Wednesday, May 05, 2010

AP Economics: 6 May 2010

Current Events:

American college grads can't buy a job

Official unemployment rates in the United States hover around 10 percent, even though many experts believe the real numbers are much higher. But for young adults in America, the situation is even worse. 54 percent of Americans under the age of 25 are unemployed according to the labor department. It's taking many college graduates over a year to land a steady job, and many are in hundreds of thousands of dollars of debt.


The Chapter 21 Multiple Choice MAKE-UP Test, composed of 50 questions, is today. Be sure to put your name on both the Scantron and the Test. You may write on the Test.

The Chapter 22 Multiple Choice Test, composed of 50 questions, is on Friday: per the 4th Quarter procedure, there are no Test Prep pages.

After these Tests, however, more Test sample questions, will be posted.

Now that the lecture presentations are complete we can review for the Test. Be sure to review Chapters 23-26 (we will have Tests on this material as well if we have time, TBA). I will hand out a packet from the most recent AP Economics Workshop Handbook 2008-2009 which includes sample questions and student answers which will help you review.

In the meantime, re-arrange yourselves into your three small groups and you can review sample Chapter multiple choice questions to answer. Decide within the groups how you want to sub-divide the questions and we can then review the suggested answers.

As we have time we can attempt diagnostic, full-length tests, and detailed answer explanations as well.

Review of Chs. 15 - 20 Multiple Choice Sample Questions

Email HW to
1. Be sure to review Chapters 22-26 (we will have Tests on this material as well if we have time, TBA). Some students have asked to be tested as close as possible after covering the material.

2. As review for HW, typical questions that you may encounter on the actual AP Economics Macro Test are included daily:

Review Questions (Princeton):
45. The practice of buying at a low price and selling at a high price for a certain profit is called

a) arbitrage
b) skimming
c) price fixing
d) price discrimination
e) predatory pricing

46. Which of the following is the most likely to be a deterrent to growth in the economy?

a) Spending on education and training
b) Increases in capital
c) Increases in the interest rate
d) Expenditures on research and development
e) Increased capacity utilization

47. According to Thomas Malthus and his followers,

a) technological snafus will be the parasite of the twenty-first century
b) technology will replace human labor inputs
c) population will grow geometrically and food production will grow more slowly
d) increases in efficiency will out pace population growth and lead to unsold output
e) by the year 2050, there will be virtually no worthwhile new inventions to be made

WH II Honors: 5 May 2010

Current Events:
US, Iran in nuclear punch-up at UN conference

Iran and the US have traded barbs during a nuclear non-proliferation conference at the United Nations. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad accused Washington of double standards, while US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton blamed Tehran for using evasive tactics to divert international attention from its nuclear programme. RT's Marina Portnaya was following day one of the heated talks.

The U.S. "among the most hated . . . in human history," Ahmadinejad

The Administration releases a set of figures that has remained an official government secret since the Manhattan project during World War II.

The U.S. stockpile consists of 5,113 active and inactive warheads, down from a high of 31,255 in 1967, in the years after the Cuban missile crisis.

Chapter 18: Nationalism Around the World, 1919–1939

Gandhi's March to the Sea

Section 1 Nationalism in the Middle East

Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
Impact of World War I
Massacre of the Armenians
Emergence of the Turkish Republic
Atatürk (1881–1938)
The Modernization of Turkey
Atatürk’s Reforms in Turkey
Westernization Transforms Turkey
The Beginnings of Modern Iran
Arab Nationalism
The Middle East, 1920s, Cf.
Col. William A. Eddy reported on when President Franklin D. Roosevelt (right) met with King Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud), of Saudi Arabia, on board USS Quincy (CA-71) in the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, on 14 February 1945.

Award of the Saudi Order of Merit, 3 June 2009
The Problem of Palestine
Two Views of One Place
The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History

Section 2 Preview
Section 2 Nationalism in Africa and Asia
After World War I, Germany lost its African colonies to Britain and France. Violent suppression and the slow pace of reform in the colonies led many Africans to agitate for independence. Two African Americans, W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey, were influential in building African cultural awareness and Pan-African unity. Mohandas Gandhi built a large movement for Indian independence through nonviolence. Indian Muslims felt sidelined by the largest independence organization, the Indian National Congress, and called for a separate Muslim state. Rapid industrialization in Japan led to support for territorial expansion to improve Japan's access to raw materials and markets. After a period of pacifism prompted in part by pressure from the United States, Japan conquered Manchuria, and the military took control of the government. The Communist International helped build Communist parties in China and Southeast Asia.

Movements toward Independence in Africa

African Protests
New Leaders
The Movement for Indian Independence
Protest and Reform
A Push for Independence
New Leaders and New Problems
The Rise of a Militarist Japan
A Zaibatsu Economy
Japan and the West
The Rise of Militarism

Japan's Expanding Empire to 1934


Web Code: nap-2651

Map Skills

Japan expanded its territory in Asia between 1918 and 1934. From their conquered lands, the Japanese acquired natural resources to fuel their industries.

1. Locate:

(a) Japan (b) Korea (c) Manchuria (d) Taiwan

2. Region

Where were Japan’s main manufacturing areas located?

3. Draw Conclusions

What natural resource does Korea lack but Manchuria have?

In the early 1930s, ultranationalists were winning support from the people for foreign conquests and a tough stand against the Western powers. Members of extreme nationalist societies assassinated a number of politicians and business leaders who opposed expansion. Military leaders plotted to overthrow the government and, in 1936, briefly occupied the center of Tokyo.

Civilian government survived, but the unrest forced the government to accept military domination in 1937. To please the ultranationalists, the government cracked down on socialists and suppressed most democratic freedoms. It revived ancient warrior values and built a cult around Emperor Hirohito, whom many believed was descended from the sun goddess. To spread its nationalist message, the government used schools to teach students absolute obedience to the emperor and service to the state.

The Rise of Totalitarian Dictators, 2:46

Reading Check


How did the Japanese government change from the 1920s to the 1930s?

Nationalism and Revolution in Asia

The Spread of Communism

Some Chinese turned to the revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin. The Soviet Union was more than willing to train Chinese students and military officers to become the vanguard, or elite leaders, of a communist revolution. By the 1920s, a small group of Chinese Communists had formed their own political party.

Raise The Red Lantern (setting is 1920s China) film review, 3:28

Raise the Red Lantern (simplified Chinese: 大红灯笼高高挂; traditional Chinese: 大紅燈籠高高掛; pinyin: Dà Hóng Dēnglóng Gāogāo Guà) is an award-winning 1991 Chinese-Hong Kong-Taiwanese co-produced film, directed by Zhang Yimou and starring Gong Li. It is an adaption by Ni Zhen of the 1990 novel Wives and Concubines by Su Tong. The film was later adapted into an acclaimed ballet of the same title by the National Ballet of China, also directed by Zhang.

Set in the 1920s, the film tells the story of a young woman who becomes one of the concubines of a wealthy man during the Warlord Era. It is noted for its opulent visuals and sumptuous use of colours. The film was shot in Qiao's Compound in the ancient city of Pingyao, in Shanxi Province. Although the screenplay was approved by Chinese censors, the final version of the film was banned in China for a period. Some film critics have interpreted the film as a veiled allegory against Chinese communist authoritarianism. The film's popularity has also been attributed to helping Chinese tourism after the government response to the Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989.

Communist Parties in Asia

Reading Check


What was the relationship between communism and imperialism?


Section 3 Revolutionary Chaos in China
As central authority collapsed in China, rival Nationalist and Communist Party forces briefly joined ranks. The two groups split after a Nationalist massacre of Communists. The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, founded a new Chinese republic in 1928. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, went into hiding in the cities. Mao's plans, however, were for a revolution led by peasants. In 1933 Mao's forces used guerrilla tactics to break through Nationalist lines closing in on them. They then began the Long March to the last surviving Communist base. Chiang had plans for land reform and a Western-style constitutional government. To make Western ideas palatable, he blended them with Confucian themes. Although he did achieve some meaningful reforms, Chiang's support came mainly from the rural gentry and the urban middle class; his reforms did little to redistribute wealth.

Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes
Use a chart like the one below to record the causes of upheaval in the Chinese Republic.

Sun Yixian, “father” of modern China, painted a grim picture of China after the end of the Qing dynasty.

“But the Chinese people have only family and clan solidarity; they do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in one China, in reality they are just a heap of loose sand. Today we are the poorest and weakest nation in the world and occupy the lowest position in international affairs. Other men are the carving knife and serving dish, we are the fish and the meat.”

As Sun emphasized, China needed to change, but how and in what direction?

As the new Chinese republic took shape, nationalists like Sun Yixian (sun yee zhahng) set the goal of “catching up and surpassing the powers, east and west.” But that goal would remain a distant dream as China suffered the turmoil of civil war and foreign invasion.

As you have read, China’s Qing dynasty collapsed in 1911. The president of China’s new republic, Sun Yixian (also called Sun Yat-sen) hoped to rebuild China on the Three Principles of the People—nationalism, democracy, and economic security for everyone. But he made little progress. China quickly fell into chaos in the face of the “twin evils” of warlord uprisings and foreign imperialism.

In 1912, Sun Yixian stepped down as president in favor of Yuan Shikai (yoo ahn shih ky), a powerful general. Sun hoped that Yuan would create a strong central government, but instead, the ambitious general tried to set up a new dynasty. The military, however, did not support Yuan, and opposition divided the nation. When Yuan died in 1916, China plunged into still greater disorder.

In the provinces, local warlords seized power. As rival armies battled for control, the economy collapsed and millions of peasants suffered terrible hardships. Famine and attacks by bandits added to their misery.

During this period of upheaval, foreign powers increased their influence over Chinese affairs. Foreign merchants, missionaries, and soldiers dominated the ports China had opened to trade.

During World War I, Japanese officials presented Yuan Shikai with the Twenty-One Demands, a list of demands that sought to make China a Japanese protectorate. With China too weak to resist, Yuan gave in to some of the demands. Then, in 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference, the Allies gave Japan control over some former German possessions in China. That news infuriated Chinese Nationalists.

Note Taking
Reading Skill: Sequence Use a chart like the one below to sequence the fighting that went on among the Guomindang, the warlords, the Chinese Communists, and the Japanese from 1921 through 1937.

In response, student protests erupted in Beijing on May 4, 1919, and later spread to cities across China. The protests set off a cultural and intellectual ferment known as the May Fourth Movement. Its goal was to strengthen China. Reformers sought to improve China’s position by rejecting Confucian traditions and learning from the West. As in Meiji Japan, they hoped to use their new knowledge to end foreign domination.

Vocabulary Builder
intellectual—(in teh lek choo ul) adj. involving the ability to reason or think clearly

Women played a key role in the May Fourth Movement. They joined marches and campaigned to end a number of traditional practices, including footbinding. Their work helped open doors for women in education and the economy.

The Appeal of Marxism
Some Chinese turned to the revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin. The Soviet Union was more than willing to train Chinese students and military officers to become the vanguard, or elite leaders, of a communist revolution. By the 1920s, a small group of Chinese Communists had formed their own political party.

Nationalists and Communists

Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum - Travel - Jim Rogers World Adventure, 2:10

The Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-sen is situated at the foot of the second peak of Mount Zijin (Purple Mountain) in Nanjing, China. Construction of the tomb started in January of 1926 and was finished in spring of 1929. The architect was Lu Yanzhi, who died shortly after it was finished.

In 1921, Sun Yixian and his Guomindang (gwoh meen dawng) or Nationalist party, established a government in south China. Sun planned to raise an army, defeat the warlords, and spread his government’s rule over all of China. When Western democracies refused to help, Sun accepted aid from the Soviet Union and joined forces with the small group of Chinese Communists. However, he still believed that China’s future should be based on his Three Principles of the People.

After Sun’s death in 1925, an energetic young army officer, Jiang Jieshi (jahng jeh shur), took over the Guomindang. Jiang Jieshi (also called Chiang Kai-Shek) was determined to smash the power of the warlords and reunite China, but he had little interest in either democracy or communism.

Jiang Jieshi, Leader of the GuomindangJiang Jieshi headed the Guomindang (Nationalist) government in China from the late 1920s until 1949.

In 1926, Jiang Jieshi began the Northern Expedition in cooperation with the Chinese Communists. In the Northern Expedition, Jiang led the combined forces into northern China, crushing or winning over local warlords as he advanced and capturing Beijing. Jiang would go on to take control of a new government led by the Guomindang—but without the Communists.

In mid-campaign, Jiang seized the chance to strike at the Chinese Communist Party, which he saw as a threat to his power. The Communists were winning converts among the small proletariat in cities like Shanghai. Early in 1927, on orders from Jiang, Guomindang troops slaughtered Communist Party members and the workers who supported them. In Shanghai and elsewhere, thousands of people were killed. This massacre marked the beginning of a bitter civil war between the Communists and the Guomindang that lasted for 22 years.

Comparing Viewpoints

Who Should Lead the New China?
The excerpts below present the views of China’s two most influential leaders on who should direct the future of China.

Critical Thinking Who does each person think should lead China?

One Strong Leader
The most important point of fascism is absolute trust in a sagely able leader. Aside from complete trust in one person, there is no other leader or ism. Therefore, with the organization, although there are cadre, council members, and executives, there is no conflict among them, there is only the trust in the one leader. The leader has final decision in all matters.

—Jiang Jieshi, 1933

Peasant Masses
The broad peasant masses have risen to fulfill their historic mission . . . the democratic forces in the rural areas have risen to overthrow the rural feudal power. . . . To overthrow this feudal power is the real objective of the national revolution. What Dr. Sun Yat-sen [Yixian] wanted to do . . . but failed to accomplish, the peasants have accomplished in a few months.

—Mao Zedong, 1927

Mao Zedong and the Communists
Among the Communists who escaped Jiang’s attack was a young revolutionary of peasant origins, Mao Zedong (mow dzuh doong) (also called Mao Tse-tung). Unlike earlier Chinese Communists, Mao believed that the Communists should seek support not among the small urban working class but among the large peasant masses.

Although the Communists were pursued at every turn by Guomindang forces, Mao was optimistic about eventual success. In southeastern China, Mao and the Communists redistributed land to peasants and promised other reforms.

Mao Zedong, Leader of the CommunistsMao Zedong led the Chinese Communists through some of their darkest times, including the Long March.


Reading Check


How did Chiang Kai-shek change the Communist-Nationalist alliance?

The Communists in Hiding

Reading Check


Which group did Mao believe would start the Communist Revolution in China?

The Long March

Jiang Jieshi, however, was determined to destroy the “Red bandits,” as he called the Communists. He led the Guomindang in a series of “extermination campaigns” against them. The Guomindang harassed Mao’s retreating army throughout the Long March from 1934 to 1935. Mao’s forces used guerrilla, or irregular hit-and-run, tactics to fight back. At the end of the Long March, the Communists set up a new base in a remote region of northern China. There, Mao rebuilt his forces and plotted new strategies for fighting the Guomindang.

During the march, the Communists enforced strict discipline. Soldiers were told to treat peasants politely, pay for goods they wanted, and avoid damaging crops. Such behavior made Mao’s forces welcome among peasants, many of whom had suffered greatly at the hands of the Guomindang.

Civil War in China, 1927–1936


Primary Source
One of the most dramatic events in the conflict between the Guomindang and the Communists was the epic retreat known as the Long March. During the Long March, Mao and about 100,000 of his followers fled the Guomindang. In the next year, they trekked more than 6,000 miles, facing daily attacks as they crossed rugged mountains and mighty rivers. Only about 8,000 marchers survived the ordeal. For decades, the Long March stood as a symbol of communist heroism and inspired new recruits to follow Mao. He claimed the great retreat as a victory. As he observed:

Primary Source
“The Long March is also a seeding-machine. It has sown many seeds in eleven provinces, which will sprout, grow leaves, blossom into flowers, bear fruit, and yield a crop.”

—Mao Zedong, “On the Tactics of Fighting Japanese Imperialism”

Reading Check


Why did it seem that communism was no longer a threat to China after the Long March?

The New China of Chiang Kai-shek

Reading Check


What was the intended final stage of Chiang Kai-shek's reform program?

The Vapors - Turning Japanese

(P) 1980 The copyright in this audiovisual recording is owned by EMI Records Ltd


How To Take Effective Notes
Email to

Wednesday: p. 566, Reading Check


What radical step did Ataturk take to modernize Turkey?

p. 566, Reading Check


How was Reza Shah Pahlavi's modernization of Persia different from Ataturk's transformation of Turkey?

p. 567, Reading Check


How were many Middle Eastern states created after World War I?