Fr. Frank Pavone, National Director of Priests For Life, provides his reasoning why Elena Kagan should not be confirmed to the Supreme Court yet of course Kagan is now on the bench.
In terms of religion, most justices have been Protestants, including thirty-five Episcopalians, nineteen Presbyterians, ten Unitarians, five Methodists, and three Baptists. Following the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, the Court is without a Protestant for the first time in its history.
The Court currently consists of six males and three females; one African-American and eight Caucasians (one of whom is Latino); six Roman Catholics, and three Jews.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States, and leads the federal judiciary. It consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed with the "advice and consent" (majority vote) of the Senate. Once appointed, justices effectively have life tenure, serving "during good Behaviour", which terminates only upon death, resignation, retirement, or conviction on impeachment.
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Section 3 The Impact of the Enlightenment
Haydn was one of the most important figures in the development of classical music. He helped develop forms for the string quartet and the symphony. Haydn had a close friendship with another famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart was a child prodigy who gained instant celebrity status as a composer and performer. His brilliant operas, graceful symphonies, and moving religious music helped define the new style of composition. Although he died in poverty at age 35, he produced an enormous amount of music during his lifetime. Mozart’s musical legacy thrives today.
The Seven Years' War
The War in North America
There are several key reasons for Britain’s rise to global prominence:
*Location placed England in a position to control trade. In the 1500s and 1600s, English merchants sent ships across the world’s oceans and planted outposts in the West Indies, North America, and India. From these tiny settlements, England would build a global empire.
*England offered a climate favorable to business and commerce and put fewer restrictions on trade than some of its neighbors.
*In the 1700s, Britain was generally on the winning side in European conflicts. With the Treaty of Utrecht, France gave Nova Scotia and Newfoundland to Britain. In 1763, the end of the French and Indian War and the Seven Years’ War brought Britain all of French Canada. The British also monopolized the slave trade in Spanish America, which brought enormous wealth to British merchants.
*England’s territory expanded closer to home as well. In 1707, England and Wales were united with Scotland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Free trade with Scotland created a larger market for farmers and manufacturers. Ireland had come under English control during the 1600s. It was formally united with Great Britain in 1801.
In 1760, George III began a 60-year reign. Unlike his father and grandfather, the new king was born in England. He spoke English and loved Britain. But George was eager to recover the powers the crown had lost. Following his mother’s advice, “George, be a king!” he set out to reassert royal power. He wanted to end Whig domination, choose his own ministers, dissolve the cabinet system, and make Parliament follow his will. Gradually, George found seats in Parliament for “the king’s friends.” Then, with their help, he began to assert his leadership. Many of his policies, however, would prove disastrous.
How did Great Britain become the world's greatest colonial power?
The Age of Absolutism: Know it? Show it:
Self-test with Vocabulary Practice
The Age of Absolutism (1550–1800)
Review questions with answers:
The Age of Absolutism (1550–1800)
Results of the quiz.
1. What state initiated the Inquisition against non-Catholics?
* CORRECT: Spain
EXPLANATION: Spain was the source of the Inquisition.
2. The English Bill of rights gave the House of Commons control over what?
* CORRECT: spending
EXPLANATION: The House of Commons was given the "power of the purse."
3. What was the major war in Europe between Catholics and Protestants?
* CORRECT: the Thirty Year's War
EXPLANATION: The Thirty Year's War was mostly between Catholic and Protestant states.
4. What nation had the "golden century" of the arts and literature from 1550 to 1650?
* CORRECT: Spain
EXPLANATION: It is Spain's Siglo de Oro, or "golden century."
5. The influx of gold and silver into Spain from the Americas caused
* CORRECT: inflation.
EXPLANATION: It led to soaring inflation.
6. Who was Britain's first prime minister?
* CORRECT: Robert Walpole
EXPLANATION: Walpole was the first prime minister.
7. What ruler never married and had no heir?
* CORRECT: Elizabeth I
EXPLANATION: Elizabeth never married nor had children.
8. What ruler sought religious toleration for Protestants?
* CORRECT: Henry IV
EXPLANATION: Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes to grant Protestants in France religious toleration.
9. Why did Peter the Great want a warm-water port?
* CORRECT: to facilitate trade with the West
EXPLANATION: Peter wanted the ability to trade with the West.
10. The Thirty Years' War began in
* CORRECT: Bohemia.
EXPLANATION: The Thirty Years' War began with the Defenestration of Prague in Bohemia.
11. Spain's struggle with England in the 1580s was over what issues?
* CORRECT: religion and piracy
EXPLANATION: Elizabeth I was Philip II's Protestant enemy and she allowed English captains to plunder Spanish treasure ships.
12. Which of the following was NOT a new political institution in England following the Glorious Revolution?
* CORRECT: Parliament
EXPLANATION: Parliament had already existed before the Glorious Revolution.
13. The English Levellers were the champions of what group?
* CORRECT: the poor
EXPLANATION: Levellers thought that poor men should have as much say in government as anyone else.
14. Many of the troops in the Thirty Years' War were
* CORRECT: mercenaries.
EXPLANATION: Roving armies of mercenaries, or soldiers for hire, killed without mercy.
15. The absolute monarchs of Europe all had to bring what sources of Medieval power under their control?
* CORRECT: lords
EXPLANATION: They all had to bring the landholding lords into their realm of control.
16. Who had the reputation of being the most self-indulgent ruler in Europe?
* CORRECT: Louis XIV
EXPLANATION: Louis XIV, the Sun King, built the immense palace of Versailles, where his every whim was catered to.
17. Who was able to win he support of most of the Hapsburg subjects in the War of the Austrian Succession?
* CORRECT: Maria Theresa
EXPLANATION: Maria Theresa was in her appeal for help against Frederick II of Prussia.
18. The English cabinet were advisors to the
* CORRECT: monarch.
EXPLANATION: The cabinet was led by the prime minister and advised the monarch.
19. Peter the Great fought what country in the Great Northern War?
* CORRECT: Sweden
EXPLANATION: In 1700, Peter began a long war against the kingdom of Sweden.
20. In what state did peasants become more and more tied to the land as serfs?
* CORRECT: Russia
EXPLANATION: Russian rulers Peter the Great and Catherine the Great each moved to tie serfs evermore to the land.
*Thomas Hobbes: social contract in which people give power to the government for an organized society
*John Locke: natural rights—life, liberty, and property
*Baron de Montesquieu: separation of powers; checks and balances
*Voltaire: battled corruption, injustice, and inequality; defended freedom of speech
*Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia
*Jean-Jacques Rousseau: social contract in which people follow the “general will” for true liberty
*Adam Smith: free market; laissez faire
Study & Writing
Important Composers included in this section: Bach, Handel, and Haydn, among others. Music is available on Songza.
Bach, Air on the G String (5:21)
Haydn, Deutschland Ueber Alles (3:35), and a bit of trivia about this composition. Do you know which 20th century German political group adopted this song to represent their movement and point of view? Traditional German music was transformed for political and propaganda purposes.
During this time, why did change occur slowly for most Europeans?
Chapter 10 Section 4 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to control Brazil, while Spain established an empire in the Western Hemisphere that included parts of North America and most of Latin America. Portugal and Spain held onto their Latin American colonies for over 300 years. During that time, they profited richly by exporting Latin American gold, silver, and other natural resources and farm products. Spanish and Portuguese officials and Christian missionaries played important roles in Latin American societies. In North America, British control over its colonies began to unravel over issues of taxation. Multiple crises led the Americans to declare their independence in 1776 and to fight Britain until its defeat in 1783. The Articles of Confederation that formed the United States were soon replaced with a Constitution, which created a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights added important freedoms derived from the natural rights expressed by the philosophes.
The colonies of Latin America and British North America were developing in ways that differed from their European mother countries.
The American colonies revolted against Great Britain and formed a new nation.
*Describe characteristics of Britain and the 13 English colonies in the mid-1700s.
*Outline the events that led to the American Revolution.
*Summarize the events and significance of the American Revolution.
*Analyze how the new Constitution reflected the ideas of the Enlightenment.
Terms, People, and Places
Additional Terms, People, and Places
Treaty of Paris
Colonial Empires in Latin America
State and Church
How did the Portuguese and the Spanish profit from their colonies in Latin America?
British and British North America
By 1750, a string of 13 prosperous colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America. They were part of Britain’s growing empire. Colonial cities such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia were busy commercial centers that linked North America to the West Indies, Africa, and Europe. Colonial shipyards produced many vessels for this trade.
Britain applied mercantilist policies to its colonies in an attempt to strengthen its own economy by exporting more than it imported. To this end, in the 1600s, Parliament had passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing. For the most part, however, these acts were not rigorously enforced. Therefore, activities like smuggling were common and not considered crimes by the colonists.
By the mid-1700s, the colonies were home to diverse religious and ethnic groups. Social distinctions were more blurred than in Europe, although wealthy landowners and merchants dominated government and society. In politics, as in much else, there was a good deal of free discussion. Colonists felt entitled to the rights of English citizens, and their colonial assemblies exercised much control over local affairs. Many also had an increasing sense of their own destiny separate from Britain.
What countries made up Great Britain in the 1700s? To whom does the British refer?
The American Revolution
The Seven Years’ War and the French and Indian War in North America had drained the British treasury. King George III and his advisors thought that the colonists should help pay for these wars. To increase taxes paid by colonists, Parliament passed the Sugar Act in 1764, which imposed import taxes, and the Stamp Act in 1765, which imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets. “No taxation without representation,” the colonists protested. They believed that because they had no representatives in Parliament, they should not be taxed. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, but then passed a Declaratory Act that said it had complete authority over the colonists.
A series of violent clashes intensified the colonists’ anger. In March 1770, British soldiers in Boston opened fire on a crowd that was pelting them with stones and snowballs. Colonists called the death of five protesters the Boston Massacre. Then in December 1773, a handful of colonists hurled a cargo of recently arrived British tea into the harbor to protest a tax on tea. The incident became known as the Boston Tea Party. When Parliament passed harsh laws to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of the tea, other colonies rallied to oppose the British response.
As tensions increased, fighting spread. Finally, representatives from each colony gathered in Philadelphia and met in a Continental Congress to decide what action to take. Among the participants were the radical yet fair-minded Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, who had defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre in their trial; Virginia planter and soldier George Washington; and political and social leaders from all 13 colonies.
Paine’s Common Sense
Early in 1776, English colonists in North America eagerly read the newly published Common Sense, by Thomas Paine. This pamphlet called on them to declare their independence from Britain and echoed the themes of the Enlightenment.
“Tis repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things, to all examples from former ages, to suppose that this Continent can long remain subject to any external power.”
—Thomas Paine, Common Sense
The War Begins
In April 1775, the ongoing tension between the colonists and the British exploded into war in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. This war is known as the Revolutionary War, or the American Revolution. The Congress met soon after and set up a Continental Army, with George Washington in command. Although many battles ended in British victories, the colonists were determined to fight at any cost. In 1776, the Second Continental Congress took a momentous step, voting to declare independence from Britain. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, a document that reflects John Locke’s ideas of the government’s obligation to protect the people’s natural rights to “life, liberty, and property.”
stands as one of the most important documents in all of history. It still serves as inspiration for people around the world. Where did some of the ideas of the Declaration originate?
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”
—Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776
The Declaration included another of Locke’s ideas: people had the right “to alter or to abolish” unjust governments—a right to revolt. The principle of popular sovereignty, which states that all government power comes from the people, is also an important point in the Declaration. Jefferson carefully detailed the colonists’ grievances against Britain. Because the king had trampled colonists’ natural rights, he argued, the colonists had the right to rebel and set up a new government that would protect them. Aware of the risks involved, on July 4, 1776, American leaders adopted the Declaration, pledging “our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor” to creating and protecting the new United States of America.
At first, the American cause looked bleak. The British had a large number of trained soldiers, a huge fleet, and greater resources. About one third of the American colonists were Loyalists, or those who supported Britain. Many others refused to fight for either side. The Americans lacked military resources, had little money to pay soldiers, and did not have a strategic plan.
Still, colonists had some advantages. One was the geography of the diverse continent. Since colonists were fighting on their own soil, they were familiar with its thick woods and inadequate roads. Other advantages were their strong leader, George Washington, and their fierce determination to fight for their ideals of liberty.
To counteract these advantages, the British worked to create alliances within the colonies. A number of Native American groups sided with the British, while others saw potential advantages in supporting the colonists’ cause. Additionally, the British offered freedom to any enslaved people who were willing to fight the colonists.
Foreign Support and British Defeat
The first turning point in the war came in 1777, when the Americans triumphed over the British at the Battle of Saratoga. This victory persuaded France to join the Americans against its old rival, Britain. The alliance brought the Americans desperately needed supplies, trained soldiers, and French warships. Spurred by the French example, the Netherlands and Spain added their support.
Hard times continued, however. In the brutal winter of 1777–1778, Continental troops at Valley Forge suffered from cold, hunger, and disease. Throughout this crisis and others, Washington was patient, courageous, and determined. He held the ragged army together.
In 1781, the French fleet blockaded the Chesapeake Bay, which enabled Washington to force the surrender of a British army at Yorktown, Virginia. With that defeat, the British war effort crumbled. Two years later, American, British, and French diplomats signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the war. In that treaty, Britain recognized the independence of the United States of America. The Americans’ victory can be attributed to their resilient dedication to attaining independence.
Why did foreign countries support the American cause?
The Birth of a New Nation
"A Republic Madam, if you can keep it."
When George Washington (1732–1799) was chosen to lead the American army, the British thought he would be a failure. Washington indeed faced many challenges, including an army that did not have weapons, uniforms, or bedding. He struggled to incorporate order and discipline and to instill pride and loyalty in his soldiers. Washington persevered to American victory. His success as a leader continued when he became the nation’s first President. How did Washington hold the army together through difficult times?
One aspect of American leadership has been Washington's reluctance to highlight himself personally at the expense of the Republic. Washington was often compared to Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (519 BC – 438 BC)--an aristocrat and political figure of the Roman Republic, who served as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC--for his willingness to give up near-absolute power once the crisis of the American Revolution had passed and victory had been won. Cincinnatus was regarded by the Romans, especially the aristocratic patrician class, as one of the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman virtue and simplicity. Washington is in Cincinnatus' tradition. The Society of the Cincinnati is a historical association founded in the aftermath of the American Revolutionary War to preserve the ideals of the military officer's role in the new American Republic.
Washington disdained personal pomp and circumstance and he steadfastly refused to be equated as a King. He began the tradition of simply being referred to as "Mr. President" as a title, and thus equated himself with the ordinary respect and dignity afforded to any person. He viewed the Presidency as a solemn duty to perform for the Republic. He would have preferred a private life at his estate Mt. Vernon.
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The original description: statue of Cincinnatus, Cincinnati, OH, 2004, by Rick Dikeman.
"With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer."
Does any other political group in history employ the fasces as a symbol of power?
Colonists Express Discontent (audio)
James Madison (1751–1836) arrived at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in May 1787 with his thick notebooks on history and government. Madison chose a seat in front of the president’s chair and kept detailed notes of the debates. Madison was greatly respected and quickly became the Convention’s floor leader. His notebooks remained unpublished for more than 50 years, but they are now our main source of information about the birth of the Constitution. What did the Framers of the Constitution have in common?
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) was a philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat. Sent by Congress to France in 1776 to seek financial and military support for the war, he soon became popular in France because of his intellect and wit. Those who admired America’s goal of attaining freedom also admired Franklin. When Franklin returned to America after nine years, he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention as the eldest of the delegates. Why was Franklin admired in France?
The Articles of Confederation was the nation’s first constitution. It proved to be too weak to rule the new United States effectively. To address this problem, the nation’s leaders gathered once more in Philadelphia. Among them were George Washington, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. During the hot summer of 1787, they met in secret to redraft the articles of the new constitution. The result was a document that established a government run by the people, for the people.
The Bill of Rights
The Framers of the Constitution had studied history and absorbed the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. They saw government in terms of a social contract into which “We the People of the United States” entered. They provided not only for an elective legislature but also for an elected president rather than a hereditary monarch. For the first President, voters would choose George Washington.
The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal, or national, government and the states. A central feature of the new federal government was the separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, an idea borrowed directly from Montesquieu. Within that structure, each branch of government was provided with checks and balances on the other branches.
The Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, was important to the passage of the Constitution. It recognized the idea that people had basic rights that the government must protect, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press. The Bill of Rights, like the Constitution, put the philosophes’ Enlightenment ideas into practice. In 1789, the Constitution became the supreme law of the land, which means it became the nation’s fundamental law. This remarkable document has endured for more than 200 years.
The Constitution of the United States created the most freest government of its day, and most likely for all time. From the start, the new republic was a symbol of freedom to European countries and reformers in Latin America. Its constitution would be copied or adapted by many lands throughout the world. The Enlightenment ideals that had inspired American colonists brought changes in Europe too. In 1789, a revolution in France toppled the monarchy in the name of liberty and equality. Before long, other Europeans would take up the cry for freedom as well.
What was the main difference between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution?
Eyewitness to History
Pearson Success Net has an interesting note on a "Witness History" feature.
Cf. References and exercises on Sec. 4.
As an exercise, we can play the part of an American spy as a Patriot working to free America from England's rule.
We can view an online exhibit about the Revolutionary War.
Also, we can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz.
We might also explore an interactive portrait of George Washington.
I had asked you to consider other references and exercises on Sec. 4.
Of the three I had you to take a look at, which was the class favorite?
1. We can view an online exhibit about the Revolutionary War.
2. Also, we can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz.
3. We might also explore an interactive portrait of George Washington.
And now we can consider the situation of the 13 colonies.
For access at home:
Web Code: nap-1731
2) Which colony had two pieces of land?
3) What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map?
What we did on our summer vacation, Summer 2009
USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world. It was first launched in 1797. Constitution is one of six ships ordered for construction by George Washington to protect America's growing maritime interests. The ships greatest glory came during the war of 1812 when she defeated four British frigates which earned her the nickname "Old Ironsides," because cannon balls glanced off her thick hull. The ship was restored in 1927 with contributions from the nation's school children.
The Charlestown Navy Yard was built on what was once Mouton's or Morton's Point, the landing place of the British army prior to the Battle of Bunker Hill. It was one of the first shipyards built in the United States. During its 174 year history, hundreds of ships were built, repaired and modernized, including the World War II destroyer USS Cassin Young. Today, thirty acres of the Navy Yard are preserved by the National Park Service as part of Boston National Historical Park.
Do research on the U.S.S. Constitution. What can you find out about this remarkable ship, nicknamed "Old Ironsides?"
Be sure to detail where the cities are located, e.g., state whether they are in the North, South, Mid-Atlantic, etc.
2) Which colony had two pieces of land?
3) What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map?
Abuses inherited as a result of a controlling aristocracy may be seen clearly in this work.
Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act by E.P. Thompson
Events That Changed the World
For: Interactive map, audio, and more
Web Code: nap-1733
HW: email (or hard copy) me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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1. Tuesday HW
p. 324, Using Key Terms, #1-5
HW 5 October 2010, Tuesday
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1. Monday HW
Using the guidelines above, create a formal outline for Section 3 of this Chapter.
HW 4 October 2010
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