Sunday, June 10, 2012

Chapter 10 Section 4 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution

Preview: Chapter 10 Section 4 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution

In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to control Brazil, while Spain established an empire in the Western Hemisphere that included parts of North America and most of Latin America. Portugal and Spain held onto their Latin American colonies for over 300 years. During that time, they profited richly by exporting Latin American gold, silver, and other natural resources and farm products. Spanish and Portuguese officials and Christian missionaries played important roles in Latin American societies. In North America, British control over its colonies began to unravel over issues of taxation. Multiple crises led the Americans to declare their independence in 1776 and to fight Britain until its defeat in 1783. The Articles of Confederation that formed the United States were soon replaced with a Constitution, which created a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights added important freedoms derived from the natural rights expressed by the philosophes.

Main Ideas

The colonies of Latin America and British North America were developing in ways that differed from their European mother countries.

The American colonies revolted against Great Britain and formed a new nation.


*Describe characteristics of Britain and the 13 English colonies in the mid-1700s.

*Outline the events that led to the American Revolution. *Summarize the events and significance of the American Revolution.

*Analyze how the new Constitution reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment.

Terms, People, and Places



federal system

Additional Terms, People, and Places

George III

Stamp Act

George Washington

Thomas Jefferson

popular sovereignty

Yorktown, Virginia

Treaty of Paris

James Madison

Benjamin Franklin

federal republic



Colonial Empires in Latin America

Economic Foundations

State and Church

Reading Check


How did the Portuguese and the Spanish profit from their colonies in Latin America?

British and British North America

By 1750, a string of 13 prosperous colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America.

They were part of Britain’s growing empire. Colonial cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia were busy commercial centers that linked North America to the West Indies, Africa, and Europe. Colonial shipyards produced many vessels for this trade.

Britain applied mercantilist policies to its colonies in an attempt to strengthen its own economy by exporting more than it imported. To this end, in the 1600s, Parliament had passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing. For the most part, however, these acts were not rigorously enforced. Therefore, activities like smuggling were common and not considered crimes by the colonists.

By the mid-1700s, the colonies were home to diverse religious and ethnic groups. Social distinctions were more blurred than in Europe, although wealthy landowners and merchants dominated government and society. In politics, as in much else, there was a good deal of free discussion. Colonists felt entitled to the rights of English citizens, and their colonial assemblies exercised much control over local affairs. Many also had an increasing sense of their own destiny separate from Britain.


In your own words, what does Adams mean that liberty will reign in America?

John Adams, "Liberty will reign in America," 1:30


Reading Check


What countries made up Great Britain in the 1700s?

To whom does the British refer?

The American Revolution

The Seven Years’ War and the French and Indian War in North America had drained the British treasury. King George III and his advisors thought that the colonists should help pay for these wars. To increase taxes paid by colonists, Parliament passed the Sugar Act in 1764, which imposed import taxes, and the Stamp Act in 1765, which imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets. “No taxation without representation,” the colonists protested. They believed that because they had no representatives in Parliament, they should not be taxed. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, but then passed a Declaratory Act that said it had complete authority over the colonists.

A series of violent clashes intensified the colonists’ anger. In March 1770, British soldiers in Boston opened fire on a crowd that was pelting them with stones and snowballs. Colonists called the death of five protesters the Boston Massacre. Then in December 1773, a handful of colonists hurled a cargo of recently arrived British tea into the harbor to protest a tax on tea. The incident became known as the Boston Tea Party. When Parliament passed harsh laws to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of the tea, other colonies rallied to oppose the British response.

As tensions increased, fighting spread. Finally, representatives from each colony gathered in Philadelphia and met in a Continental Congress to decide what action to take. Among the participants were the radical yet fair-minded Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, who had defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre in their trial; Virginia planter and soldier George Washington; and political and social leaders from all 13 colonies.

Paine’s Common Sense

Early in 1776, English colonists in North America eagerly read the newly published Common Sense, by Thomas Paine. This pamphlet called on them to declare their independence from Britain and echoed the themes of the Enlightenment. “Tis repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things, to all examples from former ages, to suppose that this Continent can long remain subject to any external power.” —Thomas Paine, Common Sense

The War Begins

In April 1775, the ongoing tension between the colonists and the British exploded into war in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. This war is known as the Revolutionary War, or the American Revolution. The Congress met soon after and set up a Continental Army, with George Washington in command. Although many battles ended in British victories, the colonists were determined to fight at any cost. In 1776, the Second Continental Congress took a momentous step, voting to declare independence from Britain. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, a document that reflects John Locke’s ideas of the government’s obligation to protect the people’s natural rights to “life, liberty, and property.”



Picture yourself as a witness to the actual battle during this historical re-enactment. What would your reaction be?

On the Saturday of Patriot's Day weekend, the Battle Road event takes place in Minute Man National Historical Park, MA. This honors the first battle of the American Revolution at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, 2:26

The Declaration of Independence stands as one of the most important documents in all of history. It still serves as inspiration for people around the world.

Where did some of the ideas of the Declaration originate?


In your own words, describe Adams' ideas on freedom.

John Adams' speech before the Continental Congress on Freedom and the reading of The Declaration Of Independence, 7:00

Primary Source

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”

Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776

The Declaration included another of Locke’s ideas: people had the right “to alter or to abolish” unjust governments—a right to revolt. The principle of popular sovereignty, which states that all government power comes from the people, is also an important point in the Declaration. Jefferson carefully detailed the colonists’ grievances against Britain. Because the king had trampled colonists’ natural rights, he argued, the colonists had the right to rebel and set up a new government that would protect them. Aware of the risks involved, on July 4, 1776, American leaders adopted the Declaration, pledging “our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor” to creating and protecting the new United States of America.


Picture yourself during the re-enactment of Congress' approval.

What would you think of the Declaration of Independence at that time?

Part of this video repeats what you have heard and seen alread.

The resolution carries: why don't the delegates cheer or appear happy?

Congress approves the Declaration of Independence, 5:55

At first, the American cause looked bleak. The British had a large number of trained soldiers, a huge fleet, and greater resources. About one third of the American colonists were Loyalists, or those who supported Britain. Many others refused to fight for either side. The Americans lacked military resources, had little money to pay soldiers, and did not have a strategic plan.

Still, colonists had some advantages. One was the geography of the diverse continent. Since colonists were fighting on their own soil, they were familiar with its thick woods and inadequate roads. Other advantages were their strong leader, George Washington, and their fierce determination to fight for their ideals of liberty.

To counteract these advantages, the British worked to create alliances within the colonies. A number of Native American groups sided with the British, while others saw potential advantages in supporting the colonists’ cause. Additionally, the British offered freedom to any enslaved people who were willing to fight the colonists.

Foreign Support and British Defeat

The first turning point in the war came in 1777, when the Americans triumphed over the British at the Battle of Saratoga. This victory persuaded France to join the Americans against its old rival, Britain. The alliance brought the Americans desperately needed supplies, trained soldiers, and French warships. Spurred by the French example, the Netherlands and Spain added their support.

Hard times continued, however. In the brutal winter of 1777–1778, Continental troops at Valley Forge suffered from cold, hunger, and disease. Throughout this crisis and others, Washington was patient, courageous, and determined. He held the ragged army together.

In 1781, the French fleet blockaded the Chesapeake Bay, which enabled Washington to force the surrender of a British army at Yorktown, Virginia. With that defeat, the British war effort crumbled. Two years later, American, British, and French diplomats signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the war. In that treaty, Britain recognized the independence of the United States of America. The Americans’ victory can be attributed to their resilient dedication to attaining independence.


Reading Check


Why did foreign countries support the American cause?

The Birth of a New Nation

Benjamin Franklin

"A Republic Madame, if you can keep it," 10:36


1. In-class assignment, what is the difference between a democracy and a republic?

2. How are we to understand the political spectrum?

3. What is the role of the government in the U.S.?

4. What are the five forms of government?

5. What is the most common form of government?

6. What does the word democracy mean?

7. What is the flaw in democracy?

8. What does the word Republic mean?

9. What can a lynch mob teach us about the difference between a democracy and a republic?

10. Does the word democracy appear in American founding documents, Constitution, or state constitutions?

11. Why did the Founders look upon democracy with contempt?

12. What did Solon and the Romans suggest to the Founders?

13. What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?

14. What are our two choices?


George Washington

When George Washington (1732–1799) was chosen to lead the American army, the British thought he would be a failure.

Washington indeed faced many challenges, including an army that did not have weapons, uniforms, or bedding. He struggled to incorporate order and discipline and to instill pride and loyalty in his soldiers. Washington persevered to American victory. His success as a leader continued when he became the nation’s first President.

How did Washington hold the army together through difficult times?

One aspect of American leadership has been Washington's reluctance to highlight himself personally at the expense of the Republic.

Washington was often compared to Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (519 BC – 438 BC)--an aristocrat and political figure of the Roman Republic, who served as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC--for his willingness to give up near-absolute power once the crisis of the American Revolution had passed and victory had been won.

Cincinnatus was regarded by the Romans, especially the aristocratic patrician class, as one of the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman virtue and simplicity. Washington is in Cincinnatus' tradition.

The Society of the Cincinnati is a historical association founded in the aftermath of the American Revolutionary War to preserve the ideals of the military officer's role in the new American Republic.

Washington disdained personal pomp and circumstance and he steadfastly refused to be equated as a King. He began the tradition of simply being referred to as "Mr. President" as a title, and thus equated himself with the ordinary respect and dignity afforded to any person.

He viewed the Presidency as a solemn duty to perform for the Republic. He would have preferred a private life at his estate Mt. Vernon.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The original description: statue of Cincinnatus, Cincinnati, OH, 2004, by Rick Dikeman.

"With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer."

Does any other political group in history employ the fasces as a symbol of power?

James Madison

James Madison (1751–1836) arrived at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in May 1787 with his thick notebooks on history and government. Madison chose a seat in front of the president’s chair and kept detailed notes of the debates. Madison was greatly respected and quickly became the Convention’s floor leader. His notebooks remained unpublished for more than 50 years, but they are now our main source of information about the birth of the Constitution. What did the Framers of the Constitution have in common?

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) was a philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat. Sent by Congress to France in 1776 to seek financial and military support for the war, he soon became popular in France because of his intellect and wit. Those who admired America’s goal of attaining freedom also admired Franklin. When Franklin returned to America after nine years, he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention as the eldest of the delegates.

Why was Franklin admired in France?

The Constitution

The Articles of Confederation was the nation’s first constitution. It proved to be too weak to rule the new United States effectively. To address this problem, the nation’s leaders gathered once more in Philadelphia. Among them were George Washington, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. During the hot summer of 1787, they met in secret to redraft the articles of the new constitution. The result was a document that established a government run by the people, for the people.

The Bill of Rights

In-class assignment:

Bill of Rights Rap - Smart Songs, 3:38

What did the states advise stating before approving the Constitution? Summarize the ten Bill of Rights.

WEBSITE: DOWNLOAD: LIKE US ON FACEBOOK:!/smartsongsmusic Beat by Drizzle & Swizzle. Lyrics by Shoeless Jeff and Scott Free. From the Album: Trip to DC

The Framers of the Constitution had studied history and absorbed the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. They saw government in terms of a social contract into which “We the People of the United States” entered. They provided not only for an elective legislature but also for an elected president rather than a hereditary monarch. For the first President, voters would choose George Washington. The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal, or national, government and the states. A central feature of the new federal government was the separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, an idea borrowed directly from Montesquieu. Within that structure, each branch of government was provided with checks and balances on the other branches. The Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, was important to the passage of the Constitution. It recognized the idea that people had basic rights that the government must protect, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press. The Bill of Rights, like the Constitution, put the philosophes’ Enlightenment ideas into practice. In 1789, the Constitution became the supreme law of the land, which means it became the nation’s fundamental law. This remarkable document has endured for more than 200 years. The Constitution of the United States created the most freest government of its day, and most likely for all time. From the start, the new republic was a symbol of freedom to European countries and reformers in Latin America. Its constitution would be copied or adapted by many lands throughout the world. The Enlightenment ideals that had inspired American colonists brought changes in Europe too. In 1789, a revolution in France toppled the monarchy in the name of liberty and equality. Before long, other Europeans would take up the cry for freedom as well.

Reading Check


What was the main difference between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution?

Eyewitness to History

The Mission Pearson Success Net has an interesting note on a "Witness History" feature. Cf. References and exercises on Sec. 4. As an exercise, we can play the part of an American spy as a Patriot working to free America from England's rule.


What three things about Challenge No. 1 reveal the meaning of the cartoon? What three things about Challenge No. 2 reveal why Revere drew the image? Who was a spy for the British? What was Revere's craft? What are the three steps in studying historical documents?

We can view an online exhibit about the Revolutionary War. Also, we can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz. We might also explore an interactive portrait of George Washington. I had asked you to consider other references and exercises on Sec. 4. Of the three I had you to take a look at, which was the class favorite? 1. We can view an online exhibit about the Revolutionary War. 2.

Also, we can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz. 3. We might also explore an interactive portrait of George Washington.

And now we can consider the situation of the 13 colonies. For access at home: Visit: Web Code: nap-1731 Map Skills 1. Locate

a) Philadelphia

b) Massachusetts

c) Boston

2) Which colony had two pieces of land?

3) What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map?

Colonists Express Discontent (audio) Primary Source Audio What we did on our summer vacation, Summer 2009

USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world. It was first launched in 1797. Constitution is one of six ships ordered for construction by George Washington to protect America's growing maritime interests. The ships greatest glory came during the war of 1812 when she defeated four British frigates which earned her the nickname "Old Ironsides," because cannon balls glanced off her thick hull. The ship was restored in 1927 with contributions from the nation's school children. The Charlestown Navy Yard was built on what was once Mouton's or Morton's Point, the landing place of the British army prior to the Battle of Bunker Hill. It was one of the first shipyards built in the United States. During its 174 year history, hundreds of ships were built, repaired and modernized, including the World War II destroyer USS Cassin Young. Today, thirty acres of the Navy Yard are preserved by the National Park Service as part of Boston National Historical Park.
Checkpoint: Do research on the U.S.S. Constitution. What can you find out about this remarkable ship, nicknamed "Old Ironsides?"

References: References Abuses inherited as a result of a controlling aristocracy may be seen clearly in this work. Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act by E.P. Thompson Events That Changed the World For: Interactive map, audio, and more Visit: Web Code: nap-1733

Chapter 10: Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800, Section 3


Section 3 The Impact of the Enlightenment

We will spend approximately 4 days on Section 3.

The Enlightenment influenced both art and politics. The baroque and neoclassical styles of art endured, while a more delicate style, called rococo, emerged.

The works of Bach, Handel, Haydn, and Mozart

represented one of the greatest periods in European music. Novels attracted a middle-class audience. The Enlightenment interested the absolutist rulers of Europe. However, only one, Joseph II of Austria, attempted far-reaching reforms based on Enlightenment ideas; they were largely a failure. The reforms of Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia were far more limited. Territorial disputes in Europe and in the colonial empires of Britain and France produced the War of Austrian Succession, followed by the Seven Years' War. In the end, France lost India and most of North America, and Britain emerged as the world's greatest colonial power. Taking Notes Fill out this concept web to help you record information from this section. Add more circles as needed.


*Describe how the Enlightenment affected the arts and literature.

*Understand how philosophes influenced enlightened despots.

*Explain why Enlightenment ideas were slow to penetrate into the larger European scene, how individuals were censored from broadcasting their ideas, and were thus unable to reach most Europeans.

Terms, People, and Places



enlightened despot

Frederick the Great

Catherine the Great

Joseph II

One of Mozart's most famous compositions is his Eine kleine Nachtmusik, (Allegro, 8:55).

We can listen to a short selection.

In-class assignment: How does the music make you feel?

That is, does it sound upbeat and happy, or, downbeat and sad?

In a short paragraph, describe the feelings and sentiment expressed in this selection.

You will hear one more selection from Mozart, The Magic Flute, to include in this paragraph after first hearing Eine kleine Nachtmusik.

Mozart, the Musical Genius As a young boy, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart astonished royalty with his musical talent. Although his life was relatively short, he composed more than 600 pieces of music. Many pieces embraced the spirit of the Enlightenment.

“Few have captured the spirit of the Enlightenment, its intellectual and social agenda, as has Mozart in his opera, The Magic Flute, . . .

The Magic Flute, 5:30

[It] is a series of variations on the triumph of light over darkness, of sun over moon, of day over night, of reason, tolerance, and love over passion, hate, and revenge.”

—Isaac Kramnick, historian

In-class assignment: Does The Magic Flute evoke a different emotion than Eine kleine Nachtmusik?

What is the difference?


Focus Question

As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political changes took place? Paris, France, the heart of the Enlightenment, drew many intellectuals and others eager to debate new ideas. Reforms proposed one evening became the talk of the town the next day. Enlightenment ideas flowed from France, across Europe, and beyond. Everywhere, thinkers examined traditional beliefs and customs in the light of reason and found them flawed. Even some absolute monarchs experimented with Enlightenment ideas, although they drew back when changes threatened the established way of doing things.

New Ideas Challenge Society

Enlightenment ideas spread quickly through many levels of society. Educated people all over Europe eagerly read not only Diderot’s Encyclopedia but also the small, inexpensive pamphlets that printers churned out on a broad range of issues. More and more, people saw that reform was necessary in order to achieve a just society.

During the Middle Ages, most Europeans had accepted without question a society based on divine-right rule, a strict class system, and a belief in heavenly reward for earthly suffering.

In the Age of Reason, such ideas seemed unscientific and irrational. A just society, Enlightenment thinkers taught, should ensure social justice and happiness in this world. Not everyone agreed with this idea of replacing the values that existed, however.

Writers Face Censorship

Most, but not all, government and church authorities felt they had a sacred duty to defend the old order. They believed that God had set up the old order. To protect against the attacks of the Enlightenment, they waged a war of censorship, or restricting access to ideas and information.

They banned and burned books and imprisoned writers. To avoid censorship,

philosophes and writers like Montesquieu and Voltaire sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction. In the Persian Letters, Montesquieu used two fictional Persian travelers, named Usbek and Rica, to mock French society.

The hero of Voltaire’s satirical novel Candide, published in 1759, travels across Europe and even to the Americas and the Middle East in search of “the best of all possible worlds.” Voltaire slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.

Satire by Swift

Jonathan Swift published the satirical Gulliver’s Travels in 1726. Here, an illustration from the book depicts a bound Gulliver and the Lilliputians, who are six-inch-tall, bloodthirsty characters. Although Gulliver’s Travels satirizes political life in eighteenth-century England, it is still a classic today.

Arts and Literature Reflect New Ideas In the 1600s and 1700s, the arts evolved to meet changing tastes. As in earlier periods, artists and composers had to please their patrons, the men and women who commissioned works from them or gave them jobs. From Grandeur to Charm In the age of Louis XIV, courtly art and architecture were either in the Greek and Roman tradition or in a grand, ornate style known as baroque. Baroque paintings were huge, colorful, and full of excitement. They glorified historic battles or the lives of saints. Such works matched the grandeur of European courts at that time. Louis XV and his court led a much less formal lifestyle than Louis XIV. Architects and designers reflected this change by developing the rococo style. Rococo art moved away from religion and, unlike the heavy splendor of the baroque, was lighter, elegant, and charming. Rococo art in salons was believed to encourage the imagination. For example, we can consider: "Rococo Art." We will examine this art in more detail (see below). Introduction Rococo art was an important element of French culture during the ancien regime. The style is highly suggestive of the attitudes and atmosphere in the royal court during the period leading up to the French Revolution. In this activity you will read about four rococo painters and how they experienced the shift from rococo to neoclassicism, and from the ancien regime to the era of the French Revolution.

Destination Title: "Ancien Regime Rococo" Directions Start at the Ancien Regime Rococo Web site.

* Read the introductory section, taking notes as you go.

* Click on the links to read about the rococo artists François Boucher and Jean-Honore Fragonard.

After considering the link, "Ancien Regime Rococo," we can pick up the lesson from the previous material. Furniture and tapestries featured delicate shells and flowers, and more pastel colors were used. Portrait painters showed noble subjects in charming rural settings, surrounded by happy servants and pets.

Although this style was criticized by the philosophes for its superficiality, it had a vast audience in the upper class and with the growing middle class as well.

The Enlightenment Inspires Composers

Operas originated in Florence, Italy, in the seventeenth century. First called drama per musica, or drama through music, these musical performances typically involve large casts and elaborate sets and costumes. When Italian operas were performed in France, they emphasized glory and love, and included ballet and lavish stage settings to please the French court. Handel, Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, and Puccini composed some of the world’s most famous operas.

La Scala, Milan, Mid-1800s

Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, whose country ruled Italy by the early 1700s, founded Milan’s La Scala (background image), one of Europe’s oldest and most celebrated opera houses. Built in 1776, this opera house still showcases the great operas of the nineteenth century, including composer Giuseppe Verdi’s masterpieces, Aida and La Traviata. Verdi’s first opera, Oberto, was performed at La Scala, and he was the beloved house composer for many years. After years of care and renovation, the interior of La Scala retains its elegance as operatic performances continue to entertain audiences today.

The “Three Tenors” (from left), Placido Domingo, José Carreras, and Luciano Pavarotti, are some of the best-known opera singers of the modern era. In the hierarchy of the opera stage, the tenor is the highest male voice and usually plays the part of the hero. The female lead is typically sung by a soprano, which is the highest female voice. Singers in the lower ranges (mezzo-soprano and alto for women, baritone and bass for men) generally play villainous or comic roles.

The new Enlightenment ideals led composers and musicians to develop new forms of music. There was a transition in music, as well as art, from the baroque style to rococo. An elegant style of music known as “classical” followed. Ballets and opera—plays set to music—were performed at royal courts, and opera houses sprang up from Italy to England. Before this era, only the social elite could afford to commission musicians to play for them. In the early to mid-1700s, however, the growing middle class could afford to pay for concerts to be performed publicly. Among the towering musical figures of the era was Johann Sebastian Bach. A devout German Lutheran, Bach wrote beautiful religious works for organ and choirs. He also wrote sonatas for violin and harpsichord. Another German-born composer, George Frideric Handel, spent much of his life in England. There, he wrote Water Music and other pieces for King George I, as well as more than 30 operas. His most celebrated work, the Messiah, combines instruments and voices and is often performed at Christmas and Easter.

Handel - Messiah - Hallelujah Chorus, 3:27

From Andre Rieu's "Live From Radio City Music Hall" in New York City 2004, with the Johann Strauss Orchestra and the Harlem Gospel Choir.

In-class assignment: consider different musical styles in regards to their subject. Does Haydn's composition suggest a bird? How does it make you feel?

Haydn, The Bird, 4th movement, (3:34)

Composer Franz Joseph Haydn

In-class, now in contrast, let hear a song about a bird but in a different style, a rock style from 1963. How and in what way does it differ from Haydn?

Trashmen, Surfin' Bird (1963), 5:05

Surfin' Bird" is a song performed by American surf rock band The Tra shme n. It is a combination of two R&B hits by The Rivingto ns, "Papa-Oom-Mow-Mow" and "The B ird's th e Word" and was released in 1963, along with an album of the same name, becoming popular in the Vietnam war era.

In-class assignment: here is one more example of a traditional song updated in a contemporary version and a rock version. Identify the differences in the versions. In the Toys version, listen closely to the melody and hear if you can hear it repeated in the second version.

The Toys - Lovers Concerto, 2:45

1965 Hullabaloo

A Lover's Concerto (Minuet in C major) on iPlay CG (Most Playable iPhone / iPod Touch music app), 2:15

This composition is actually based the Minuet in G Major from J. S. Bach's Anna Magdelena Notebook, 1:30.

Music is a cultural product that reflects and reveals the time in which it is composed, adapted, and modified. We can interpret the cultural products and thus understand the history.

In 1965, this music was used for a pop song called "A Lover's Concerto" recorded by The Toys which became a hit. The minuet is from 1725 Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach that Bach prepared for his wife Anna Magdalena. It has been attributed to J.S. Bach but now thought to be by Christian Petzold.

Background on Haydn

Haydn was one of the most important figures in the development of classical music. He helped develop forms for the string quartet and the symphony. Haydn had a close friendship with another famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart was a child prodigy who gained instant celebrity status as a composer and performer. His brilliant operas, graceful symphonies, and moving religious music helped define the new style of composition. Although he died in poverty at age 35, he produced an enormous amount of music during his lifetime. Mozart’s musical legacy thrives today. Infographic Rococo Reaction

The Novel Takes Shape

By the 1700s, literature developed new forms and a wider audience. Middle-class readers, for example, liked stories about their own times told in straightforward prose.

One result was an outpouring of novels, or long works of prose fiction. English novelists wrote many popular stories.

Daniel Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe, an exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island. This novel is still well known today.

In a novel called Pamela, Samuel Richardson used a series of letters to tell a story about a servant girl. This technique was adopted by other authors of the period.

In-class assignment:


How did the arts and literature change as Enlightenment ideas spread?

Enlightened Despots Embrace New Ideas

The courts of Europe became enlivened as philosophes tried to persuade rulers to adopt their ideas. The philosophes hoped to convince the ruling classes that reform was necessary. Some monarchs did accept Enlightenment ideas.

Others still practiced absolutism, a political doctrine in which a monarch had seemingly unlimited power.

Those that did accept these new ideas became enlightened despots, or absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.

Map Enlightened Rulers in the Eighteenth Century

Go online to,, for an audio guided tour and related questions.

The text in the audio is on the page as well.

Enter web Code: nap-1721, in each of the two boxes listed there.

Easy-to-Use Web Codes Summary:

To use a Web Code: 1. Go to 2. Enter a particular Web Code. 3. Click on GO!

There are three questions there, listed below:

Map Skills: Map of Eastern Europe

Although the center of the Enlightenment was in France, the ideas of reform spread to the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.

1. Locate (a) Paris (b) Prussia (c) Austria

2. Location

Which enlightened despot ruled farthest from Paris?

3. Draw Conclusions According to the map, approximately how much of Europe was affected by the Enlightenment?

Frederick II Attempts Reform

Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, exerted extremely tight control over his subjects during his reign as king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786.

Still, he saw himself as the “first servant of the state,” with a duty to work for the common good. Frederick openly praised Voltaire’s work and invited several of the French intellectuals of the age to Prussia.

Some of his first acts as king were to reduce the use of torture and allow a free press. Most of Frederick’s reforms were directed at making the Prussian government more efficient.

To do this, he reorganized the government’s civil service and simplified laws. Frederick also tolerated religious differences, welcoming victims of religious persecution.

“In my kingdom,” he said, “everyone can go to heaven in his own fashion.”

His religious tolerance and also his disdain for torture showed Frederick’s genuine belief in enlightened reform.

In the end, however, Frederick desired a stronger monarchy and more power for himself.

Catherine the Great Studies Philosophes’ Works

Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, read the works of the philosophes and exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot.

She praised Voltaire as someone who had “fought the united enemies of humankind: superstition, fanaticism, ignorance, trickery.” Catherine believed in the Enlightenment ideas of equality and liberty.

Catherine, who became empress in 1762, toyed with implementing Enlightenment ideas.

Early in her reign, she made some limited reforms in law and government. Catherine abolished torture and established religious tolerance in her lands.

She granted nobles a charter of rights and criticized the institution of serfdom. Still, like Frederick in Prussia, Catherine did not intend to give up power. In the end, her main political contribution to Russia proved to be an expanded empire.

Joseph II Continues Reform

In Austria, Hapsburg empress Maria Theresa ruled as an absolute monarch. Although she did not push for reforms, she is considered to be an enlightened despot by some historians because she worked to improve peasants’ way of life.

The most radical of the enlightened despots was her son and successor, Joseph II. Joseph was an eager student of the Enlightenment, and he traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of their problems.

Note Taking
Reading Skill: Summarize

Fill in a concept web like the one below with information about the enlightened despots and their contributions.

Joseph continued the work of Maria Theresa, who had begun to modernize Austria’s government. Despite opposition, Joseph supported religious equality for Protestants and Jews in his Catholic empire.

He ended censorship by allowing a free press and attempted to bring the Catholic Church under royal control. He sold the property of many monasteries that were not involved in education or care of the sick and used the proceeds to support those that were.

Joseph even abolished serfdom. Like many of his other reforms, however, this measure was canceled after his death.

In-class assignment:


Why were the philosophes interested in sharing their beliefs with European rulers?

Lives of the Majority Change Slowly

Most Europeans were untouched by either courtly or middle-class culture. They remained what they had always been—peasants living in small rural villages. Echoes of serfdom still remained throughout Europe despite advances in Western Europe.

Their culture, based on centuries-old traditions, changed slowly. By the late 1700s, however, radical ideas about equality and social justice finally seeped into peasant villages.

While some peasants eagerly sought to topple the old order, others resisted efforts to bring about change. In the 1800s, war and political upheaval, as well as changing economic conditions, would transform peasant life in Europe.

Important Composers included in this section: Bach, Handel, and Haydn, among others.

Music is available on Songza.

Bach, Air on the G String (5:21)

Haydn, Deutschland Ueber Alles (3:35), and a bit of trivia about this composition.

Do you know which 20th century German political group adopted this song to represent their movement and point of view?

Traditional German music was transformed for political and propaganda purposes.

In-class assignment:


During this time, why did change occur slowly for most Europeans?

References: Abuses inherited as a result of a controlling aristocracy may be seen clearly in this work. Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act by E.P. Thompson

Pop Art Goes Mozart, Tornados, single released March 1966, 2:33

Falco, "Rock me Amadeus, 4:09


Chapter 10: Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800, Section 2 The Enlightenment

Chapter 10: Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800, Section 2 The Enlightenment

The Scientific Revolution gave rise to the Enlightenment, an eighteenth-century movement that stressed the role of philosophy and reason in improving society. Enlightenment intellectuals, known as philosophes, were chiefly social reformers from the nobility and the middle class. They often met in the salons of the upper classes to discuss the ideas of such giants as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. In the economic sphere, Adam Smith put forth the doctrine of laissez-faire economics. The later Enlightenment produced social thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and an early advocate of women's rights, Mary Wollstonecraft. Salon gatherings, along with the growth of book and magazine publishing, helped spread Enlightenment ideas among a broad audience. Most Europeans were still Christians. However, the desire for a more spiritual experience inspired new religious movements, such as the Methodism of John Wesley.


* Explain how science led to the Enlightenment.

* Compare the ideas of Hobbes and Locke.

* Identify the beliefs and contributions of the philosophes.

* Summarize how economic thinking changed during this time.

Terms, People, and Places

philosophe (notice the spelling: this is not exactly the same thing as philosopher)

separation of powers



social contract

natural law

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

natural right

salon (there is a common everyday word, but in reference to the Enlightenment, it means a physical place more specific and relates directly to the Enlightenment)

Typically, a class wiki has been used to create a Quiz/Test Study page.

Note Taking Reading and Listening Skill: Summarize Draw a table like the one shown here. As you read the section, summarize each thinker’s works and ideas.

Path to the Enlightenment By the early 1700s, European thinkers felt that nothing was beyond the reach of the human mind. Through the use of reason, insisted these thinkers, people and governments could solve every social, political, and economic problem. In essence, these writers, scholars, and philosophers felt they could change the world. The Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s had transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. In the 1700s, other scientists expanded European knowledge. For example, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox, a disease whose path of death spanned the centuries.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, describe the Age of Enlightenment.

Age of Enlightenment In Europe, 1:59 Applying science to the physical world, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton demonstrated that the universe operates according to natural laws which could be discovered by reason. Applying reason to the affairs of men, Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot put forth ideas of democracy, freedom, and equality. These ideals were translated into action as the American and French Revolutions. Scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason. Natural law, or rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism. Why not, then, use natural law to better understand social, economic, and political problems? Using the methods of the new science, reformers thus set out to study human behavior and solve the problems of society. In this way, the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution in thinking, known as the Enlightenment. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher best known for his work The Critique of Pure Reason, was one of the first to describe this era with the word “Enlightenment.” Despite Kant’s skepticism about the power of reason, he was enthusiastic about the Enlightenment and believed, like many European philosophers, that natural law could help explain aspects of humanity.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check Explaining What was Newton's main contribution to Enlightenment thought? Philosophes and Their Ideas In the 1700s, there was a flowering of Enlightenment thought. This was when a group of Enlightenment thinkers in France applied the methods of science to understand and improve society. They believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. These thinkers were called philosophes (fee loh zohfs), which means “philosophers.” Their ideas soon spread beyond France and even beyond Europe. Montesquieu Born to wealth, Charles Louis de Secondat (1689–1755), pictured here, inherited the title Baron de Montesquieu from his uncle. Like many other reformers, he did not let his privileged status keep him from becoming a voice for democracy. His first book titled Persian Letters ridiculed the French government and social classes. In his work published in 1748, The Spirit of the Laws, he advanced the idea of separation of powers—a foundation of modern democracy.

An early and influential thinker was Baron de Montesquieu (mahn tus kyoo). Montesquieu studied the governments of Europe, from Italy to England. He read about ancient and medieval Europe, and learned about Chinese and Native American cultures. His sharp criticism of absolute monarchy would open doors for later debate. In 1748, Montesquieu published The Spirit of the Laws, in which he discussed governments throughout history. Montesquieu felt that the best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and powers of government among three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial. He also felt that each branch of government should be able to serve as a check on the other two, an idea that we call checks and balances. Montesquieu’s beliefs would soon profoundly affect the Framers of the United States Constitution. Voltaire François-Marie Arouet, pictured here and known as Voltaire (1694–1778) was an impassioned poet, historian, essayist, and philosopher who wrote with cutting sarcasm and sharp wit. Voltaire was sent to the Bastille prison twice due to his criticism of French authorities and was eventually banned from Paris. When he was able to return to France, he wrote about political and religious freedom. Voltaire spent his life fighting enemies of freedom, such as ignorance, superstition, and intolerance.
Probably the most famous of the philosophes was François-Marie Arouet, who took the name Voltaire. “My trade,” said Voltaire, “is to say what I think,” and he did so throughout his long, controversial life. Voltaire used biting wit as a weapon to expose the abuses of his day. He targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats. With his pen, he battled inequality, injustice, and superstition. He detested the slave trade and deplored religious prejudice. Heated Debate Rousseau (left) and Voltaire (right) are pictured here in the midst of an argument. Even though the philosophes were reform-minded, they disagreed about some issues. The important point is that the Enlightenment tradition indicated that reasonable, rational people could dispute without killing one another. Debate, disagreement, and dialogue, along with the use of reason was emphasized.
Voltaire’s outspoken attacks offended both the French government and the Catholic Church. He was imprisoned and forced into exile. Even as he saw his books outlawed and even burned, he continued to defend the principle of freedom of speech. Diderot
Enlightenment thinker Denis Diderot (dee duh roh) compiled a controversial 28-volume work called the Encyclopedia, which was published between 1751 and 1772. This work was a forum for Enlightenment thinkers such as Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire. These thinkers believed that with the power of reason, they could fix the problems of society. Although the Encyclopedia was banned in many places and censored in others, it would prove to be a major factor in the years of revolutions to come. It contains the passage below on freedom.
“No man has received from nature the right to give orders to others. Freedom is a gift from heaven, and every individual of the same species has the right to enjoy it as soon as he is in enjoyment of his reason.”
—Denis Diderot As the editor, Diderot did more than just compile articles. His purpose was “to change the general way of thinking” by explaining ideas on topics such as government, philosophy, and religion. In these articles, the philosophes denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and urged education for all. They attacked divine-right theory and traditional religions. Critics raised an outcry. The French government argued that the Encyclopedia was an attack on public morals, and the pope threatened to excommunicate Roman Catholics who bought or read the volumes. Despite these and other efforts to ban the Encyclopedia, more than 4,000 copies were printed between 1751 and 1789. When translated into other languages, the Encyclopedia helped spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check Comparing What were the major contributions of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot to the Enlightenment? Toward a New Social Science French thinkers known as physiocrats focused on economic reforms. Like the philosophes, physiocrats based their thinking on natural laws. The physiocrats claimed that their rational economic system was based on the natural laws of economics. Economics Physiocrats rejected mercantilism, which required government regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade. Instead, they urged a policy of laissez faire (les ay fehr), allowing business to operate with little or no government interference. Physiocrats also supported free trade and opposed tariffs. Scottish economist Adam Smith greatly admired the physiocrats. In his influential work The Wealth of Nations, he argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. Smith tried to show how manufacturing, trade, wages, profits, and economic growth were all linked to the market forces of supply and demand. Wherever there was a demand for goods or services, he said, suppliers would seek to meet that demand in order to gain profits. Smith was a strong supporter of laissez faire. However, he felt that government had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works. Adam Smith’s ideas would help to shape productive economies in the 1800s and 1900s.

Milton Friedman, Power of the Market - Invisible Hand, 1:14

In-class assignment: How does an invisible hand guide economic activity in a free market according to Adam Smith?

Milton Friedman explains how an invisible hand guides economic activity in a free market.

Investors in Paris, France, 1720

Beccaria and Justice

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check Explaining What is the concept of laissez-faire? The Later Enlightenment Jean-Jacques Rousseau (roo soh) and quill pen

Rousseau Stirs Things Up:

Cf. In Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s most important work, The Social Contract (1762), he argued that in order to be free, people should do what is best for their community. Rousseau felt that society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior. He believed that some controls were necessary, but that they should be minimal. Additionally, only governments that had been freely elected should impose these controls. Rousseau had many supporters who were inspired by his passionate writings. European monarchs, on the other hand, were angry that Rousseau was questioning authority. As a result, Rousseau worried about persecution for much of his life. The “chains” below represent the social institutions that confined society. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” —Rousseau, The Social Contract

Creative Quotations from Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1:11

In-class assignment: paraphrase one of Rousseau's statements in your own words.

A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778); born on Jun 28. French philosopher, educational reformer, author; He was an influential educational reformer; His teacher-student contract changed education.

Rousseau believed that people in their natural state were basically good. This natural innocence, he felt, was corrupted by the evils of society, especially the unequal distribution of property. Many reformers and revolutionaries later adopted this view. Among them were Thomas Paine and Marquis de Lafayette, who were leading figures of the American and French Revolutions.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check Summarizing What were Rousseau's basic theories as presented in The Social Contract and Emile? Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, two seventeenth-century English thinkers, set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment. Both men lived through the upheavals of the English Civil War. Yet they came to very different conclusions about human nature and the role of government. Audio Background: Hobbes and Locke Have Conflicting Views Cf. Thomas Hobbes outlined his ideas in a work titled Leviathan. In it, he argued that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. If not strictly controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress one another. Life in the “state of nature”—without laws or other control—would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” To escape that “brutish” life, said Hobbes, people entered into a social contract, an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society. Hobbes believed that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. For him, such a government was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and compel obedience.

The title page, pictured here, from Leviathan (1651) by Hobbes demonstrates his belief in a powerful ruler. The monarch here represents the Leviathan who rises above all of society.

John Locke (1632–1704) had a more optimistic view of human nature than did Hobbes. He thought people were basically reasonable and moral. Further, they had certain natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth. These included the right to life, liberty, and property.

John Locke and a book of his writings

In Two Treatises of Government (1690), Locke argued that people formed governments to protect their natural rights. The best kind of government, he said, had limited power and was accepted by all citizens. Thus, unlike Hobbes, Locke rejected absolute monarchy. England during this time experienced a shift in political power known as the Glorious Revolution. James II, an unpopular absolute monarch, left the throne and fled England in 1688. Locke later wrote that he thought James II deserved to be dethroned for violating the rights of the English.

Locke's Influence on American Constitutional Ideas: Life, Liberty, and Property (the pursuit of happiness)

Locke proposed a radical idea about this time. A government, he said, has an obligation to the people it governs. If a government fails its obligations or violates people’s natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow that government. Locke’s idea would one day influence leaders of the American Revolution, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison. Locke’s idea of the right of revolution would also echo across Europe and Latin America in the centuries that followed.

The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property; and the end while they choose and authorize a legislature is that there may be laws made, and rules set, as guards and fences to the properties of all the society.
"Whensoever, therefore, the legislative [power] shall transgress this fundamental rule of society, and either by ambition, fear, folly, or corruption, endeavor to grasp themselves, or put into the hands of any other, an absolute power over the lives, liberties, and estates of the people, by this breach of trust they forfeit the power the people had put into their hands for quite contrary ends, and it devolves to the people; who have a right to resume their original liberty, and by the establishment of a new legislature (such as they shall think fit), provide for their own safety and security. . . .”
John Locke

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Thinking Critically 1. Draw Inferences According to Locke, how should a land be governed? Why do you think this is the case? 2. Identify Central Issues What does Locke say can happen if a government fails to protect the rights of its people?

Rights of Women

The Enlightenment slogan “free and equal” did not apply to women. Though the philosophes said women had natural rights, their rights were limited to the areas of home and family.

By the mid- to late-1700s, a small but growing number of women protested this view. Germaine de Staël in France and Catharine Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft in Britain argued that women were being excluded from the social contract itself. Their arguments, however, were ridiculed and often sharply condemned.

Creative Quotations from Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1:26

In-class assignment: paraphrase one of Wollstonecraft's sayings in your own words.

A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851); born on Aug 30. English author; She is best known as the creator and author of "Frankenstein," 1818.

Wollstonecraft was a well-known British social critic. She accepted that a woman’s first duty was to be a good mother but felt that a woman should be able to decide what was in her own interest without depending on her husband. In 1792, Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. In it, she called for equal education for girls and boys. Only education, she argued, could give women the tools they needed to participate equally with men in public life.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check


How did Mary Wollstonecraft use the Enlightenment ideal of reason to advocate rights for women?

Social World of the Enlightenment

The Growth of Reading

The Salon

New literature, the arts, science, and philosophy were regular topics of discussion in salons, or informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas. The salon originated in the 1600s, when a group of noblewomen in Paris began inviting a few friends to their homes for poetry readings. By the 1700s, some middle-class women began holding salons. Here middle-class citizens could meet with the nobility on an equal footing to discuss and spread Enlightenment ideas.

Madame Geoffrin (far right in blue), in her famous salon where Enlightenment thinkers gathered to share ideas.

Madame Geoffrin (zhoh fran) ran one of the most respected salons. In her home on the Rue St. Honoré (roo sant ahn ur ay), she brought together the brightest and most talented people of her day. The young musical genius Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart played for her guests, and Diderot was a regular at her weekly dinners for philosophers and poets.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check


What was the importance of salons?

Religion in the Enlightenment

John Wesley Sermon: Thoughts on War, 5:30

Mark Topping as John Wesley. Taken from the DVD dramatising significant moments in his life: Cf.; for more about the Methodist Church of Great Britain: Cf.

In-class assignment, with a partner, but in your own words, answer the question.

Reading Check


What are some of the central ideas of Methodism?