Monday, October 12, 2009

WH II: 13 October 2009

Test, 20 Question, multiple-choice Test on Chapter 10.

Current events:

Looks like recently there was a "Panic in Detroit."

Included here is a World Socialist report on Detroit.

Today's lesson plan and HW is available on the blog:


The Shanawiki page ( has updated class information.

The online version of a portion of the Textbook is available.

LibraryThing has bibliographic resources.

I moved the "Blog Archive" to the top right on the blog page so it should be easier to find the daily lesson, HW, and other class material.

Sr. has advised students to check online teaching materials (as we have been doing since the first day of school).

We can consider the results of the Slideshare assignment.

Map of France

Chapter 11 (newer edition Ch. 18): The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815
Chapter Overviews

Poverty, social divisions, and economic crisis led to the French Revolution and a reign of terror. Napoleon Bonaparte took power in a coup d'etat and tried to overthrow Europe's old order. After his costly military campaigns, he was defeated at Waterloo, Belgium, and exiled.

Section 1 The French Revolution Begins

Poverty and deep social divisions were the backdrop of the French Revolution. On the eve of the revolution, financial crisis gripped the government of Louis XVI. Rather than accept higher taxes, the commoners in France's legislative body, the Estates-General, broke off to form a National Assembly. Anticipating an attack by the king's forces, commoners then stormed the Bastille prison, marking the start of the Revolution. The new Assembly took control of the Catholic Church and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. The document was inspired in part by the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The Assembly then wrote a constitution establishing a limited monarchy and a Legislative Assembly. France was soon at war with Austria, where some feared the revolution might spread. Louis XVI was taken captive by the Paris Commune. The Commune called for a National Convention and forced the revolution into a more violent phase.

Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

During the first years of the revolution, a republic was established, Louis XVI was executed, and thousands of people were killed on suspicion of opposing the revolution. While factions fought over control within France, European states fearing the spread of revolution made plans to invade France. The National Convention responded by forming a Committee of Public Safety. The committee led a 12-month Reign of Terror, executing close to 40,000 suspected enemies and expunging signs of Catholic influence. The committee also raised the largest army in European history and repelled the invading armies. With the crisis past, the National Convention ended the Reign of Terror and executed its zealous leader, Maximilien Robespierre. Power shifted into the hands of more moderate middle-class leaders who produced a constitution in 1795. The constitution called for a two-house legislative body and an executive committee, called the Directory. The Directory faced mounting problems. In 1799 a popular General, Napoleon Bonaparte, seized power in a coup d'état.

Section 3 The Age of Napoleon

Napoleon formed a new government, the consulate, in which he held absolute power. In 1802 he was crowned emperor and signed a peace treaty with Russia, Great Britain, and Austria. At home, he made peace with the Catholic Church and created a functioning bureaucracy. His Napoleonic Code preserved many of the rights gained in the revolution. War was soon renewed. By 1807, Napoleon had created a French empire. In parts of the empire, Napoleon sought to spread the revolution. However, his invasions had contributed to the spread of nationalism as well. This, along with British sea power, would spell his defeat. After a disastrous invasion of Russia, other European nations attacked Napoleon's army and captured Paris. Napoleon was exiled from France, and the monarchy was restored. Napoleon returned to power briefly, only to face final military defeat against a combined Prussian and British force at Waterloo and to be exiled once again.

After surveying the Chapter, we begin in Section 1 The French Revolution Begins

We can consider the "Causes of the French Revolution."

To cover the entire French Revolution is a lofty task but to deal with the subject as best we can there is a good reference in the "Detailed Guide to the Revolution."

One of the most interesting characters of the period is "Marie Antoinette."

Or, alternatively, we can listen to "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution" in song.

If someone is studying French, perhaps they can translate the anthem of the republican Revolution:

The Marseillaise (War Song for the Army of the Rhine)

( Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin)

Allons enfants de la patrie!
Le jour de gloire est arrivé;
Contre nous de la tyrannie
L'étendard sanglant est levé.
L'étendard sanglant est levé.

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes
Mugir ces féroces soldats?
Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras
Egorger vos fils, vos compagnes!


Aux armes, citoyens, formez vos bataillons,
Marchez, marchez, qu'un sang impur
abreuve nos sillons.

Que veut cet horde d'esclaves,
De traîtres, de rois conjurés?
Pour qui ces ignobles entraves,
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés?
Ces fers dès longtemps préparés?

Francais! Pour nous, ah quel outrage!
Quels transports il doit exciter!
C'est nous qu'on ose méditer
De rendre à l'antique esclavage?


Amour sacré de la patrie,
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs
Liberté, Liberté chérie!
Combats avec tes défenseurs
Combats avec tes défenseurs

Sous nos drapeaux que la Victoire
Accourt à tes mâles accents:
Que tes ennemis expirants
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire


One of the most arresting images of the Revolution, no pun intended, is the guillotine.

Chapter 11 Section 1 The French Revolution Begins


*Describe the social divisions of France’s old order.
*List reasons for France’s economic troubles in 1789.
*Explain why Louis XVI called the Estates-General and summarize what resulted.
*Understand why Parisians stormed the Bastille.

Witness History

The Loss of Blood Begins (Audio)

On July 14, 1789, after a daylong hunting expedition, King Louis XVI returned to his palace in Versailles. Hours earlier, armed Parisians had attacked the Bastille. They had cut the chains of the prison drawbridge, crushing a member of the crowd, and poured into the courtyard. Chaos ensued as shots rang out, blood was spattered, and heads were paraded down the streets on spikes. When Louis heard the news, he exclaimed, “Then it’s a revolt?” “No, sire,” replied the duke bearing the news, “it’s a revolution!” The French Revolution had begun. Witness History relates the fall of the Bastille.

The Conquerors of the Bastille before the Hotel de Ville, painted by Paul Delaroche


Chapter Focus Question

What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution, and how did the revolution lead to the Napoleonic era?

Background to the Revolution

The Three Estates

Financial Crisis

Reading Check
What groups were part of the Third Estate?

From Estates-General to National Assembly

Reading Check
Why did the Third Estate object to each estate's having one vote in the Estates-General?

The Destruction of the Old Regime

Declaration of the Rights of Man

The King Concedes

Church Reforms

A New Constitution and New Fears

War with Austria

Rise of the Paris Commune

Reading Check
What was the significance of the Constitution of 1791?


Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

HW: email me at

1. Using print and Internet sources (a reference to La Marseilloise is made above, an English translation is also available), familiarize yourself with the lyrics to The Marseillaise, God Save the Queen (not the pop version),

and The Star Spangled Banner. How do they vary in subject matter, tone, theme, and style, and how are they similar?

Not required, but if helpful, create a chart listing your findings.

Bibliographic resources for the French Revolution

Previous to or the buildup to the Revolution

Cf. The Coming of the French Revolution (Princeton Classic Editions)
by Georges Lefebvre.

The Fall of the French Monarchy 1787-1792 (The French Revolution)
by Michel Vovelle.

Great Fear of 1789
by Georges Lefebvre.

General works on the Revolution

The Crowd in the French Revolution (Galaxy Books)
by George Rude.

A Short History of the French Revolution, 1789-1799
by Albert Soboul.

The Abolition Of Feudalism: Peasants, Lords, And Legislators In The French Revolution, by John Markoff.

Interpreting the French Revolution
by Francois Furet.

Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution
by Simon Schama.

The Radical Revolution

The Sans-Culottes
by Albert Soboul.

The Vendee: A Sociological Analysis of the Counter-Revolution of 1793
by Charles Tilly.

Revolutionary Themes After the Revolution

Reflections on the Revolution in France (Oxford World's Classics)
by Edmund Burke.

The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848
by Eric Hobsbawm.

Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime…
by William H. Sewell Jr.

The Course in German History by A.J.P. Taylor.

AP Economics: 13 October 2009

As announced, a 20 Question multiple-choice Test will be administered, Test #1, Chapter 2.

Current Events:

Today's lesson plan and HW is available on the blog:


The Shanawiki page ( has updated class information.

LibraryThing has bibliographic resources.

I moved the "Blog Archive" to the top right on the blog page so it should be easier to find the daily lesson, HW, and other class material.

Chapter Three Overview, Demand and Supply

Every Graph You Need to Know for the Exam: Supply and Demand (Illustrated)

The introduction of the idea of a market (using a number of examples, including
financial markets and textbook sales) is followed by the analysis of demand, supply, equilibrium, and the effects on market equilibrium when demand and supply
curves shift.

Chapter Outline


The Price System

Checkpoint: Markets


The Relationship Between Quantity Demanded and Price

The Law of Demand

The Demand Curve

Market Demand Curves

Determinants of Demand

Tastes and Preferences


Prices of Related Goods

The Number of Buyers

Expectations About Future Prices, Incomes, and Product Availability

Changes in Demand Versus Changes in Quantity Demanded

Changes in Demand

Changes in Quantity Demanded

Checkpoint: Demand


The Relationship Between Quantity Supplied and Price

The Law of Supply

The Supply Curve

Market Supply Curves

Determinants of Supply

Production Technology

Costs of Resources

Prices of Other Commodities


The Number of Sellers

Taxes and Subsidies

Changes in Supply versus Changes in Quantity Supplied

Checkpoint: Supply

Market Equilibrium

Moving to a New Equilibrium: Changes in Supply and Demand

Predicting the New Equilibrium When One Curve Shifts

Predicting the New Equilibrium When Both Curves Shift

Summarizing Shifts and Equilibrium

Checkpoint: Market Equilibrium

Putting Supply and Demand to Work

Excess Grape Supply and Two-Buck Chuck

Trek Bicycles and Lance Armstrong

Ideas for Capturing Your Classroom Audience

■ Track a product on eBay. Work with at least one other study partner, or members in your small group. Students should select an item and watch it as its auction
progresses. Consider products that students think will be highly desired as
opposed to other less popular products.

Chapter Checkpoints

Market: Financial Markets

From Friday: Questions for discussion on Shanawiki: Demand: Hybrid Cars
Question: Sales of hybrid cars are on the rise. The Toyota Prius, while priced above comparable gasoline-only cars, is selling well. Other manufacturers are adding hybrids to their lines as well. What has been the cause of the rising sales of hybrids? Is this an increase in demand or an increase in quantity demanded?

Supply: iPods, iTunes, and MP3 players
Question: What has been the impact of the iPod, iTunes, and MP3 players in general
on high-end stereo equipment sales? Has the same impact been at work with CD
music sales since downloading of individual songs was introduced by Apple?

Equilibrium: China and India
Question: As China and India (both with huge populations and rapidly growing
economies) continue to develop, what do you think will happen to their demand for
energy and specifically oil? What will suppliers of oil do in the face of this demand? Will this have an impact on world energy (oil) prices? What sort of policies or events could alter your forecast about the future price of oil?

Extended Examples in the Chapter

Putting Demand and Supply to Work

Both of the following examples use supply and demand analysis as a framework for
predicting how market participants will act, and what the resulting price and output might be.

Excess Grape Supply and Two-Buck Chuck

The great California wine of the 1990s put California wine on the map. Demand,
prices, and exports grew rapidly. Over planting of new grape vines was a result.
Driving along Interstate 5 or Highway 101 north of Los Angeles, grape vineyards
extend for miles as far as the eye can see, and most were planted in the mid to late 1990s. The 2001 recession reduced the demand for California wine, and a rising dollar made imported wine relatively cheaper. The result was a sharp drop in demand for California wine and a huge surplus of grapes. Bronco Wine Company President Fred Franzia made an exclusive deal with Trader Joe’s (an unusual supermarket that features exotic food and wine products), bought the excess grapes at distressed prices, and with his modern plant produced inexpensive wine under the Charles Shaw label. Selling for $1.99 a bottle, Two-Buck Chuck as it is known is available in Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, and Sauvignon Blanc. Consumers have flocked to Trader Joe’s and literally haul cases of wine out by the carload. Today, Two-Buck Chuck sells well over a million cases a month. This is not rot-gut: the 2002 Shiraz beat out 2,300 other wines to win a double gold medal at the 2004 28th Annual International Eastern Wine Competition.

Two-Buck Chuck was such a hit that other supermarkets were forced to offer their
own discount wines. This good, low-priced wine has had the effect of opening up
markets. As an illustration can be demonstrated, people who previously avoided wine because of the cost have begun drinking more (demand curves do slope down and to the right).

As The Economist has noted, the entire industry may benefit because “Wine
drinkers who start off drinking plonk often graduate to upmarket varieties.”

For more information about this wine and conditions in the wine industry, visit the following Web sites:

From CBS News, a story titled “ ‘Two Buck Chuck’ Wine Cult” points out that it is
the surplus of grapes that makes the wine so inexpensive. On the web at: http:// (from the Bay Area of California) has a story titled “‘Two Buck Chuck’
Changing Wine Habits” which makes the point that “quality does not necessarily follow price.”

Trek Bikes and Lance

When Lance Armstrong won his seventh Tour de France cycling championship in
July, 2005, he rode a bicycle made by Trek of the United States.2 So on the demand
side, we can expect demand for the victor’s brand of bicycles to go up. This in fact happened, in both the United States and Europe. On the supply side, U.S. bicycle manufacturers such as Trek and Cannondale were willing to increase output as shown in Figure 15 (note that the supply curve didn’t change, only quantity supplied).

This process worked well in the U.S. but proved tougher in Europe, not so
much in the actual production of the bicycles but in getting stores to stock them. Up to a few years ago, racing bicycles were almost exclusively made by European companies.

1 “California Drinking,” The Economist, June 7th, 2003, p. 56.
2 See Ian Austen, “U.S. Bike Makers Seek Dominance in Europe,” The New York Times,
December 30, 2003, p. W1.

The Market for Bicycles

Using our supply and demand analysis, we see that demand increased. Since no
determinant of supply changed, we know that just output will increase, and prices
for Trek bicycles will rise. Our supply and demand analysis gives us a useful framework for predicting how market participants will act, and what the resulting price and output might be.

For More Information

In an article titled “Trek Bicycle Coup: Tour de Force” in Baseline (on the web at,1397,1618016,00.asp), the author details the
technology used in making the bikes, as well as providing data on prices and quantities.

The phrase “limitless tolerance on price” is a good introduction to the topic
of elasticity (to be covered in an upcoming chapter).

Examples Used in the End-of-Chapter Questions

Question 10 discusses the market for virtual goods. Based on Rob Walker, “The
Buying Game: A real market, overseen by a real corporation selling things that don’t really exist,” (The New York Times Magazine, October 16, 2005, p. 28), the question asks students to consider the markets for goods used in on-line games such as EverQuest II. This example encourages students to see that markets “really” exist even in “virtual” worlds.

For a further demonstration, visit the homepage of Second Life (at and see how much in U.S. dollars has been spent…in just 24 hours!

Question 11 is based on a Wall Street Journal story by Peter Sanders and Stephanie
Kang, (“Wipeout for Key Player in Surfboard Industry,” The Wall Street Journal,
December 8, 2005, p.B1) that discusses the closing of Clark Foam. The key point of
the example is that the firm was a manufacturer of a critical input needed to make
surfboards. It provides a good illustration about how a change in price and availability of a resource carries over into product markets.

For another story and some good visuals, see the page on the web at http://www.,21214,1138359,00.htm.
Question 12 examines the effect of increased demand in the market for polysilicon,
used in making solar panels. It is based on the story by John Carey, “What’s Raining on Solar’s Parade” (Business Week, February 6, 2006, p. 78). The key point for discussion here is the impact of uncertainty, which is another way to talk about the role of expectations on demand and supply.

For more about the dynamics of the polysilicon market, see the story from IndustrialControl Designline on the web at

Question 13 provides a good example of how synthetic substitute products can be
developed when “natural” products become scarce. Based on the story by James
Altucher, “Supply, demand and edible orchids” (The Financial Times, September
20, 2005, p.12), it presents students with a data set, requires them to graph and analyze the data, and then illustrate the effects of changes in demand and supply.
Particular attention is given to the idea that even as supply is changing, demand may also be changing (in this case, due to the development of a synthetic).

Did you know that vanilla is the most labor-intensive agricultural product in the
world? You can find out just about everything there is to know about vanilla on the web at

For Further Analysis

The Supply and Demand Effects of the Increased Use of Ethanol

Handout 3-1 is an in-class group exercise with your small group.

Students are asked to draw graphs illustrating shifts in demand and supply
and changes in quantity demanded and supplied. Asking students to document
research about specifics in this topic (for example, changes in planted acreage).

Learning objectives: application of concepts of changes in quantity demanded
and quantity supplied versus changes in demand and supply; demonstration of mastery of graphing techniques; and reinforcement of critical thinking skills.

Web-based Exercise

What’s Been Driving Gasoline Prices?

This example can be used as an in-class group exercise.

Asking students to perform (and document) additional research allows you
to use it as a case study or group project as well. For example, students can be
asked to document gasoline sales to see if, as predicted, an increase in demand
results in both a higher price and a greater quantity sold.

Learning objectives: application of concepts of changes in quantity demanded
and quantity supplied versus changes in demand and supply; demonstration of mastery of graphing techniques; and reinforcement of critical thinking skills.

The Supply and Demand Effects of the Increased Use of Ethanol

Draw a supply and demand graph showing the market for corn in equilibrium. Label the demand curve as “DOld” and the supply curve as “S”. Then illustrate the effect of an increased demand for corn due to its being used to produce ethanol. Explain the changes in price and equilibrium quantity using the vocabulary of “changes in quantity demanded,” and “changes in quantity supplied,” as well as “change in demand” and “change in supply.”

Use a supply and demand graph to illustrate and explain the impact of a higher price of corn on any one of a wide variety of food products; be sure to include the effect on the cost of high-fructose corn syrup.

You do not need to send HW in email to for this exercise.

1. ■ Track a product on eBay. Work with at least one other study partner, or members in your small group. Students should select an item and watch it as its auction progresses. Consider products that students think will be highly desired as opposed to other less popular products.