time as well as the eighth best song of 1967 by Acclaimed Music.[3]

Although "For What It's Worth" is often mistaken as an anti-war song, Stephen Stills was inspired to write the track because of the "Sunset Strip riots" in November 1966. The trouble, which started during the early stages of the counterculture era, was in the same year Buffalo Springfield had become the house band at the Whisky a Go Go on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles.[4]

It was within this period that local residents and businesses had become increasingly annoyed by late-night traffic congestion caused by crowds of young people going to clubs and music venues along the Strip. In response they lobbied the city to pass local ordinances that stopped loitering and enforced a strict curfew on the Strip after 10pm. However young music fans felt the new laws were an infringement of their civil rights.[5]

On Saturday, November 12, 1966, fliers were distributed on Sunset Strip inviting people to join demonstrations later that day. Several of Los Angeles' rock radio stations also announced that a rally would be held outside the Pandora's Box club on the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Crescent Heights.[5] That evening as many as 1,000 young demonstrators, including celebrities like Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda (who was handcuffed by police), gathered to protest against the enforcement of the curfew laws. Although the rallies began peacefully, trouble eventually broke out among the protesters and police. The unrest continued the next night and periodically throughout the rest of November and December forcing some clubs to shut down within weeks.[5]

Against the background of these civil disturbances, Stills recorded the song on December 5, 1966.
Buffalo Springfield - For What It's Worth 1967, 2:37

Sunset Strip Teen Riots November '66

There's something happening here
what it is ain't exactly clear
there's a man with a gun over there
telling me i got to beware
i think it's time we stop, children,
what's that sound everybody look what's going down

There's battle lines being drawn
nobody's right if everybody's wrong
young people speaking their minds
getting so much resistance from behind
i think it's time we stop, hey,
what's that sound every body look what's going down

What a field-day for the heat
a thousand people in the street
singing songs and carrying signs
mostly say, hooray for our side
it's time we stop, hey, what's that sound
everybody look what's going down

Paranoia strikes deep
into your life it will creep it
starts when you're always afraid
you step out of line, the man come and take you away we
better stop, hey, what's that sound everybody
look what's going down stop, hey, what's that
sound everybody look what's going down stop, now,
what's that sound everybody look what's going down stop,
children, what's that sound everybody look what's going down

The Birth of the Feminist Era
Betty Friedan

Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, personal, and social rights for women.[1][2] This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. Feminists typically advocate or support the rights and equality of women.[3]

Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to promote bodily autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence.[4]

Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be one of the main forces behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with having achieved women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property.[5] Although feminist advocacy is and has been mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles.[3] Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues such as the social construction of gender.[6][7]

Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism.[8]

What is Feminist Criticism? 3:28

Mr. Nance talks briefly about Feminism.

Questions of Male Identity

Lance Loud

Alanson Russell "Lance" Loud (June 26, 1951 – December 22, 2001) was an American television personality, magazine columnist and new wave rock-n-roll performer. Loud is best known for his 1973 appearance in An American Family, a pioneer reality television series that featured his coming out, leading to his status as an icon in the gay community.[1]

Since Lance Loud, gay activists, are more diverse.

UMass Amherst Students Throw Temper Tantrum at free Speech Event

Milo Yiannopoulos Explains Everything In Under Four Minutes, 3:14

Focus: James Rosenquist, F-111, 1965
C & C: The Global Village

Imaging Islam

Focus: James Rosenquist, F-111, 1965
C & C: The Global Village

40 Without Boundaries: Multiple Meanings in a Postmodern World

Deconstruction and Poststructuralism

Deconstruction for Dummies



What is Deconstruction? 6:51

Postmodern Architecture: Complexity, Contradiction, and Globalization
Pluralism and Postmodern Theory
Pluralism and Diversity in the Arts
A Plurality of Styles in Painting
Multiplicity in Postmodern Literature
A Diversity of Cultures: The Cross-Fertilization of the Present
A Multiplicity of Media: New Technologies
Focus: Basquiat’s Charles the First
C & C: The Environment and the Humanist Tradition


Media Malpractice, 7:33

Exclusive trailer for "Media Malpractice... How Obama Got Elected and Palin Was Targeted"!!!
Here is the offical trailer for the highly anticipated documentary "Media Malpractice... How Obama Got Elected and Palin Was Targeted." For more information on the film as well as the exclusive Sarah Palin interview, go to


Blacks Address Obama, 6:32

Shortly after Tuesday night's State of the Union address by the President, some Black Chicago Activists were asked their perspective and feedback on what Obama had to say. "Mr. President, we'd probably be better off if you called off your presidency off right now. Just quit. Because if this is what you call helping us, then stop helping us." (Produced by Rebel Pundit)

Chicago Activists Slam President Obama's SOTU Address: "Just Quit" 5:16

Don Lemon Agrees with O'Reilly on Black Culture, 7:01

CNN anchor Don Lemon, who has been outspoken on the issues confronting black Americans, particularly since the verdict of the Zimmerman trial, surprised some viewers this weekend by endorsing Fox News's Bill O'Reilly's recent commentary on black culture — and saying the commentary "doesn't go far enough."

Obama and Drones, 6:06

Tthe first question at the Yale Law School panel on drones is from Alexander Hamilton, a former Obama supporter and now one who calls for his impeachment. Several on the Yale drone panel give their answers.


Chicago Anti War and Occupation Protest 2011 HD, 10:30

Liberation Not Occupation!

March & Rally on 8th Anniversary of the invasion of Iraq 12 Noon, Saturday, March 19, Michigan Avenue & Congress Parkway -- our own 'Freedom' Square! Short rally followed by a march on Michigan Avenue

Funding for Jobs, Healthcare & Education, not for War and Occupation Iraq, Palestine, Egypt: US Out of the Middle East End FBI raids, political repression and corporate welfare at home
Why we march:

March 19th marks 8 years of US war and occupation in Iraq, where despite President Obama's claim that combat operations have 'ended', more than 50,000 troops remain, backed by tens of thousands of mercenary private contractors. 4,436 American soldiers and over 1 million Iraqis have died, with millions more maimed and displaced. This war has lasted longer than WW II and cost more than $1 Trillion -- more than $200 Billion this year alone.

The US occupation of Afghanistan has extended into Pakistan, where last year alone the US military dropped more drone bombs than in the last decade combined. The US government continues to back and bankroll Israel's war against Palestinians and the siege of Gaza. While the US government claims to support 'democracy and freedom', it continues to back repressive regimes and right-wing movements across the Middle East, Latin American and beyond. The toppling of US backed Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak has inspired millions the world over, exposing the great gulf between US rhetoric and reality.

Here at home, antiwar activists and whistleblower projects like Wikileaks are targeted for jail or worse. Muslims and immigrants are scapegoated. Undocumented immigrants face deportation and discrimination. Millions are unemployed and uninsured while the government is slashing funds for basic needs like heat and food for poor children. Funding for public education, environmental protection and job safety is being gutted. Workers rights are under attack, while the government continues to pour billions into the coffers of the banksters and corporate predators that created the current economic catastrophe. Our tax dollars are bankrolling a corporate welfare system that funds CEO salaries and war and occupation abroad at the expense of basic human needs right here at home.

We reject war and bloodshed. We demand jobs, healthcare, education, justice and equality -- and the real democracy that puts people before profits and human needs before corporate greed.

Join us on March 19 to demand an end to the US occupation of Iraq. March in solidarity with the great struggles raging from the Mideast to the Midwest and across the world for liberation and self-determination.

Economist Thomas Sowell Talks About Harvard Obama & Derrick Bell, 8:43

03/09/2012 Economist Thomas Sowell Interview on Hannity

Obama's Middle East 2.0 Speech: Reiterating Failed Policies, 6:00

Reason Magazine's Tim Cavanaugh joins James Poulos to discuss Obama's Middle East Speech. Why is our President simply reiterating failed policies? And is foreign aid a foreign concept to Americans? If we can't trust our government to spend money and make the country better, how can we expect Egypt to do it?


Remember the Gulf, 2:14

As the Obama Administration turns its attention to new challenges, an environmental and economic crisis remains in the Gulf of Mexico. The message was clear: the federal government is doing more to hurt the Gulf's economy and environment than help it.

Obama's Corporate Profits, 11:26

With Obama corporate profits have soared 171 percent after taxes. Anthony Randazzo, director of economic research for the Reason Foundation, and RT America producer Justine Underhill sound off on topic.

Krauthammer slams Obama Admin as delusional for belief that Putin has 'blinked' on Ukraine, 2:07
Krauthammer slammed the Obama Admin as"delusional" for their belief that Vladimir Putin has halted his advance in Ukraine, claiming the Russian president is "lying through his teeth."

Krauthammer spoke with Fox News' Bret Baier to discuss the Russian invasion of Crimean region in southern Ukraine. Many assumed Putin would follow up this action with a full-scale invasion of eastern Ukraine. But in a rambling press conference Tuesday, the Russian president indicated there may be no reason to further escalate the situation.

President Obama seized on the comments, saying he hopes Putin may at least take a "pause." But not everybody is buying it.

"This is astonishing," Krauthammer responded. "On the one hand they're unable to muster — our leaders — to muster anything that the Europeans will join that will hurt Putin. And on the other hand you're telling us that they are thinking that Putin thinks he made a mistake, did make a mistake and is looking for an 'off-ramp.' And our real job is to lap on sanctions or to push him out of Crimea, but to allow him some kind of diplomatic exit that will save the face."

Baier asked whether Putin's comments could be interpreted as "some kind of blink . . . sending the signal that he's stepping back?"

"That's not a blink!" Krauthammer retorted. "That's a KGB agent lying through his teeth, which is what they train to do for all of their lives! I mean, when Hitler went into the Sudetenland, he claimed it was in response to a desire on the part of the population."

"This is what all dictators do," the columnist concluded. "The idea that somehow it's a blink, because he's waiting to see if he wants to take the rest of Ukraine, and that's a sign of weakness? I think it's delusional!"

Behenna released from U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, 2:24

Former U.S. Army 1st Lt. Michael Behenna sat down with The Oklahoman's Adam Kemp and Sarah Phipps for an interview following his release Friday, March 14, 2014.

Ft. Hood Hero: Obama 'Betrayed' Victims, 2:30

New video shows chaos after massacre at Texas Army base that killed 13.

The Problem of Identity Politics and Its Solution