Monday, April 04, 2016

PHI 210 Week 1

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9 pm. I will take roll at 9:45 pm--when we will do our in-class Discussion--before you are dismissed at 10:00 pm.

Week 1 Lecture 1

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PHI/210/1142/Week1/Lecture1/player.html

Week 1 Lecture 2

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PHI/210/1142/Week1/Lecture2/player.html

criticalthinkeracademy.com/courses

Videos

www.khanacademy.org

phil102/Intro
 

1. Thinking
Learning Objectives
Define critical thinking.
Chapter Pages
1.1 What is Critical Thinking?
1.2 Webtext Overview: What is Critical Thinking?
1.3
Practice: What Is Critical Thinking?
1.4
Why Think Critically?
1.5
Practice: Why Think Critically?
1.6
The Best Possible
1.7 Practice: The Best Possible
2. Barriers
Learning Objectives
Develop skills for overcoming barriers which limit objective and productive critical thinking.
Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals
and abuses of language.
Chapter Pages
2.1 Emotions and Biases
2.2 Practice: Emotions and Biases
2.3 Culture and Stereotypes
2.4 Practice: Culture and Stereotypes
2.5 Thinking Independently
2.6 Practice: Thinking Independently
3. Arguments


Learning Objectives
Apply the principles of argumentation to analyze, evaluate, and compose
effective arguments.
Chapter Pages
3.1 Arguments are Support
3.2
Practice: Arguments are Support
3.3
Deduction
3.4
Practice: Deduction
3.5
Induction
3.6 Practice: Induction
4. Fallacies
Learning Objectives
Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals
and abuses of language.
Chapter Pages
4.1 Fallacies
4.2
Practice: Fallacies
4.3
More Fallacies
4.4
Practice: More Fallacies
4.5
Even More Fallacies
4.6 Practice: Even More Fallacies

5. Sources
Learning Objectives
Apply the principles of argumentation to analyze, evaluate, and compose effective
arguments.
Chapter Pages
5.1 Credibility
5.2
Practice: Credibility
5.3
Experts
5.4
Practice: Experts
5.5
Everyone Else
Page

6. Explanations
Learning Objectives
Develop skills for overcoming barriers which limit objective and productive
critical thinking.
Chapter Pages
6.1 Qualities of Explanations
6.2
Practice: Explanations
6.3
Scientific Explanations
6.4
Practice: Scientific Explanations
6.5
Statistics and Fallacies
6.6 Practice: Statistics and Fallacies
7. Problem Solving
Learning Objectives
Devise an action plan for overcoming the hindrances to the decision- making
process by applying problem-solving skills to personal, professional, and academic
situations and experiences.
Chapter Pages
7.1 Define and Analyze the Problem
7.2
Practice: Define and Analyze the Problem
7.3
Generate Options
7.4
Practice: Generate Options
7.5
Make Your Choice
7.6 Practice: Make Your Choice
8. Language
Learning Objectives
Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals
and abuses of language.
Explain how critical thinking improves the ability to communicate accurately,
both orally and in writing.
Chapter Pages
8.1 Language and Thinking
8.2
Practice: Language and Thinking
8.3
Define Your Terms
8.4
Practice: Define Your Terms
8.5
Word Games
8.6 Practice: Word Games
9. Ethics
Learning Objectives
Devise an action plan for overcoming the hindrances to the decision-making process by
applying problem-solving skills to personal, professional, and academic situations and
experiences.
Chapter Pages
9.1 Ethical Claims
9.2
Practice: Ethical Claims
9.3
Ethical Reasoning
9.4
Practice: Ethical Reasoning
9.5
Moral Theories
9.6 Practice: Moral Theories
10. Case Study
Learning Objectives
Apply the principles of argumentation to analyze, evaluate, and compose effective
arguments.
Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals
and abuses of language.
Chapter Pages
10.1 Introduction to the Case Study
10.2
Multiple Perspectives
10.3
Exploring the Context
10.4
Taking Sides
10.5 Debating Whether to Act
10.6 Challenging Credibility

My supplemental text, which is not required, for this class:

Thinking: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Critical and Creative Thought, Fourth Edition Author(s): Gary R. Kirby; Jeffery R. Goodpaster
http://instructors.coursesmart.com/0132209764/?a=5299998&CSTenantKey=strayer

Assignment 1.1: Conflicting Viewpoints Essay -- Part 1, should be on one of five possible topics:


WTC Muslim Center, gay marriage, Obamacare, drones, or illegal immigration.

Webtext
Chapter 1: The Value of Thinking Critically

  • What is Critical Thinking?
  • Why Think Critically?
  • The Best Possible
1.1 What is Critical Thinking?

What is Critical Thinking? A Definition, 2:52

http://youtu.be/ZLyUHbexz04



Critical thinking is the study of clear and unclear thinking. It is primarily used in the field of education, and not in psychology (it does not refer to a theory of thinking).
The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking (a non-profit organisation based in the U.S.) defines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

Etymology

One sense of the term critical means crucial; a second sense derives from κριτικός (kritikos), which means discerning judgment.

Hand-out of Critical Thinking Definition

Critical thinking has been defined as:
* "the process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion"Dictionary.com, "critical thinking," in Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon. Source location: Dictionary.com, LLC. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/critical thinking. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com. Accessed: June 22, 2013.

* "disciplined thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence"Dictionary.com, "critical thinking," in Dictionary.com Unabridged. Source location: Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/critical thinking. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com. Accessed: June 22, 2013. * "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do"Ennis, Robert (20 June 2002). "A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking" http://faculty.education.illinois.edu/rhennis/SSConcCTApr3.html Retrieved January 18, 2013.

* "purposeful, [[self-regulatory]] judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgement is based"Facione, Peter A. ''[http://www.insightassessment.com/CT-Resources/Teaching-For-and-About-Critical-Thinking/Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts/Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts-PDF Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts],'' Insightassessment.com, 2011, p. 26

* "includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs"Mulnix, J. W. (2010). Thinking critically about critical thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory. {{DOI|10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00673.x}}, p. 471

* in [[critical social theory]]: commitment to the social and political practice of participatory democracy, willingness to imagine or remain open to considering alternative perspectives, willingness to integrate new or revised perspectives into our ways of thinking and acting, and willingness to foster criticality in others.Raiskums, B.W. (2008). ''An Analysis of the Concept Criticality in Adult Education.'' Capella University. ISBN 0549778349{{page needed|date=November 2012}}

*the skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism (McPeck, 1981)

*disciplined, self-directed thinking which exemplifies the perfection of thinking appropriate to a particular mode of domain of thinking (Paul, 1989, p. 214)

*thinking about one's thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify, raise the efficiency of, and recognize errors and biases in one's own thinking. Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems (other than 'improving' one's own thinking). Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. One does not use critical thinking to solve problems - one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking.Carmichael, Kirby; letter to Olivetti, Laguna Salada Union School District, May, 1997

1.2 Why Think Critically?

Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines (by referencing their respective sets of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.). Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization.

Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure their thinking, thereby decreasing the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker's inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and cultivation of intellectual traits.


Socratic method is defined as "a prolonged series of questions and answers which refutes a moral assertion by leading an opponent to draw a conclusion that contradicts his own viewpoint." Critical thinking skills through Socratic method taught in schools help create leaders.

Instructors that promote critical thinking skills can benefit the students by increasing their confidence and creating a repeatable thought process to question and confidently approach a solution. Students also accomplish follower-ship skills that can be used to probe the leader's foundations. Critical thinking skills through Socratic method serve to produce professionals that are self-governing. However, Socratic method for critical thinking skills can become confusing if an instructor or leader uses the method too rigidly, the student may not know what the instructor or leader wants from him. An instructor or leader may disillusion the students if he uses particular style of questioning. Instructors must reveal their reasoning behind the questions in order to guide the students in the right direction. "Socratic method can serve twenty-first-century leaders to instruct students, mentor protégés, motivate followers, advise other leaders, and influence peers."

Supplemental: Week 1, Lecture 1, 5:04

Topics

Definition (s) of "thinking"

Roles of thinking: possibility, communicating, writing, dialogue

Thought can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts. Although thought is a fundamental human activity familiar to everyone, there is no generally accepted agreement as to what thought is or how it is created. Thoughts may or may not arise in the mind from the product of subconscious brain processing.

Because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins, processes, and effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, artificial intelligence, biology, sociology and cognitive science.

Thinking allows humans to make sense of, interpret, represent or model the world they experience, and to make predictions about that world. It is therefore helpful to an organism with needs, objectives, and desires as it makes plans or otherwise attempts to accomplish those goals.

The Scientific Power of Thought, 2:49


https://youtu.be/-v-IMSKOtoE




Pre-Built Course Content

Week 1, Lecture 2, 8:12

Topics
Reasons objectivity is difficult

Enculturation, religious opinions

https://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/enculturation/25186904/?s=CBADjN&ref=appemail

Self-concepts

https://www.educreations.com/lesson/view/the-self/25231897/?s=KlLREQ&ref=appemail

Ego


What Does The Ego Mean? | Concept Explained, 5:05

https://youtu.be/ibgyJ-ec5F0



Emotions
Emotional Intelligence, 2:52
A short animation breaking down the concepts of emotional intelligence and how it's an integral part of thinking and decision making.
https://youtu.be/weuLejJdUu0

Errors in thinking

Pre-Built Course Content

What Did I Do to Prepare in WEEK 1?
Know the course outcomes:
Define Critical Thinking
Access the Web text and review the course guide.
Consider Socrates: "The unexamined life is not worth living."
Philosophy for the Masses - A conversation with Angie Hobbs (Preview), through, 2:22
2:56

"The unexamined life is not worth living", Socrates once said. But how exactly do we examine life?

To be discussed:

In debates, politics, and public policy, why should we reject politicians who talk about fairness?

What should we appreciate from philosophy?

http://youtu.be/lA44Lojgk-8



Enter Angie Hobbs, the UK's first Senior Fellow in the Public Understanding of Philosophy. Philosophy, Angie believes, anchors our human experience: it's where we find the principles on which we build our knowledge, the tools to critical thinking and the keys to a more fulfilled life.

We sat down with Angie in London's RSA to discuss the importance of philosophy and how to best share it with the world.
You can watch the full conversation at www.ideasroadshow.com or on our iPad app on Apple Newsstand

Socrates, The Unexamined Life is Not Worth Living.html
Philosophers have long done their best thinking when directly engaging with the outside world, not in isolation from it. Socrates roved the Athenian agora, courting trouble with the authorities. Rousseau immortalized his rambles through nature on the printed page. Nietzsche once said that only ideas conceived while walking have any value.

In Examined Life, filmmaker Astra Taylor accompanies some of today's most influential thinkers on a series of unique excursions through places and spaces that hold particular resonance for them and their ideas.
And while driving through Manhattan, Cornel West - perhaps America's best-known public intellectual - compares philosophy to jazz and blues, reminding us how intense and invigorating a life of the mind can be.

What is your reaction to what Dr. West says?
Peter Singer's thoughts on the ethics of consumption are amplified against the backdrop of Fifth Avenue's posh boutiques.

Is it a moral problem to consume when so many others have so little?
Should you save children or spend more on shoes (or, whatever you desire)?
In the full production, Michael Hardt ponders the nature of revolution while surrounded by symbols of wealth and leisure. Judith Butler and a friend stroll through San Francisco's Mission District questioning our culture's fixation on individualism.

Offering privileged moments with great thinkers from fields ranging from moral philosophy to cultural theory, Examined Life reveals philosophy's power to transform the way we see the world around us and imagine our place in it.

Featuring Cornel West, Avital Ronell, Peter Singer, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Martha Nussbaum, Michael Hardt, Slavoj Zizek, Judith Butler and Sunaura Taylor.
How have some of today's most influential thinkers considered Socrates' question?
We will discuss your answers following the video.

http://youtu.be/ZrnzMpgISgo



How aware are you?
p. 8: thinking activity.
Thinking Activity 1.2
There are three columns to write out.

On a piece of paper, jot down the things around you that are obvious in one column.

Next, in the second column, jot down more things that are less obvious but that you notice now.

In the third column, jot down things that you did not notice at first but now that you are concentrating on your awareness, you did notice. 

Finally, think about what you sensed and felt. What does it mean?

 Thinking, Chapter 2: “Personal Barriers.”
pp. 17-18 Religion and Enculturation

p. 18 Think About It
Secularization, Religious Resurgence, and Multiple Modernities, 2:10
As modernity has advanced across the world, some people are surprised that in most societies faith not been relegated to the private sphere or altogether abandoned. Investigate the manner in which cultures modernize in unique ways, many of which accommodate or even promote religious belief and practice.

What is secularization?
Secularization or secularisation is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious (or irreligious) values and secular institutions. The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies progress, particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance.

Are religions everywhere in decline, or are they resurging?
In Europe, does modernization and secularization go hand in hand?
Modernization theory is a theory used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society. The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that, with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have. Modernization theory attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies, and seeks to explain the process of social evolution

Is the same true for the United States?

Food for thought: has modernization led to secularization in the Middle East?

http://youtu.be/oKCT-4lZHKc



Does SCIENCE = TRUTH? (Nietzsche) - 8-Bit Philosophy, 3:07
http://youtu.be/Y68mGbvZZZg


Nietzsche
Simon Critchley Examines Friedrich Nietzsche,
The philosopher takes a look at Nietzsche's approach to life and death.
Critchley: Yeah. Nietzsche describes a mad man who runs into a public square shouting, God is dead. God is dead and the people didn't believe him, and he's laughed at, and he leaves. He came too soon. He says, he came, I came too soon. But the thought here is deeper, more interesting. It's not that the Nietzsche said, God is dead. Something you can find on _____ worlds, the world over is that God is dead, we have killed him, and what Nietzsche means by that I think is that the outcome of history is the death of God. We no longer need or we no longer can believe in those sorts of assurances which theology gave us through let's say, let's say through the development of science and technology. We've got ourselves to a position where God is an accessory that we can do without. So, it's not that Nietzsche was celebrating the death of God. He thinks that God is a pretty bad idea. He makes us cringing, cowardly, submissive creatures but it doesn't mean the opposite is something to be celebrated. We shouldn't just celebrate our, you know, that would lead to sort of nihilism. What Nietzsche thought is that, you know, human history is led to a point where we are, we find the idea of God incredible. We can no longer believe it and at that point he says, there's a risk of us throwing up our hands, and saying, well, nothing means anything. That's what Nietzsche calls nihilism. Nietzsche's thought is not nihilism. This is a key thing. Nietzsche is trying to think, a counter movement to nihilism and this is what he calls a re-evaluation of values, or an overcoming of nihilism. It's what Nietzsche wants us to do. Nietzsche is, you know, Nietzsche wants us to reject our usual ways of thinking morally in terms of a new way of conceding of value that would be in terms of life ultimately, the affirmation of life, something like that.

Nihilism - life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.
http://youtu.be/MrI5WQ4u7MY

What basis for moral values and behavioral codes do we have (if not religion)?
The Big Bang Theory - Nietzsche on Morality, 1:42
http://youtu.be/1yydR6r7NNE

What is Real? (Plato) - 8-Bit Philosophy, 2:48
http://youtu.be/lVDaSgyi3xE

The Cave: An Adaptation of Plato's Allegory in Clay, 3:11
http://youtu.be/69F7GhASOdM
Can you apply the allegory to your own life, personlly?

An excerpt from Plato's Republic, the 'Allegory of the Cave' is a classic commentary on the human condition. It is a story of open-mindedness and the power of possibility.
We have adapted and brought it to life by shooting thousands of high-resolution photographs of John Grigsby's wonderful clay animation. To learn more, visit http://platosallegory.com

p. 26, Ego Defenses
Denial
Projection
Rationalization


AP Psych Defense Mechanisms Video, 3:06
BTB (Beyond the Book) project for AP Psych.
Project by Abigail Pulizzano, Cameron Chan, and Eric Liu.



Defense Mechanisms:

What are Defense Mechanisms? 11 Examples of Defense Mechanism, 5:14
https://youtu.be/zCeeO0nM1nE
What are defense mechanisms? 11 Defense Mechanism Examples. http://truepotentialcounseling.com/wh... In this video Andrea Cairella, LPCC in Long Beach, CA covers what are defense mechanisms and provides 11 examples of defense mechanisms. C'mon over to http://truepotentialcounseling.com/wh... where the main discussion happens after the episode. What are defense mechanisms you use? Today you'll learn what are defense mechanisms you use and the top 11 examples of defense mechanisms used in our intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. Some examples of defense mechanisms are: 1. Blaming or Attacking Others -- This defense mechanism is used when your ego becomes threatened, you feel vulnerable and hurt, or you don't want to admit your short-comings or contributions to the problem. 2. Rationalization -- This example of a defense mechanism is a subconscious justification, excuse or reasoning given to make a behavior seem logical. 3. Excuses -- Instead of taking responsibility for your actions or lack of action, you instead share all the reasons why it could not be done or blames others for your behavior. 4. Deflection -- When you change the subject and focus on someone or something else, instead of speaking about yourself. 5. Playing the Victim -- To avoid dealing with the problem or feeling responsible for the situation, the victim finds it easier to make the other person the bad guy and believes that everything is happening to them. 6. Displacement - This defense reduces anxiety or pressure by transferring feelings toward one person to another. 7. Conversion - Mental conflict converted to a physical symptom. 8. Regression - Giving up current level of development and going back to a prior level. 9. Reaction Formation - Over-compensation for fear of the opposite. When there are two conflicting parts in self-one is strengthened while the other is repressed. 10. Simple Denial - Unpleasant facts, emotions, or events are treated as if they are not real or don't exist. 11. Fantasy - Retreating into a dream world of times past. What are the defense mechanisms you use? Give your examples of defense mechanisms over on the blog. If you enjoyed this video, subscribe to our channel and sign up for your free weekly relationship and life advice at http://www.TruePotentialCounseling.com And if you're interested in more videos on relationship advice for couples, check out our YouTube playlist on that exact topic here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l30V0F... Thanks for watching! My YouTube channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/peakpoten... Examples of defense mechanisms on my website: http://truepotentialcounseling.com/wh... Examples of defense mechanisms on YouTube: http://youtu.be/zCeeO0nM1nE
-Repression


Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological attempt made by an individual to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding the desire from one's consciousness and holding or subduing it in the unconscious. Repression plays a major role in many mental illnesses, and in the psyche of the average person.[1] Repression (German: Verdrängung), 'a key concept of psychoanalysis, is a defense mechanism, but it pre-exists the ego, e.g., 'Primal Repression'. It ensures that what is unacceptable to the conscious mind, which would arouse anxiety if recalled, is prevented from entering into it';[2] and is generally accepted as such by psychoanalytic psychologists.[3] There is debate as to whether (or how often) memory repression really occurs[4] and mainstream psychology holds that true memory repression occurs only very rarely.[5]
Repressive Defenses, 3:44
Presentation on repressive defenses. For more information, go to http://www.istdpinstitute.com. Visit us at Facebook at http://facebook.com/Dynamicpsychotherapy
https://youtu.be/H84zZNH0AkM
-Displacement

In Freudian psychology, displacement (German: Verschiebung, "shift, move") is an unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind substitutes either a new aim or a new object for goals felt in their original form to be dangerous or unacceptable.[1] A term originating with Sigmund Freud,[2] displacement operates in the mind unconsciously, its transference of emotions, ideas, or wishes being most often used to allay anxiety in the face of aggressive or sexual impulses.
Psychology: Displacement, 1:10
A short film showing an example of the defense mechanism by the name of "Displacement."
https://youtu.be/LWQVR3MEjOE
-Projection

Psychological projection is a theory in psychology in which humans defend themselves against their own unpleasant impulses by denying their existence while attributing them to others.[1] For example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other people of being rude. It can take the form of blame shifting. According to some research, the projection of one's negative qualities onto others is a common process in everyday life.[2]
Lucid Rich Jr - Psychological Projection, 1:59
A short educational cartoon about Psychological Projection. A little something to educate others. Inspired by Tim P Nokio
https://youtu.be/tmnAX1j0P_k
-Rationalization

In psychology and logic, rationalization or rationalisation (also known as making excuses[1]) is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable – or even admirable and superior – by plausible means.[2] It is also an informal fallacy of reasoning.[3] Rationalisation happens in two steps: A decision, action, judgement is made for a given reason, or no (known) reason at all. A rationalisation is performed, constructing a seemingly good or logical reason, as an attempt to justify the act after the fact (for oneself or others). Rationalization encourages irrational or unacceptable behavior, motives, or feelings and often involves ad hoc hypothesizing. This process ranges from fully conscious (e.g. to present an external defense against ridicule from others) to mostly unconscious (e.g. to create a block against internal feelings of guilt or shame). People rationalize for various reasons — sometimes when we think we know ourselves better than we do. Rationalization may differentiate[clarification needed] the original deterministic explanation of the behavior or feeling in question.
Defense Mechanism: Rationalization - Scrubs, 1:13
An example of rationalization in Scrubs. Turk makes up an excuse for being afraid during surgery.
https://youtu.be/mSe9X89x5pw
 

-Denial

Israel Charny: Psychology of Denial, 4:25

Dr. Israel W. Charny, psychologist and executive director of the Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide in Jerusalem, tells the story of how he became a “devoted student of the denial of the Armenian Genocide” and suggests several reasons why the Turkish government, over the last one hundred years, has gone to great lengths—politically and at great financial cost—to continue its policy of denial. Dr. Israel W. Charny is an Israeli and American psychologist who is widely known as the co-founder and past president of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, founder and first president of the Israel Family Therapy Association, and a past president of the International Family Therapy Association. Three of his works have been awarded "Outstanding Academic Book of the Year" by the American Library Association including Fascism and Democracy in the Human Mind. He has written and lectured extensively on the psychological motivations and impact of denial. He is also the author of Encyclopedia of Genocide, a two-volume reference work that examines the entire historiography of all genocides, including the phenomenology of the denial.

https://youtu.be/uzatvOTMJj8

 

-Reaction Formation

I do not own any of the songs used in this video; no copyright infringement intended. All credits go to the artists (Rascal Flatts, Chester See, and NeverShoutNever).

http://youtu.be/Cx44SvYiAIs

Ian Hunter Something to Believe In.html 5:47
Ian Hunter, God (Take 1), 1976, with lyrics, 5:46
http://youtu.be/yBRMFKfWK_E

 Self-concepts
 Ego
 Emotions
 Errors in thinking
Lectures/Discussions:
 Faculty introduction, course overview, and expectations
 Review course philosophy, expectations, assignments, late policy, grading, academic integrity, APA use if appropriate, and attendance policy.
 Student introductions
 Lecture on definition(s) of “thinking” and the role of thinking – possibility, communicating, writing, and dialogue.
 Lecture on reasons that objectivity is difficult, enculturation and religious opinions, self-concepts, ego, emotions, and errors in thinking.
 Discussion: “Thinking About Thinking.”
o Select a quote about “thinking” from Chapter 1 that best describes your own viewpoint and explain why this quote is meaningful to you.
o Identify which of the sources of enculturation has had the most impact on your own thinking and explain why you think this is the case.
o Identify one of the “5 Errors of Thinking” that you recently observed in another or even committed yourself and explain how this affected productive communication.

Week 1 Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:





To meet the overall objectives we will cover the following topics in Part 1:
  • Definition(s) of "thinking"
  • Role of thinking — possibility, communicating, writing, dialogue
To meet the overall objectives we will cover the following topics in Part 2:
  • Reasons objectivity is difficult
  • Enculturation, religious opinions
    • Enculturation is the process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviours appropriate or necessary in that culture. As part of this process, the influences that limit, direct, or shape the individual (whether deliberately or not) include parents, other adults, and peers. If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture.
  • Self-concepts Classical Notions of the Self - Philosopher Raymond Martin.html
  • Ego
"Ego" is a Latin and Greek (ἑγώ) word meaning "I", often used in English to mean the "self", "identity" or other related concepts.
Ego, Elton John.html
  • Emotions
  • Errors in thinking
What Will I Do to Prepare for Week 2? 9:45 - 10 pm


REFERENCES

The News is Fake
top-german-journalist-admits-mainstream-media-completely-fake-we-all-lie-cia
 
Obama Censors Islamist Statement from French President
video-wh-censors-reference-islamist-terrorism-french-president
 
Shapiro vs. Pro-Choice
Shapiro
 
Pastor vs. Islamist on Hannity
Hannity 
 
Watter's World Easter
Clue



Lord of the Flies (2/11) Movie CLIP - Whoever Holds the Conch Gets to Speak (1990) HD, 2:26
https://youtu.be/ipkF3xkP63M
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipkF3xkP63M
Lord of the Flies movie clips: http://j.mp/1IjNfIC BUY THE MOVIE: http://j.mp/1cb9ti0 Don't miss the HOTTEST NEW TRAILERS: http://bit.ly/1u2y6pr CLIP DESCRIPTION: Ralph (Balthazar Getty) leads the boys in a discussion about how they should set up camp. FILM DESCRIPTION: Harry Hook directed this second screen adaptation of William Golding's cult novel about a group of British schoolchildren who revert to savagery when marooned on a deserted island. The new adaptation replaces British school children with a group of American military cadets and instead of a shipwreck, their plane crashes into the sea. The children swim ashore onto an island and try to fend for themselves, with the only surviving adult wracked with fever and crazed with pain. As the children get the feel of the island, the group separates into two different camps: Ralph (Balthazar Getty) and his followers prefer to act civilized and want to expand their efforts toward finding a way off the island; on the other hand, Jack (Chris Furrh) and his band revert to painting their faces, carrying spears and exploiting the island for survival. When the chances for rescue become less and less likely, the two factions go to war with each other, with tragic results. CREDITS: TM & © MGM (1990) Cast: Vincent Amabile, Chuck Bell, Angus Burgin, James Badge Dale, Gordon Elder, Everado Elizondo, Chris Furrh, Balthazar Getty, Michael Greene, James Hamm, Brian Jacobs, Braden MacDonald, Brian Matthews, Judson McCune, Charlie Newmark, Danuel Pipoly, Zane Rockenbaugh, Gary Rule, Robert Shea, Shawn Skie, Andrew Taft, Edward Taft, David Weinstein, Terry Wells, Martin Zentz Director: Harry Hook Producers: Lewis M. Allen, Jeffrey Bydalek, Ross Milloy, Lewis Newman, Walker Stuart, Peter Newman, David V. Lester Screenwriters: William Golding, Sara Schiff