David Horowitz at UCSD 5/10/2010
H.S. Allows Students To Wear Muslim Scarves
A kaffiyeh is a traditional Arab scarf worn by men. It is often associated with Yasser Arafat, the now deceased former head of the PLO, Palestinian Liberation Organization, and is considered a symbol of Palestinian identity.
HW is due daily.
Those students who need to take the Make-Up Chapter 17 Section 3 Quiz may do so. Other students who need to make up the earlier Quizzes should have done so already; they are available.
Section 2 The Course of World War II
World War Two : Europe and North Africa 1939 - 1945 Map
British Declaration Of War - Radio Broadcast - 3 Sept 1939
Stuka Dive Bomber Cf. http://www.vibrationdata.com/Stuka.wav
Janina Sulkowska and a German plane of the Blitzkrieg
Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka"
Hitler's Early Victories
The Battle of Britain
Germany Launches the Blitz
Attack on the Soviet Union
Japan At War
More than just a significant military battle in world history, the events at Pearl Harbor awakened the local military and civilian residents to the character of war.
December 7, 1941
Losses, United States 2,390, Japan, 64
United States, 1,178, Japan, unknown
Ships, Sunk or Beached, United States, 12, Japan, 5
Damaged, United States, 9, Japan, 0
Aircraft Destroyed, United States, 164, Japan, 29
Aircraft Damaged, United States, 159, Japan, 74
Figures are subject to further review
All U.S. Ships, except Arizona, Utah, and Oklahoma, were salvaged and later saw action.
Attack Map - Remembering Pearl Harbor at the National Geographic website.
Pearl Harbor Remembered: The Day
Original text of the President's speech showing his last minute corrections (page 1 shown).
The Japanese in China
p. 600, Reading Check
By the spring of 1942, which territories did Japan control?
The Allies Advance
The European Theater
World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1942–1945
For: Interactive map and timeline
Web Code: nap-2931
Axis power reached its height in Europe in 1942. Then the tide began to turn.
1. Locate (a) Vichy France (b) Soviet Union (c) El Alamein (d) Normandy (e) Berlin
Describe the extent of Axis control in 1942.
3. Make Inferences
How did geography both help and hinder Allied advances?
Recognize Sequence In a flowchart like the one below, sequence the events that turned the tide of the war towards the Allies.
As men joined the military, millions of women around the world replaced them in essential jobs. Women, symbolized by the character “Rosie the Riveter” in the United States, built ships and planes and produced munitions.
The years 1942–1943 marked the turning point of the war. The Allies won victories on four fronts—the Pacific, North Africa and Italy, the Soviet Union, and France—to push back the Axis tide.
The Japanese pilots below may have taken part in these battles, which were fought from planes launched from aircraft carriers.
After the United States entered the war, the Allied leaders met periodically to hammer out their strategy. In 1942, the “Big Three”—Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin—agreed to focus on finishing the war in Europe before trying to end the war in Asia.
From the outset, the Allies distrusted one another. Churchill and Roosevelt feared that Stalin wanted to dominate Europe. Stalin believed the West wanted to destroy communism.
Germany was reeling under incessant, round-the-clock bombing. For two years, Allied bombers had hammered military bases, factories, railroads, oil depots, and cities. The goal of this kind of bombing was to cripple Germany’s industries and destroy the morale of its civilians. In one 10-day period, bombing almost erased the huge industrial city of Hamburg, killing 40,000 civilians and forcing one million to flee their homes. In February 1945, Allied raids on Dresden, not an industrial target, but considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, killed as many as 135,000 people.
incessant—(in ses unt) adj. uninterrupted, ceaseless
Rommel, The Desert Fox, Montgomery, El Alamein, 3:39
German prisoners are marched through the snowy streets of Stalingrad after their defeat by the Soviet army.
Stalingrad: Current evaluation of the Bloodiest Battle in History, 3:12
The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the costliest of the war.
The Asian Theater
A defeated General Douglas MacArthur left the Philippines in 1942. As he departed, he pledged his determination to free the islands with the words “I shall return.” In October 1944, that pledge became a reality when MacArthur landed on the Philippine island of Leyte.
MacArthur, Leyte Landing, 1:22
After the battles of Midway and the Coral Sea, the United States took the offensive. That summer, United States Marines landed at Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Victory on Guadalcanal marked the beginning of an “island-hopping” campaign.
p. 603, Reading Check
Why was the German assault on Stalingrad a crushing defeat for the Germans?
Last Years of the War
The European Theater
The Allies chose June 6, 1944—known as D-Day—for the invasion of France.
The scene generally considered to have the most impact in Saving Private Ryan is the "Opening Scene" depicting D-Day on Omaha Beach. However, another key scene is the description of the protagonist.
Saving Private Ryan, the "I'm a school teacher" (from PA scene), 3:27
(screening only 2:07 and afterwards to omit the language)
Events That Changed The World
Web Code: nap-2932
The enormous productive capacity of the United States was a key factor in the victory.
The Asian Theater
World War II in the Pacific, 1941–1945
Web Code: nap-2941
After the Battle of Midway, the Allies took the offensive in the Pacific. They gradually worked their way north towards Japan itself.
(a) Japan (b) Pearl Harbor (c) Iwo Jima (d) Okinawa (e) Hiroshima (f) Manila
Describe the extent of Japanese control in 1942.
3. Draw Conclusions
How did geography make it difficult for Japan to maintain control of its empire?
Hiroshima: Dropping the Bomb
Hiroshima in Ruins
p. 604, Reading Check
What was the "second front" that the Allies opened in Western Europe?
Section 3 The New Order and the Holocaust
To further their war effort and Hitler's plans for Aryan expansion, the Nazis forced millions of people to resettle as forced laborers. No aspect of the Nazi New Order was more terrifying than the deliberate attempt to exterminate the Jews. As part of the Nazis' Final Solution, Jews were locked into cramped, unsanitary ghettos or forced to dig their own mass graves before being killed. When this proved too slow for the Nazis, they transported Europe's Jews to death camps where they were worked to death or sent to die in gas chambers. The Nazis killed between five and six million Jews and nine to ten million non-Jews. In Asia, Japan showed little respect for the conquered peoples in its effort to secure industrial markets and raw materials. Japanese treatment of prisoners of war was equally harsh. Japan professed a commitment to ending Western colonialism, but the brutality of the Japanese convinced many Asians to resist Japanese occupation.
Reading and Note Taking Skill: Identify Supporting Details
In a concept web like the one below, fill in details about how the Nazis and Japanese military treated people under their power during World War II. Add circles as necessary.
Hitler’s new order grew out of his racial obsessions. As his forces conquered most of Europe, Hitler set up puppet governments in Western European countries that were peopled by Aryans, or light-skinned Europeans, whom Hitler and his followers believed to be a “master race.” The Slavs of Eastern Europe were considered to be an inferior “race.” They were shoved aside to provide more “living space” for Germans, the strongest of the Aryans.
To the Nazis, occupied lands were an economic resource to be plundered and looted. The Nazis systematically stripped conquered nations of their works of art, factories, and other resources. To counter resistance movements that emerged in occupied countries, the Nazis took savage revenge, shooting hostages and torturing prisoners.
But the Nazis’ most sinister plans centered on the people of the occupied countries. During the 1930s, the Nazis had sent thousands of Jewish people and political opponents to concentration camps, detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state. Over the course of the war, the Nazis forced these people, along with millions of Polish and Soviet Slavs and people from other parts of Europe, to work as slave laborers. Prisoners were poorly fed and often worked to death.
Resettlement in the East
Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
Himmler established the Nazi Party's intelligence service in 1931, appointing Reinhard Heydrich as its chief. This section of the SS was created to uncover the Party's enemies and keep them under surveillance. After the outbreak of the war, the SD was assigned operational tasks, joined the Einsatzgruppen,and played a central role in organizing and implementing the "Final Solution."
The Gestapo was composed of professional police agents, unlike the SS or SA. The Gestapo, in addition to their own agents, had block wardens, who kept close watch on the tenants of their block. The Gestapo was everywhere. Even a hint of criticism of the National Socialist Regime could result in arrest.
The Nazi party military and police agencies wielded their power violently, leaving a wake of terror and fatalities. Joseph Goebbels and Reinhard Heydrich orchestrated a night of terror in Germany, destroying synagogues, smashing windows of Jewish businesses and homes, looting, physically beating Jews, and arresting thousands of Jews who were then sent to concentration camps. On November 9 and 10, 1938, Kristallnacht,or "The Night of Broken Glass," was a turning point in the escalation of terror against Jews.
Heinrich Himmler: Anatomy of a Mass Murderer, 4:05
Hitler pursued a vicious program to kill all people he judged “racially inferior,” particularly Europe’s Jews. The Nazis also targeted other groups who did not meet the Aryan racial ideal, including Slavs, Romas (Gypsies), homosexuals, and the disabled. Political and religious leaders who spoke out against Nazism also suffered abuse. Starting in 1939, the Nazis forced Jews in Poland and other countries to live in ghettos, or sections of cities where Jewish people were confined. Many died from starvation, disease, overwork and the harsh elements. By 1941, however, German leaders had devised plans for the “Final Solution of the Jewish problem”—the genocide of all European Jews.
To accomplish this goal, Hitler had six special “death camps” built in Poland. The Nazis shipped “undesirables” from all over occupied Europe to the camps. There, Nazi engineers designed the most efficient means of killing millions of men, women, and children.
As the prisoners reached the camps, they were stripped of their clothes and valuables. Their heads were shaved. Guards separated men from women and children from their parents. The young, elderly, and sick were targeted for immediate killing. Within a few days, they were herded into “shower rooms” and gassed. The Nazis worked others to death or used them for perverse “medical” experiments. By 1945, the Nazis had massacred some six million Jews in what became known as the Holocaust. Nearly six million other people were killed as well.
Jewish people resisted the Nazis even though they knew their efforts could not succeed. In July 1942, the Nazis began sending Polish Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to the Treblinka death camp at a rate of about 5,000 per day. In the spring of 1943, knowing that their situation was hopeless, the Jews took over the ghetto and used a small collection of guns and homemade bombs to damage the Nazi forces as much as possible. On May 16, the Nazis regained control of the ghetto and eliminated the remaining Warsaw Jews. Still, their courage has inspired many over the years.
In some cases, friends, neighbors, or strangers protected Jews. Italian peasants hid Jews in their villages. Denmark and Bulgaria saved almost all their Jewish populations. Many people, however, pretended not to notice what was happening. Some even became collaborators and cooperated with the Nazi’s. In France, the Vichy government helped ship thousands of Jewish people to their deaths. Strict immigration policies in many Western countries as well as conscious efforts to block Jewish immigration prevented many Jews from gaining refuge elsewhere.
The scale and savagery of the Holocaust are unequaled in history. The Nazis deliberately set out to destroy the Jews for no reason other than their religious and ethnic heritage. Today, the record of that slaughter is a vivid reminder of the monstrous results of racism and intolerance.
Slave Labor in Germany
At the concentration camps, very young children and the elderly were immediately sent to the gas chambers. Older children and young adults were kept for slave labor. The conditions in these labor camps were deplorable including malnutrition, poor protection from the elements, and hard labor. The work that the people at the camps were forced into ranged from electrical work to carrying heavy stones for construction to burying the dead. The laborers were kept in the camps until they reached a point where they could no longer work at which time they were exterminated.
In order to survive these conditions, the young people in the camps formed very close ties with each other. Oftentimes they had become separated from their family members and developed new relationships within their barracks. Despite this tenuous support, all of these children suffered emotionally from the horrible conditions and treatment they endured and witnessed.
People in History
What was Hitler's vision for the residents of eastern Europe?
Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) became the chief of the SD. His more notorious achievements included the establishment of ghettos in Poland, his leadership of the Einsatzgruppen, and the convening of the Wannsee Convention. His assassination in 1942 caused merciless German reprisals, continuing after his death the terror and intimidation that characterized his life.
The Death Camps
Self-Pronouncing Map of the Nazi Camp System. Click on this interactive map for descriptions and pronunciations of the major camps.
Starting early in 1942, the Jewish genocide (sometimes called the Judeocide) went into full operation. Auschwitz 2 (Birkenau), Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibór began operations as death camps. There was no selection process; Jews were destroyed upon arrival.
Ultimately, the Nazis were responsible for the deaths of some 2.7 million Jews in the death camps. These murders were done secretly under the ruse of resettlement. The Germans hid their true plans from citizens and inhabitants of the ghettos by claiming that Jews were being resettled in the East. They went so far as to charge Jews for a one-way train fare and often, just prior to their murder, had the unknowing victims send reassuring postcards back to the ghettos. Thus did millions of Jews go unwittingly to their deaths with little or no resistance.
The total figure for the Jewish genocide, including shootings and the camps, was between 5.2 and 5.8 million, roughly half of Europe's Jewish population, the highest percentage of loss of any people in the war. About 5 million other victims perished at the hands of Nazi Germany.
The Death Toll
Approximately 11 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy. It was the explicit aim of Hitler's regime to create a European world both dominated and populated by the "Aryan" race. The Nazi machinery was dedicated to eradicating millions of people it deemed undesirable. Some people were undesirable by Nazi standards because of who they were,their genetic or cultural origins, or health conditions. These included Jews, Gypsies, Poles and other Slavs, and people with physical or mental disabilities. Others were Nazi victims because of what they did. These victims of the Nazi regime included Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, the dissenting clergy, Communists, Socialists, a-socials, and other political enemies.
Those believed by Hitler and the Nazis to be enemies of the state were banished to camps. Inside the concentration camps, prisoners were forced to wear various colored triangles, each color denoting a different group. The letters on the triangular badges below designate the prisoners' countries of origin.
Cf. references in: wh.mt.glencoe.com, Student Web Activity
Children in the War
During the Holocaust, children were subjected to many injustices and cruelties. At first, Jewish and Gypsy children were restricted from going to school, and German children were taught that the Jews and Gypsies were racially inferior. One of the methods used to teach Gentile children about this inferiority was to have Jewish children come to the front of the classroom while the teacher pointed out their distinguishing features. Shortly, restrictions were placed on the Jews and later they were forbidden to go to German schools at all.
Interactive Quiz about Children
What was the job of the Einsatzgruppen?
The New Order in Asia
How did the Japanese treat the native people in occupied lands?
Ch. 19 Resources
Online guide to the Holocaust
Colonel Paul Tibbets describes dropping the A-Bomb on Hiroshima August 6, 1945.
See the war through the eyes of soldiers, secret agents, pilots and evacuees.
Life for children during the war.
Listen to an air raid warning.
The blitz and the home front in the UK.
Churchill and the bombing of Dresden
Audio file of the death dive of a Kamikaze.
London, England during World War II
SONGS OF WORLD WAR TWO: MEDLEY 2, 9:52
Gene Krupa- Sing, Sing, Sing (Harry James, trumpet solo), 2:11
Tex Beneke and the Glenn Miller Orchestra perform the jazz classic: "In The Mood" (1946), 2:57
Email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Wednesday: p. 608, Geography Skills, #1-2
p. 610, Reading Check, Summarizing, What was the job of the Einsatzgruppen?
p. 610, Picturing History, What role did prisoners of war play in the Japanese war effort?
p. 611, Reading Check Examining, How did the Japanese treat the native peoples in occupied lands?