Thursday, February 03, 2011

Honors World History II: 4 February 2011


“You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” This quote is representative of

A) the bimetallism position of the 1890s
B) a supporter of Andrew Jackson in the war over the recharter of the Bank of the U.S.
C) a Democrat-Republican's response to Federalist policies
D) a supporter of Reaganomics
E) an opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Act


A) the bimetallism position of the 1890s
Explanation: William Jennings Bryan, the Democrat and Populist candidate for president in 1896, delivered the "Cross of Gold" speech as he campaigned across the country in support of adding silver as an official currency in a fixed ratio in relation to gold. Bryan lost the election and bimetallism faded as a national issue.

Beyond the Sound Bites David McCandless turns complex data sets (like worldwide military spending, media buzz, Facebook status updates) into beautiful, simple diagrams that tease out unseen patterns and connections. Good design, he suggests, is the best way to navigate information glut -- and it may just change the way we see the world.

This vlog was recorded on January 18th by Asmaa Mahfouz, the girl who helped start it all. She had shared it on her Facebook, and it had gone viral. It was so powerful and so popular, that it drove Egyptians by the thousands into Tahrir Square, and drove the Egyptian government to block Facebook

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ABCya! Cf.


Ch. 13 Mass Society and Democracy 1870-1914

Karl Marx's idea of Alienation

In-class assignment: with a partner, consider Marx on Alienation.

There are four areas to discuss and summarize with your partner:
1. Product
2. Productive Activity
3. Ourselves (Own Identity)
4. Each other (Society)

Four Aspects of Alienation or Estrangement

a. From Products of own Labour. The first aspect of alienated labour is the separation of the worker from the products of the worker's labour.


"All these consequences follow from the fact that the worker is related to the product of his labour as to an alien object. For it is clear on this presupposition that the more the worker expends himself in work the more powerful becomes the world of objects which he creates in face of himself, the poorer he becomes in his inner life, and the less he belongs to himself. Cf. The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 by Karl Marx, pp. 13-14)

b. From the Process of Production or from Work Itself. Quote:

"... he does not fulfill himself in his work but denies himself, has a feeling of misery rather than well-being, does not develop freely his mental and physical energies but is physically exhausted and mentally debased. (Manuscripts, p. 15)

c. From Species-Being or from Humanity and Human Potential. Individuals perform and act less and less like human beings, and more and more like machines. Quote:

Since alienated labour: (1) alienates nature from man; and (2) alienates man from himself, from his own active function, his life activity; so it alienates him from the species. (Manuscripts, p. 16).

d. From Other Persons. Humans are also alienated from other human beings. Quote:

A direct consequence of the alienation of man from the product of his labour, from his life activity and from his species-life, is that man is alienated from other men. ... man is alienated from his species-life means that each man is alienated from others, and that each of the others is likewise alienated from human life. (Manuscripts, p. 17).

Section 2 The Emergence of Mass Society

By the end of the nineteenth century, a mass society emerged in which the concerns of the majority of the population—the lower classes—were central. Many people moved to the cities which grew faster because of improvements in public health and sanitation. Despite crowded urban conditions, most people after 1871 enjoyed an improved standard of living. Europe's elite now included both aristocrats and a wealthy upper middle class. The middle class expanded to include a wide range of professions. The middle class served as a model of family life and proper social etiquette. Many women now found jobs as low-paid white-collar workers. Feminists began to demand equal rights and full citizenship, including the right to vote. Most Western governments began to set up primary schools to train children for jobs in industry. Society became more literate and enjoyed new mass leisure activities.

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.

Summarize the major points of the suffragettes as expressed in the video. You need at least two active partners since there are quite a few points covered.

Who were the Suffragettes?

Section 3 The National State and Democracy

Media Library

By the late nineteenth century, progress had been made toward establishing constitutions, parliaments, and individual liberties in the major European states. In practice, however, the degree of democracy varied. Political democracy expanded in Great Britain and France, while regional conflicts in Italy produced weak and corrupt governments, and an anti-democratic old order remained entrenched in central and eastern Europe. In Russia, working-class unrest led to “Bloody Sunday” and a mass strike of workers in 1905. After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished and African Americans were granted citizenship. American cities grew, and unions campaigned for workers' rights. The United States also gained several offshore possessions. In foreign policy, European powers drifted into two opposing camps. Crises in the Balkans only heightened tensions between the two camps.

Western Europe and Political Democracy

Great Britain

In-class assignment, with a partner, consider the material we have covered so far, but look over especially Ch. 13, Sections 2 and 3, to answer:

Why did democracy develop in the U.K.?

Summarize the material in this way (bullet points are fine)

Economic change
Important individuals
Pressure groups
Influences from abroad
Political Competition
Society and Technology


Clashes between Gladstone/Disraeli


The Liberal Reforms




A series of political reforms during the 1800s and early 1900s transformed Great Britain from a monarchy and aristocracy into a democracy. While some British politicians opposed the reforms, most sided in favor of reforming Parliament to make it more representative of the nation’s growing industrial population.

“No doubt, at that very early period, the House of Commons did represent the people of England but . . . the House of Commons, as it presently subsists, does not represent the people of England. . . . The people called loudly for reform, saying that whatever good existed in the constitution of this House—whatever confidence was placed in it by the people, was completely gone.”

—Lord John Russell, March 1, 1831


One day a wealthy Englishman named Charles Egremont boasted to strangers that Victoria, the queen of England, “reigns over the greatest nation that ever existed.”

“Which nation?” asks one of the strangers, “for she reigns over two. . . . Two nations; between whom there is no [communication] and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other’s habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were . . . inhabitants of different planets.”

What are these “two nations,” Egremont asks. “The Rich and the Poor ,” the stranger replies.

—Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil

In the 1800s, Benjamin Disraeli and other political leaders slowly worked to bridge Britain’s “two nations” and extend democratic rights. Unlike some of its neighbors in Europe, Britain generally achieved change through reform rather than revolution.


In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and two political parties. Still, it was far from democratic. Although members of the House of Commons were elected, less than five percent of the people had the right to vote. Wealthy nobles and squires, or country landowners, dominated politics and heavily influenced voters. In addition, the House of Lords—made up of hereditary nobles and high-ranking clergy—could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons.

Reformers Press for Change

Long-standing laws kept many people from voting. Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants, for example, could not vote or serve in Parliament. In the 1820s, reformers pushed to end religious restrictions. After fierce debate, Parliament finally granted Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants equal political rights.

An even greater battle soon erupted over making Parliament more representative. During the Industrial Revolution, centers of population shifted. Some rural towns lost so many people that they had few or no voters. Yet local landowners in these rotten boroughs still sent members to Parliament. At the same time, populous new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham had no seats allocated in Parliament because they had not existed as population centers in earlier times.

Vocabulary Builder

allocate—(al oh kayt) vt. to distribute according to a plan

Reform Act of 1832

By 1830, Whigs and Tories were battling over a bill to reform Parliament. The Whig Party largely represented middle-class and business interests. The Tory Party spoke for nobles, land-owners, and others whose interests and income were rooted in agriculture. In the streets, supporters of reform chanted, “The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill!” Their shouts seemed to echo the cries of revolutionaries on the continent.

Parliament finally passed the Great Reform Act in 1832. It redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs. It also enlarged the electorate, the body of people allowed to vote, by granting suffrage to more men. The Act did, however, keep a property requirement for voting.

The Reform Act of 1832 did not bring full democracy, but it did give a greater political voice to middle-class men. Landowning nobles, however, remained a powerful force in the government and in the economy.

The Chartist Movement

The reform bill did not help rural or urban workers. Some of them demanded more radical change. In the 1830s, protesters known as Chartists drew up the People’s Charter. This petition demanded universal male suffrage, annual parliamentary elections, and salaries for members of Parliament. Another key demand was for a secret ballot, which would allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.

Twice the Chartists presented petitions with over a million signatures to Parliament. Both petitions were ignored. In 1848, as revolutions swept Europe, the Chartists prepared a third petition and organized a march on Parliament. Fearing violence, the government moved to suppress the march. Soon after, the unsuccessful Chartist movement declined. In time, however, Parliament would pass most of the major reforms proposed by the Chartists.

From 1837 to 1901, the great symbol in British life was Queen Victoria. Her reign was the longest in British history. Although she exercised little real political power, she set the tone for what is now called the Victorian age.

The Victorian Web

Symbol of a Nation’s Values

As queen, Victoria came to embody the values of her age. These Victorian ideals included duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and above all respectability. Victoria herself embraced a strict code of morals and manners. As a young woman, she married a German prince, Albert, and they raised a large family.

A Confident Age

Under Victoria, the British middle class—and growing numbers of the working class—felt great confidence in the future. That confidence grew as Britain expanded its already huge empire. Victoria, the empress of India and ruler of some 300 million subjects around the world, became a revered symbol of British might.


From Monarchy to Democracy in Britain

During her reign, Victoria witnessed growing agitation for social reform. The queen herself commented that the lower classes “earn their bread and riches so deservedly that they cannot and ought not to be kept back.” As the Victorian era went on, reformers continued the push toward greater social and economic justice.

In the 1860s, a new era dawned in British politics. The old political parties regrouped under new leadership. Benjamin Disraeli forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party. The Whigs, led by William Gladstone, evolved into the Liberal Party. Between 1868 and 1880, as the majority in Parliament swung between the two parties, Gladstone and Disraeli alternated as prime minister. Both fought for important reforms.

Expanding Suffrage

Disraeli and the Conservative Party pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867. By giving the vote to many working-class men, the new law almost doubled the size of the electorate.

In the 1880s, it was the turn of Gladstone and the Liberal Party to extend suffrage. Their reforms gave the vote to farmworkers and most other men. By century’s end, almost-universal male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist ambitions had been achieved. Britain had truly transformed itself from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy, a form of government in which the executive leaders (usually a prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (parliament), and are also members of it.
Limiting the Lords

In the early 1900s, many bills passed by the House of Commons met defeat in the House of Lords. In 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the Lords, including their power to veto tax bills. The Lords resisted. Finally, the government threatened to create enough new lords to approve the law, and the Lords backed down. People hailed the change as a victory for democracy. In time, the House of Lords would become a largely ceremonial body with little power. The elected House of Commons would reign supreme.



The news sent shock waves through Paris. Napoleon III had surrendered to the Prussians and Prussian forces were now about to advance on Paris. Could the city survive? Georges Clemenceau (kleh mahn soh), a young French politician, rallied the people of Paris to defend their homeland:

“Citizens, must France destroy herself and disappear, or shall she resume her old place in the vanguard of nations? . . . Each of us knows his duty. We are children of the Revolution. Let us seek inspiration in the example of our forefathers in 1792, and like them we shall conquer. Vive la France! (Long Live France!)”


Focus Question

What democratic reforms were made in France during the Third Republic?

For four months, Paris resisted the German onslaught. But finally, in January 1871, the French government at Versailles was forced to accept Prussian surrender terms.

The Franco-Prussian War ended a long period of French domination of Europe that had begun under Louis XIV. Yet a Third Republic rose from the ashes of the Second Empire of Napoleon III. Economic growth, democratic reforms, and the fierce nationalism expressed by Clemenceau all played a part in shaping modern France.


Reading Check


What is the principle of ministerial responsibility?

Central and Eastern Europe: The Old Order




Reading Check


What was the role of the Duma in the Russian government?

The United States and Canada (Is Canada a part of the United States?)

Aftermath of the Civil War

Economic differences, as well as the slavery issue, drove the Northern and Southern regions of the United States apart. The division reached a crisis in 1860 when Abraham Lincoln was elected president. Lincoln opposed extending slavery into new territories. Southerners feared that he would eventually abolish slavery altogether and that the federal government would infringe on their states’ rights.

North Versus South

Soon after Lincoln’s election, most southern states seceded, or withdrew, from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. This action sparked the Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865.

The South had fewer resources, fewer people, and less industry than the North. Still, Southerners fought fiercely to defend their cause. The Confederacy finally surrendered in 1865. The struggle cost more than 600,000 lives—the largest casualty figures of any American war.

Challenges for African Americans

During the war, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, by which enslaved African Americans in the South were declared free. After the war, three amendments to the Constitution banned slavery throughout the country and granted political rights to African Americans. Under the Fifteenth Amendment, African American men won the right to vote.

Still, African Americans faced many restrictions. In the South, state laws imposed segregation, or legal separation of the races, in hospitals, schools, and other public places. Other state laws imposed conditions for voter eligibility that, despite the Fifteenth Amendment, prevented African Americans from voting.


By 1900, the United States had become the world's richest nation.


After the Civil War, the United States grew to lead the world in industrial and agricultural production. A special combination of factors made this possible including political stability, private property rights, a free enterprise system and an inexpensive supply of land and labor—supplied mostly by immigrants. Finally, a growing network of transportation and communications technologies aided businesses in transporting resources and finished products.

Business and Labor

By 1900, giant monopolies controlled whole industries. Scottish-born Andrew Carnegie built the nation’s largest steel company, while John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company dominated the world’s petroleum industry. Big business enjoyed tremendous profits.

Vocabulary Builder

dominate—(dahm un nayt) vt. to rule or control by superior power or influence

But the growing prosperity was not shared by all. In factories, wages were low and conditions were often brutal. To defend their interests, American workers organized labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor. Unions sought better wages, hours, and working conditions. Struggles with management sometimes erupted into violent confrontations. Slowly, however, workers made gains.

Populists and Progressives

In the economic hard times of the late 1800s, farmers also organized themselves to defend their interests. In the 1890s, they joined city workers to support the new Populist party. The Populists never became a major party, but their platform of reforms, such as an eight-hour workday, eventually became law.

By 1900, reformers known as Progressives also pressed for change. They sought laws to ban child labor, limit working hours, regulate monopolies, and give voters more power. Another major goal of the Progressives was obtaining voting rights for women. After a long struggle, American suffragists finally won the vote in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect.


For many Irish families fleeing hunger, Russian Jews escaping pogroms, or poor Italian farmers seeking economic opportunity, the answer was the same—America! A poem inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty expressed the welcome and promise of freedom that millions of immigrants dreamed of:

“Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me.

I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”

—Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus”


Focus Question

How did the United States develop during the 1800s?

In the 1800s, the United States was a beacon of hope for many people. The American economy was growing rapidly, offering jobs to newcomers. The Constitution and Bill of Rights held out the hope of political and religious freedom. Not everyone shared in the prosperity or the ideals of democracy. Still, by the turn of the nineteenth century, important reforms were being made.
Expansion Abroad

U.S. Expansion, 1783–1898

From the earliest years of its history, the United States followed a policy of expansionism, or extending the nation’s boundaries. At first, the United States stretched only from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from France. In one stroke, the Louisiana Purchase virtually doubled the size of the nation.

By 1846, the United States had expanded to include Florida, Oregon, and the Republic of Texas. The Mexican War (1846–1848) added California and the Southwest. With growing pride and confidence, Americans claimed that their nation was destined to spread across the entire continent, from sea to sea. This idea became known as Manifest Destiny. Some expansionists even hoped to absorb Canada and Mexico. In fact, the United States did go far afield. In 1867, it bought Alaska from Russia and in 1898 annexed the Hawaiian Islands.


Reading Check


Name the territories acquired by the United States in 1898.

International Rivalries

Reading Check


What countries formed the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente?

Crisis in the Balkans

Reading Check


Why were the Serbs outraged when Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Section 4 Toward the Modern Consciousness

Media Library

Scientific developments of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries changed the way people saw themselves and their world. Writers, artists, and musicians rebelled against traditional literary and artistic styles and created new ones that sometimes shocked critics with their audacity. Impressionism, cubism, and abstract art emerged. The scientific discoveries of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, and the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud defied the orderly view of reason. Charles Darwin's description of life as a biological struggle for survival led to the Social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer and others. Extreme nationalist ideologies also borrowed from Social Darwinism. Threatening anti-Semitic activity in France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary led many Jews to emigrate to escape persecution. Many Jews immigrated to Palestine, where Zionists were trying to restore Jewish life.

A New Physics

Reading Check


How did Marie Curie's discovery change people's ideas about the atom?

Freud and Psychoanalysis

A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); born on May 6. Austrian psychoanalyst; He was the first to develop the concept of the subconscious mind; founded psychoanalysis, 1895-1900.

In-class assignment, each student individually, summarize one of Freud's statements that you find interesting, and paraphrase it in your own words.

Psychologist Sigmund Freud demonstrates what a boy will think in his conscious and unconscious when he sees a girl...on the beach. In a fantastically fun and educational way, the psychology legend explains and defines his terms, Id, Ego, and Superego.

This is a stop-motion video of a Sigmund Freud action figure dancing to Bloodhound Gang's "The Bad Touch."

Freudian Slippers: a brand new way of thinking about footwear. Brought to you by the Unemployed Philosophers Guild:

Sigmund Freud On The BBC - 1938 - Brief Audio Clip

Toward the end of his life, Freud was asked by the BBC to provide a brief statement about his decades-long career in psychoanalysis... here, in English, he offers a succinct overview... The "Freud Conflict and Culture" web site said this:

"On December 7, 1938, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) came to Freud's Maresfield Gardens home in London to record a short message. By this time his cancer of the jaw was inoperable and incurable, making speech difficult and extremely painful. A photograph of Freud was taken as he prepared to read the statement you are listening to now. After his long struggle with cancer grew intolerable, Freud asked his physician for a fatal injection of morphine. He died on September 23, 1939."

Late Clips Of Sigmund Freud (1932, 1938)

In these brief clips, psychoanalysis founder Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is first seen in Vienna in 1932 speaking with archeologist Emanuel Loewy, then in 1938 signing the Royal Society's charter book and lastly celebrating his 81st birthday... the latter clips were taken in London where Freud and his family were forced to move from Vienna following the 1938 Nazi Anschluss (he died in London a year later).

Reading Check


What is Freud's theory of the human unconscious?

Social Darwinism and Racism

Reading Check


What does the theory of social Darwinism state?

Anti-Semitism and Zionism


The most serious and divisive scandal began in 1894. A high-ranking army officer, Alfred Dreyfus, was accused of spying for Germany. However, at his military trial, neither Dreyfus nor his lawyer was allowed to see the evidence against him. The injustice was rooted in anti-Semitism. The military elite detested Dreyfus, the first Jewish person to reach such a high position in the army. Although Dreyfus proclaimed his innocence, he was convicted and condemned to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island, a desolate penal colony off the coast of South America. By 1896, new evidence pointed to another officer, Ferdinand Esterhazy, as the spy. Still, the army refused to grant Dreyfus a new trial.

Deep Divisions

The Dreyfus affair, as it was called, scarred French politics and society for decades. Royalists, ultranationalists, and Church officials charged Dreyfus supporters, or “Dreyfusards,” with undermining France. Paris echoed with cries of “Long live the army!” and “Death to traitors!” Dreyfusards, mostly liberals and republicans, upheld ideals of justice and equality in the face of massive public anger. In 1898, French novelist Émile Zola joined the battle. In an article headlined J’Accuse! (I Accuse!), he charged the army and government with suppressing the truth. As a result, Zola was convicted of libel, or the knowing publication of false and damaging statements. He fled into exile.

Slowly, though, the Dreyfusards made progress and eventually the evidence against Dreyfus was shown to be forged. In 1906, a French court finally cleared Dreyfus of all charges and restored his honors. That was a victory for justice, but the political scars of the Dreyfus affair took longer to heal.

Calls for a Jewish State

The Dreyfus case reflected the rise of anti-Semitism in Europe. The Enlightenment and the French Revolution had spread ideas about religious toleration. In Western Europe, some Jews had gained jobs in government, universities, and other areas of life. Others had achieved success in banking and business, but most struggled to survive in the ghettos of Eastern Europe or the slums of Western Europe.

By the late 1800s, however, anti-Semitism was again on the rise. Anti-Semites were often members of the lower middle class who felt insecure in their social and economic position. Steeped in the new nationalist fervor, they adopted an aggressive intolerance for outsiders and a violent hatred of Jews.

The Dreyfus case and the pogroms in Russia stirred Theodor Herzl (hurt sul), a Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France. He called for Jews to form their own separate state, where they would have rights that were otherwise denied to them in European countries. Herzl helped launch modern Zionism, a movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine. Many Jews had kept this dream alive since the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. In 1897, Herzl organized the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.

Reading Check


Why did Jews start to move to Palestine?

The Culture of Modernity





Social trends in the mid-1800s in France are readily apparent in the works of many of the impressionist artists. The work of Edgar Degas is a good example. In this activity you will learn about impressionism and about the contribution of Degas to a new style in painting and sculpture.

Edgar Degas


* Read the information on the Web site about Degas. Take notes as you read.
* Click on “Life” and read the information.
* Go back and click on “Artistic Styles.” Read the information.
* Click on two of Degas’s paintings and review his works.

Use the information you found to answer the following questions.



Reading Check


How did the Impressionists radically change the art of painting in the 1870s?

The Official Website of the British Monarchy

Self-check Quiz on Chapter

Vocabulary eFlashcards

Academic Vocabulary


Content Vocabulary

People, Places and Events

Psychoanalysis expert Timothy L. Hulsey, VCU psychology professor and dean of the honors college engages students and faculty in the Core Course and the psychology, MLC and English departments in a general forum on the relationship between Freudian theory and mainstream American psychological science. The conversation includes the impact of early experiences on adult behavior, the nature of memory and conceptions of the self and society: University of Richmond.

"In Memory of Sigmund Freud" by W.H. Auden (poetry reading):

Sigmund Freud's Hip Hop Cover Band

FREUD 01 World of Wonders

Pink Freud

Paperback Freud, "Kate"

Paul Warner recording "Freud" in the studio from the album "Deadly Waterparks". Footage produced by Bright Elephant Films.

Kutcher is surprised to see a photo of the novel KISSING FREUD on his Nikon camera.

Greek Philosophers ("Can't Get You Out of My Head" by Kylie Minogue), 3:46

William the Conqueror ("Sexyback" by Justin Timberlake), 3:57

Rockwell, Somebody's Watching Me, 3:37

William Wordsworth updated in hip-hop style, 2:02.

Randy Newman - Political Science, 2:39

HW: email (or hard copy) me at

Friday HW
1. p. 404, #1.

Honors Business Economics: 4 February 2011

Beyond the Sound Bites (if time after Quiz):

The Ch. 4 Sec. 2 Quiz is today.

Clear your desk except for a pencil. Once everyone is quiet, and no talking during the Quiz, we can begin. Be sure to put your name on the Quiz and the Scantron. You may write on both the Quiz and the Scantron.

If you finish early, you may take out non-class materials; once everyone is finished, put away the non-class materials. Then, I will collect the Scantron first, and then I will collect the Quiz.

Be sure your name is on both the Scantron and the Quiz.

If your name is not on the Quiz it will not be returned.

A Christian business in the left's crosshairs

Moodys Analytics Chief Economist Mark Zandi discusses the state of U.S. manufacturing, small business job growth and whether the economy can achieve 4% growth this year.

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The electronic edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer is available. We have the Sunday edition, available on Mondays, in addition to the Tuesday through Friday editions on the other days.

Please follow the steps below:

Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
Password: 10888

Ch. 6 Sec. 1 Review

In-class assignment: with a partner, identify the problems associated with rationing.

Ch. 6 Sec. 2 Reading Strategy

In-class assignment: with a partner, complete the graphic organizer by describing how a surplus and a shortage affect prices, demand, and supply.

In-class assignment, working with a partner, answer the following.

In your own words, explain the price system.

Milton Friedman, Free to Choose, Power of the Market - The Pencil (explains the price system)

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.

As illustrated in the video, draw the graph.

Equilibrium price and surplus

Description of equilibrium price, consumer surplus, producer surplus and social surplus using supply and demand diagrams.


Figure 6.2 Surpluses and Shortages
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following:

When does a surplus occur?
When does a shortage occur?
What does Panel A illustrate?
What does Panel B illustrate?


Equilibrium Price

Reading Check


How do surpluses and shortages help establish the equilibrium price?

Explaining and Predicting Prices

Change in Supply

Figure 6.3 Changes in Prices

Change in Demand

Change in Supply and Demand

The Importance of Elasticity


Real Estate Agent
Real estate agents, among others such as actors (including voice actors), artists, novelists, freelance writers, and similar creative artists as talents are generally compensated on a "per job" basis, and thus are not treated as employees; as freelancers, they file a 1099 form for their taxes. They are not, strictly speaking, an employee of a company. One proposal of health care might be to demand that employers purchase health care and to be treated as regular employees of companies.

This is an expensive proposition, likewise, a 1099 provision, voted down on 2 February 2011, is a piece of "Obama’s health care overhaul, rolling back a new tax reporting requirement that’s been universally panned by business owners. . . . The provision would have required business owners to file 1099 tax documents on all cumulative purchases from a single vendor that total more than $600 in a year."

The amendment was proposed by Sen. Debbie Stabenow (D-Mich.).

“This amendment is a common-sense solution for business owners who need to be focused on creating jobs, not filling out paperwork for the IRS,” she said.


Prices and Competitive Markets

Reading Check


How does the elasticity of a good affects its price?

Business Week Newsclip

What's Raining on Solar's Parade?

Solar Power: Why Economics Matters, 7:12

Ch. 6 Sec. 2 Review

In-class assignment, with a partner, complete the graphic organizer to show how a change in demand and supply affects the price of a product.

Section 3 Social Goals and Market Efficiency

Prices work as a system to allocate resources between markets. However, if prices are fixed in one market, temporary shortages and surpluses tend to become permanent. A price ceiling, such as rent control, is one form of fixed price; a price floor, such as the minimum wage, is another example. Agriculture is especially hard-hit by price changes, because demand and supply tend to be inelastic, while weather often causes the supply curve to change. Therefore, to help farmers, the federal government established the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency in the Department of Agriculture. The CCC then used a target price, which is essentially a price floor, to help stabilize farm prices. As a result, over the years, the government has established other forms of support for agriculture in the economy.

In-class assignment, with a partner, complete the cause-and-effect chart by explaining the effects of price ceilings and price floors.

Guide to Reading

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary
price ceiling

Price Floors and Price Ceilings, 5:59

In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following:

What happens when the government interferes with the market mechanism by artificially imposing a "better" price?

What may interfere with the market?
How does the video define price floor?
Who is the price floor meant to protect?
What is the seller protected from?
What kinds of businesses would warrant such help?
Rather than impose an artificial price on the market resulting in all manner of other problems is there any way to manage the market to get the equilibrium price up to Pf?
Define price ceiling.
Who is a price ceiling meant to protect?
Would you rather pay a higher price for gas if you knew you could get it, or, would you rather pay a lower price for gas but take the chance none would be available?
Are there ways to make a lower price of gas available instead of imposing a government price?

minimum wage

Minimum Wage, 2:30

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following:

Before Congress, who testifies in favor of minimum wage?
Do labor unions generally work for minimum wage?
Why do labor unions favor a minimum wage?
Which groups are often harmed by the minimum wage?
Are small businesses harmed?

price floor
target price
nonrecourse loan
deficiency payment

Academic Vocabulary

Reading Strategy

Issues in the News

Minimum Wage Rise Hurts Students

Distorting Market Outcomes

Price Ceilings

Figure 6.4 Price Ceilings

Price Floors

Figure 6.5 Price Floors

Reading Check


What are the negative and positive aspects of price ceilings and price floors?

Agricultural Price Supports

Loan Supports

Deficiency Payments

Figure 6.6 Deficiency Payments

Conservation "Land Banks"

Reforming Price Supports

Continued Agricultural Support

Reading Check


What has been the effect of agricultural price supports?

When Markets Talk

Reading Check


Can you think of any other examples of markets "talking"? Explain

In-class assignment, with a partner, use the graphic organizer to illustrate how price floors affect quantity demanded and supplied.

Did You Know?

Profiles in Economics

Margaret (Meg) Whitman, eBay

Debates in Economics

Should College Athletes Be Paid?

Should College Athletes Get Paid?" 3:14
In-class assignment, with a partner, summarize the perspectives from players, a coach, and an administrator, about whether college athletes should get paid or not.

Ch. 4 Prep


Multiple Choice Quiz


Crossword Puzzle




Ch. 5 Prep

Chapter 5 Supply Multiple Choice Quiz


Chapter 5 Puzzle


Chapter 5 Supply Flashcards


Ch. 6 Prep

Chapter 6: Prices and Decision Making
Multiple Choice Quiz


ePuzzle Concentration


Academic, Glossary, People/Places/Events


Chapter 7 Preview


Ian Hunter- Shrunken Heads, 7:46

Email (or hand in hard copy) to

Friday HW
1. p. 161, #1