Friday, September 29, 2006

AP Government, Test

On Monday we will cover the first chapter of the Woll text.
On Tuesday, we will have a test on Chapter 2 in the Wilson text. It is a multiple guess format.

WH, Test Chs. 18 & 19, Tues.

There will be a Test on Chapters 18 & 19 on Tuesday.

Wednesday, September 27, 2006

WH Ch. 19 Sec. 5 The End of an Era

World History, Chapter 19, Section 5 The End of an Era

1. Lesson Plan Focus
“Amazing Transformation”

The Continental System and the spread of nationalism led to rebellions against French rule. After defeats in Russia and at Leipzig and Waterloo, Napoleon lost power. European leaders at the Congress of Vienna sought to restore stability and order based on the status quo of 1792. They redrew national boundaries, restored monarchs, established a balance of power, and created the Concert of Europe.

2. In-class Instruct
There are five generalizations in this section:

1) Other nations in Europe benefited from the reforms of the French Revolution.
2) Nationalism was a major reason for Napoleon’s downfall.
3) Geography played an important role in Napoleon’s defeat in Russia.
4) The French people supported Napoleon.
5) The Congress of Vienna in 1815 achieved its goals.

As you read this section, find evidence that supports or disputes each generalization. Then write a paragraph in response to each. Your paragraphs should agree or disagree with each statement and provide pertinent facts to support your opinion.

3. Close
Ask students to bring in news stories about nationalism and its influence on world events today. These can be displayed around the classroom.

Vocabulary, p. 488
Guerilla warfare

Biography, p. 488
Caption, p. 489
Geography and History, p. 490
Disaster! P. 491
Map, p. 492
Biography, p. 493

Find the answers that fit the material.

Review locations
Possible answer: Moscow was such a great distance from France that Napoleon would have trouble keeping his troops supplied.
Possible answer: Napoleon needed a navy to battle Britain and to defend French commerce.

Answer to Caption. . .
Art and Literature
Possible answer: The darkness adds to the horror and sadness of the scene. The lantern creates a glow around the victims of the firing squad, emphasizing their nobility and suffering.

Interdisciplinary Connections
Artistic Protest
The Third of May, 1808 is one of the first paintings of social protest. Previously, artists portrayed war as a grand and glorious endeavor. Goya, however, emphasized the horror and inhumanity of war. His painting portrays Napoleon’s soldiers as a faceless and monstrous force shrouded in darkness. Light is used to focus attention on the victims of the war. The cruelty and horror of the mass execution are seen in the twisted and bloodied bodies of the dead. The terrible anticipation of imminent death is seen in outstretched arms and writhing, cowering bodies. In Goya’s painting, one sees the merciless nature of war.

Answer to Caption. . .
Global Interaction
Possible Answer: The cartoonist was British. Since Britain was at war with France, he had little sympathy for the French army.

Napoleon on Napoleon
While on St. Helena, Napoleon reviewed his career in conversations with the Marquis Las Cases, who recorded them in Memorial. Napoleon believed that he had conquered Europe in self-defense. His conquests benefited those under his rule by bringing them his code of laws and other revolutionary reforms. If not for the jealousy of Britain and the hatred of the monarchs that he had overthrown, Europe under his guidance would have become a federation of free peoples, allied with enlightened France in eternal peace. Napoleon characterized Britain as a mischief-maker and pirate whose petty ambitions had destroyed a noble future for France and Europe.
Napoleon’s views can be contrasted with the view of the London Times, quoted in the following note.

Wretch and Villain
As Napoleon was departing for exile on St. Helena, the London Times reviewed his career in these words:
“This wretch has lived in the commission of every crime so long, that he has lost all sight of and knowledge of the difference that exists between good and evil, and hardly knows when he is doing wrong, except to be taught by proper chastisement. A creature who ought to be greeted by a gallows as soon as he lands. . . . It has been the constant trick of this villain, whenever he had got his companions into a scrape, to leave them in it, and seek his own safety by flight. In Egypt, in the Moscow expedition, and at Waterloo, such was his conduct.”

Which view, Napoleon’s or the Times, is closer to the truth based on your reading of the textbook?

Answers to. . .
Geography and History
Review locations
the Netherlands
the Netherlands, Piedmont, Parma-Modena, Lombardy-Venetia, Kingdom of Norway and Sweden, Denmark, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Activity Learning Styles
Analyzing a Quotation
One of the most successful diplomats at the Congress of Vienna was Prince Maurice Talleyrand. His skillful maneuvering saved defeated France from harsh retribution and won it recognition as an equal among the powers of Europe. He was at Vienna, he said, ”not to collect trophies, but to bring the world back to peaceful habits.” Concerning the balance of power and the proper treatment of France, he said, “No arrangement could be wise that carried ruin to one of the countries between which it was concluded.”
After hearing these two quotations students should answer: 1) Why do you think Talleyrand was against the collecting of ”trophies?” 2) How was a balance of power in the best interests of France? 3) How might Talleyrand have felt and spoken differently if France had been one of the victorious countries?

HW, p. 493, #1, 3-4, Extra Credit #5-6.

Von Metternich
Concert of Europe

Napoleon’s armies spread nationalism to the lands that they defeated. People saw Napoleon’s armies as foreign oppressors and resented efforts to impose French culture on all of Europe. Revolts erupted in many areas.

a) They wanted to restore stability, order, and peace by establishing a balance of power and returning to the status quo of 1793.
b) They restored monarchs to power, ringed France with strong countries, and created the Concert of Europe as a peacekeeping organization.

Answers may vary, but students should recognize that Napoleon and his armies spread the ideas of the French Revolution to the lands that they conquered.

Student letters and diaries should reflect an ability to recognize and express a historical viewpoint.

Monday, September 25, 2006

AP Gov't, Use the News, HW


People who follow their conscience and take independent or unpopular action often make news. In The Inquirer, find a story about a person standing up for something he/she feels is right. Write a paragraph describing why the person took the action and why it took courage.

Thursday, September 21, 2006

Grading: Total Point Accumulation

Each assessment is assigned points (ex. 18/22) and the student's score is simply calculated by dividing the total points they earned by the total points possible. (ex. Test 1 - 15/20, Test 2 - 17/18 - Current student score is 32/38 or 84%). Note: does not allow for automatic dropping of lowest grade.

Wednesday, September 20, 2006

Back to School Night, 20 September 2006

Back to School Night, 20 September 2006

Dr. G. Mick Smith
Room #267
Contact info:
215.276.2300 (Main office)
Website for daily class notes, assignments, homework, and grades:

Welcome! This information guide emphasizes that a participating student will be successful by completing assignments and positively interacting in class. Above all, I hope that students will enjoy the class but will also grow in their knowledge level and increase their life skills that apply after graduation. Listed below are expectations for the class:
1. Be in your seat and prepared for class when the bell rings with pencil/pen, notebook, and textbook(s), or any other assigned materials.
2. Obtain permission by raising your hand before speaking, or leaving your seat for any reason once the bell rings.
3. Follow directions and complete all assignments on time.
4. Remain alert, awake, and on task during the entire class period.
5. Be dismissed in a timely manner by the teacher, not by the bell or clock.
6. Above all, respect yourself, your teacher, and others and their possessions.

Grading Calculation: (at least three major Test grades are in each quarter); I total the accumulation of points per grading period based on the following.

Task & Weight
1. Tests, 2. Homework/Presentations/Projects/Worksheets, 3. Quizzes
There are announced opportunities for Extra Credit on almost a daily basis; I use a system of Total Point Accumulation. The point tabulation results in an “A,” a “B,” etc.

Brief Biography
Dr. Smith earned his PhD in History at the University of California, Los Angeles. He was also awarded a Masters degree in History from UCLA, and he obtained a second Masters in Theology. Smith was a Johannes Quasten Scholar in Patristics at The Catholic University of America and he holds a Distance Learning Administrator’s Certificate from Texas A&M University and the Center for Distance Learning Research. He has published 100 mostly peer-reviewed publications in history, technology and education, and computing. Dr. Smith has been President of the American Association for History and Computing. Smith has also taught at Northeast Catholic High School, Lansdale Catholic, Villa Maria Academy, Phila Academy, and Hahnemann University. At Cardinal Daugherty Smith is Assistant Chair of the Technology Committee and Moderator of Mock Trial. Dr. Smith is a full-time single parent and he is submitting his first novel to publishers.

Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries: Armstrong, Karen, The Great Transformation: The Beginning of Our Religious Traditions, Knopf, 2006.

In our current age of “The Great Transformation” Armstrong postulates how the sages of the foundational Axial Age would address unspeakable horror, violence, and desperation.The distinctive and historic Axial Age faiths announced the abandonment of selfishness and a spirituality of compassion. They stated that there must first be personal responsibility and self-criticism, and it must be followed by practical, effective action.Herein lie the problematic aspects of Armstrong’s work and why this book is not recommended. The most serious flaw of this work is in ascribing evidence for ethical behavior in almost all religious behavior and ritual (xiii, 35). Armstrong seems to miss the insight of Rene Girard and Walter Burkert who have demonstrated how violence and the sacred are inextricably linked. Other problems are that oddly, she states that Hitler expressed a “militant exclusion of religion from public policy” (395). In fact, Hitler divided German Christians by founding the Patriotic Church in contrast to the Confessing Church. One other interesting side note is that Armstrong’s research is based on out of date works; only 36 of 284 works cited in the bibliography were published in 2000 or later.

Tuesday, September 19, 2006

AP Gov't, Trial by jury

The U.S. Constitution guarantees the right to a jury trial in serious cases. Find a case in The Inquirer in which the decision is being made by a jury. Write a paragraph or short essay describing issues the jury should consider in making its decision.

Friday, September 15, 2006

WH, Test #1, Ch. 18, Tuesday

Test #1, on Chapter 18, will be on Tuesday

Mock Trial

Moderator: G. Mick Smith, PhD
Mock Trial competition is one in which public, private and parochial high school students try a simulated case throughout various rounds to determine the City Champion. The City Champion then goes on to represent the region in the State competition for a chance to advance to the National level. This activity is coordinated with Temple University Beasley School of Law.

Thursday, September 14, 2006

AP Gov't, Test #1 Monday

There will be no Essay questions on the first Test, however, you will have Essays on some Tests. For the time being, just review Chapter 1 Handout ( we will cover it in class) to prepare. The Test is Monday.

WH, Ch. 18, Sec. 4 Birth of the American Republic

World History, Ch. 18 Sec. 4 Birth of the American Republic

World History Agenda

"Amazing Transformation"

1. Lesson Plan Focus
Colonists in the 13 English colonies opposed British taxes and trade restrictions, especially since they had no representation in Parliament. Enlightenment ideas influenced the American Declaration of Independence and the framing of the United States Constitution. The successful American Revolution helped inspire future revolutions in Europe and Latin America.

Vocabulary, p. 460
Caption, p. 460
Primary Source, p. 461
Map, p. 462
Caption, p. p. 463

2. In-class assignment

The class is divided into cooperative learning groups and students will work together to plan a television documentary on the birth of the American republic. The twenty minutes-long programs will consist of four segments addressing the following topics:
a) American Discontent
b) The American Revolution Begins
c) The Long Struggle to Victory
d) A New Constitution

These segments will be assigned. Use the text to plan your documentary segment.
You should produce a script outline, a list of visuals, and a list of interview subjects. This will be presented in class. Each group should produce a five-minute segment.

3. Close

Your documentary is being sold as a videotape. Describe the documentary in a five-sentence summary that could appear on the videotape box.

Section 4 Review
Extra Credit

Wednesday, September 13, 2006

WH, Ch. 18, Sec., 3 Britain at Mid-Century

World History, Chapter 18 Section 3, Britain at Mid-Century

"Amazing transformation"
1. Lesson Plan Focus
Britain's island location, colonial possessions, favorable business climate, and powerful navy contributed to its rise to world power. Britain's constitutional government, with political parties, a prime minister, and a cabinet, was more democratic than other European governments. Still, most political and economic power was still held by a ruling class of landowning aristocrats.

Vocabulary, p. 466
constitutional government
prime minister

Caption, p. 456
Map, p. 457
Caption, p. 458
Caption, p. 459

2. In-class Instruct

Organize students into small groups and assign them to outline the major ideas of this section. Advise them to make good use of the boldface heads and structure of the section. Each group can make up five questions that cover the content of the section. Encourage students in the other groups to answer the questions.

3. Close
Choose several of the questions for use of the next quiz/test.

Section 3 Assessment, p. 459 #1, 3-5
Extra Credit 6-7

"Evolutionary Scheduling: A Review," Hart, E., Ross P., Corne D. Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 6(2): 191-220.

Review Number: 54703

Evolutionary Scheduling

“Evolutionary Scheduling: A Review” Hart E., Ross P., Corne D. Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 6(2): 191-220.
This review article is of substantial value for those who need an update on research material that applies evolutionary computing methods to scheduling problems. The last major survey has not been performed since 1999, when a major statement emerged from the European Network of Excellence on Evolutionary Computing (EVONET). The three co-authors here have done an admirable overview and report on “current trends, achievements, and suggesting the way forward” (191) in this regard. In particular, this article is of wide interest since the ideas can be applied to many common scheduling issues such as job-shop scheduling problems, an area much discussed in academic literature. The authors point out that algorithms today are capable of tackling enormous and difficult real-world problems, a major advance over earlier surveys such as the EVONET report.

Monday, September 11, 2006

WH, Agenda, 11 Sept. 06

Unit 5
Enlightenment and Revolution (1707-1850)

Ch. 18 The Enlightenment and the American Revolution ( 1707-1800)

Section 1 Philosophy in the Age of Reason

Lesson Plan Focus
Enlightenment thinkers tried to apply the laws of nature to human society. Their political ideas included the concepts of natural rights, separation of power, checks and balances, and freedom of thought. Their economic ideas included the policies of laissez faire and a free market.

1) Define the Vocabulary words
p. 446
2) Answer the Caption Questions, pp. 446, 450.

AP Gov't, HW, 11 Sept. 06

Ch. 1, The Study of American Government, Theme A: The Nature of Political Power and Authority
Discussion Questions
#1 &#2.

World History, HW

Define the Vocabulary words, p. 416 & p. 421.

Tuesday, September 05, 2006

AP Gov't, Agenda, 5 September 2006

The Study of American Government
The purpose of this chapter is to give the student a preview of the major questions to be asked throughout the textbook and to introduce key terms. After reading and reviewing the material in this chapter the student should be able to do each of the following:
1. List the two basic questions to be asked about government in the United States (or any other nation) and show that they are distinct questions.
2. Explain what is meant by power, and by political power in particular. Relate the latter to authority, legitimacy, and democracy.
3. Distinguish among the two concepts of democracy mentioned in the chapter, explaining in which sense the textbook refers to United States government as democratic.
4. Differentiate between majoritarian politics and elitist politics, explaining the four major theories of the latter.
5. Explain how political change tends to make political scientists cautious in stating how politics works or what values dominate it.

The Study of American Government
There are two major questions about government: Who governs? To what ends? This book will focus on the first question, and will encourage students to develop their own answers to the second question.
Democratic theory recognizes that the answer to the question “Who governs?” is more complicated than “the people.” Participatory democracy has only been a reality in a limited number of cases. Representative democracy gives rise to an elite. Elite theorists have given at least four answers to the question of “who governs?”:
Those who own the means of production, controlling the economic system, will control the government.
Power Elitist:
A few top leaders, drawn from the major sectors of the United States polity, will make all important decisions.
Appointed civil servants control the government, without consulting the public.
Competition among affected interests shapes public policy decision making.
In order to choose among these theories or to devise new ones, one must examine the kinds of issues that do (and do not) get taken up by the political system and consider how they are resolved by the system. It is not enough to merely describe governmental institutions and processes.
Distinguishing between different types of democracies is a very important part of this study. The Framers of the Constitution intended that the United States be a representative democracy in which the power to make decisions would be determined by a free and competitive struggle for the citizens’ votes.

The Study of American Government
Chapter Outline with Keyed-in Resources
A. Politics exists because people differ about two great questions
B. Who governs: those who govern will affect us
C. To what ends: tells how government affects our lives
D. The text focuses on who governs and, in answering this question, looks at how the government makes decisions on a variety of issues
II. What is political power?
A. Power: the ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions
1. May be obvious: president sends soldiers into combat
2. May be subtle: president’s junior speechwriters take a new tone when writing about a controversial issue
B. Text’s concern: power as it is used to affect who will hold government office and how government will behave
C. Authority: the right to use power; not all who exercise political power have authority to do so
D. Legitimacy: what makes a law or constitution a source of right
E. Struggles over what makes authority legitimate constitute much of U.S. history
F. Necessary for government to be in some sense “democratic” in the United States today in order to be perceived as legitimate
III. What is democracy? Describes at least two different political systems. (THEME B: THEORIES OF DEMOCRACY)
A. Direct or Participatory Democracy (Aristotelian “rule of the many”)
1. Fourth-century B.C.E. Greek city-state, practiced by free adult male property owners
2. New England town meeting
B. Representative Democracy or Elitist Theory of Democracy
1. Defined by Schumpeter: acquisition of power by leaders via competitive elections
2. Justifications
a) Direct democracy is impractical for reasons of time, expertise, etc.
b) The people make unwise decisions based on fleeting emotions
IV. Is representative democracy best?
A. Text uses the term “democracy” to refer to representative democracy
1. Constitution does not contain word “democracy” but “republican form of government” (meaning what we call representative democracy)
2. Representative democracy requires leadership competition if system is to work—requires meaningful choice for voters, free communication, etc.
B. Framers favored representative democracy
1. Government would mediate, nor mirror, popular views
2. People were viewed as lacking knowledge and susceptible to manipulation
3. Framers’ goal: to minimize the abuse of power by a tyrannical majority or by officeholders
C. Were the framers right?
1. Do people today have more time, information, energy, interest and expertise to gather together for collective decision making?
2. Was the Framers’ faith that representative democracy would help protect minority rights and prevent corruption misplaced?
V. How is political power distributed?
A. Focus on actual distribution of power within American representative democracy
B. Majoritarian politics
1. Leaders constrained to follow wishes of the people very closely
2. Applies when issues are simple and clear
C. Elitism
1. Rule by identifiable group of persons who possess a disproportionate share of political power
2. Comes into play when circumstances do not permit majoritarian decision making
3. Theories of elite decision making
a) Marxism: founded by Karl Marx; argues that government is merely a reflection means of production; government is controlled by the dominant social class (the capitalist class in the U.S.)
b) Power Elite theory: founded by C. Wright Mills; argues that a power elite, composed of key corporate leaders, military leaders, and political leaders, control and are served by government; the power elite has been expanded to include media chiefs, labor union officials and many others
c) Bureaucratic view: founded by Max Weber; argues that power is mainly in the hands of appointed officials who are able to exercise vast power when deciding how public laws are to be turned into administrative actions
d) Pluralist view: has no single intellectual parent; argues that no single elite has monopoly on power; hence all elites must bargain and compromise while being responsive to followers
VI. Is democracy driven by self-interest?
A. All elite theories of politics may lead to the cynical view that politics is simply a self-seeking enterprise in which everyone is out for political gain
B. Policy outcomes do not necessarily reflect their authors’ motives
C. Self-interest is an incomplete guide to decision-making (de Tocqueville’s argument: Americans are more interested in justifying theory of self-interest than in honoring their own disinterested actions)
1. Peoples’ actions on 9/11 clearly demonstrated this
2. AFL-CIO supported civil rights in the 1960s, without personal or organizational gain
3. Many of the most important events in U.S. history (including the revolutionary war and the civil rights battles of the 1950s and 1960s) were led by people who risked much against long odds
VII. What explains political change?
A. Historical perspective makes it difficult to accept any simple explanations of political change
B. Changes in elite and mass beliefs about what government is supposed to do have resulted in changes in the character of government
1. The growth of federal power in 1932 and the effort to cut it back beginning in 1981 have no simple explanation
2. Foreign policy has swung between isolationism and strong internationalism
C. Politics is about defining the public interest, not just “Who gets what?”
VIII. The Nature of Politics
A. Often we have only partial or contingent answers
B. Must understand how preferences are formed: preferences and shared understandings are the underlying basis of most power
C. Political power cannot be equated with laws on the books
D. Sweeping claims are to be avoided; judgments about institutions and interests can only be made after observing a wide range of behaviors

The Study of American Government
Important Terms
The right to use power.
*bureaucratic view
View that the government is dominated by appointed officials.
The rule of the many.
*direct (participatory) democracy
A government in which all or most citizens participate directly.
Persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource, like money or power.
Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution.
Marxist view
View that the government is dominated by capitalists.
power elite view
View that the government is dominated by a few top leaders, most of whom are outside the government.
*pluralist view
The belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy.
The ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions.
*power elite
A political theory espoused by C. Wright Mills which holds that an elite of corporate leaders, top military officers, and key political leaders make most political decisions.
*representative democracy
A government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote.

The Study of American Government
Theme A: THE NATURE OF Political Power and Authority
Instructor Resources
Peter Bachrach and Morton S. Baratz, Power and Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Robert Dahl, Who Governs? New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963.
G. William Domhoff, Who Rules America? Power and Politics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.
George Lakoff, Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Stephen Lukes, Power; A Radical View (2nd edition). New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Henry Richardson and Paul Weithman, eds., Reasonable Pluralism, The Philosophy of Rawls. New York: Garland, 1999.

The Study of American Government
Theme A: THE NATURE OF Political Power and Authority
The two great questions about politics are, “Who governs?” and “To what ends?” The question of who governs is the question of who has power, which is defined as the ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions. Power is found in all human relationships; however, this text is primarily concerned with its exercise in the United States federal government. People who exercise power may also have authority—which this text understands as the right to use power. Some authority is formal authority—the right to use power vested in a governmental office. Power and authority must be based on legitimacy—what makes a law or constitution a source of right. Power, authority, and legitimacy can become divorced from one another resulting in a government that rules by force or brutality.

The Study of American Government
Theme A: THE NATURE OF Political Power and Authority
Discussion Questions
1. Compare the institutions that have power over you with the institutions that have authority over you. What are the characteristics that distinguish one set of institutions from another?
2. Power can be exercised in many ways. The most visible exercise of power occurs when one person makes another act in accordance with their specified wishes. But power is also exercised when a person takes no action (non-decision) and when options are not presented. Provide an example of each of these uses of power, both in your own life and in government.
3. Distinguishing between power and authority is, fundamentally, reflective of one’s political beliefs. In what kinds of institutions do you have confidence? Why do you trust them? In contrast, what kinds of institutions raise your suspicions? Why?
4. How do your assessments of institutions in your daily life relate to your attitudes toward governmental and political institutions? Are you more or less confident about the Congress, presidency, judicial system, political parties, and other structures? Why?

The Study of American Government
Theme B: THEORIES OF Democracy
Instructor Resources
John M. Allswang, The Initiative and Referendum in California, 1898–1998. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.
David S. Broder, Democracy Derailed, Initiative Campaigns and the Power of Money. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2000.
Dick Cluster, ed., They Should Have Served That Cup of Coffee: 7 Radicals Remember the 60s. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1979.
Mitchell Cohen and Nicole Fermon, eds., Princeton Readings in Political Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Morton J. Frisch and Richard J. Stevens, eds., American Political Thought: The Philosophic Dimension of American Statesmanship, 2nd ed. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers, 1983.
David Held, Models of Democracy, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Peter B. Levy, ed., 100 Key Documents in American Democracy. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
Kirstie M. McClure, Judging Rights: Lockean Politics and the Limits of Consent. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1996.
Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, eds., History of Political Philosophy, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
Ronald Terchek and Thomas Conte, eds., Theories of Democracy: A Reader. Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

The Study of American Government
Theme B: THEORIES OF Democracy
Democracy is a word used in at least two ways in the discussion of government. One interpretation approximates Aristotle’s definition of the “rule of the many.” This system, also called direct or participatory democracy, was practical in the Greek polis, but survives today only in a few circumstances, such as the New England town meeting. Still, some have argued that the initiative and the referendum allow a substantial measure of direct democracy in modern political systems.
Another interpretation focuses on the election of leaders who then govern all members of the society. Representative democracy involves leaders acquiring power by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote. Sometimes called disparagingly the elitist theory of democracy, this sort of government is supported by those who feel that it is impractical for the public to make policy across a vast array of issues and that people often decide large issues on the basis of fleeting passions. For this sort of government to function, it is necessary that there be competing elites and free communication.

The Study of American Government
Theme B: THEORIES OF Democracy
Discussion Questions
1. Should participatory democratic decision making be extended to all spheres of life—to the workplace, to the governance of colleges and universities, and to the marketplace through consumer cooperatives? How would this benefit these institutions? What kind of costs might be associated with democracy in non-governmental institutions?
2. How democratic is the United States? For example, clear majorities of the American people favor allowing prayer in the public schools and favor handgun control. Yet the Supreme Court has ruled that prayer in the public schools is a violation of the Constitution, and Congress has not yet passed comprehensive handgun regulations. Similar circumstances prevail in regard to many other policy areas. Is this evidence that the United States is not a democracy?
3. de Tocqueville feared that majority rule could culminate in tyranny: “[I]f ever the free institutions of America are destroyed, that event may be attributed to the omnipotence of the majority, which may at some future time urge the minorities to desperation and oblige them to recourse to physical force.” How should minority rights be balanced against majority rule?
4. How did the events of September 11, 2001 change the landscape of decision making in the United States? Have citizens become more involved in public life since then, or less involved? Are political elites more powerful―and what types of elites have gained power, or lost it? What evidence do you have to make your argument? How could it be refuted?

The Study of American Government
Theme B: THEORIES OF Democracy
Alternative Lesson Plan Based in Theme B
An Economic Bill of Rights
On January 11, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered a speech that outlined his postwar foreign and domestic policies. (“Message from the President of the United States Transmitting a Recommendation for the Passage of a National Service Law and Other Acts, Bearing on the Cost of Living, Taxation, Stabilization, and to Prevent Undue Profits.” January 11, 1944. House of Representatives Document No. 377.) Denouncing the “pests who swarm through the lobbies of Congress and the cocktail bars of Washington, representing…special groups as opposed to the basic interests of the Nation,” Roosevelt argued that global economic interdependence precluded a return to isolationism. The president offered a series of legislative recommendations to sustain the national commitment to winning the war. His most controversial statements, though, related to domestic policy.
The president began that portion of the speech by reminding listeners of their constitutional heritage.
This Republic had its beginning, and grew to its present strength, under the protection of certain inalienable political rights—among them the right of free speech, free press, free worship, trial by jury, freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. They were our rights to life and liberty.
These are the rights, listed in the Bill of Rights, which specifically limit the power of the federal government. Yet Roosevelt made them the basis of his argument for an activist government.
As our Nation has grown in size and stature, however—as our industrial economy expanded—these political rights proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness.
We have come to a clear realization of the fact that true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence.… People who are hungry and out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.
In our day these economic truths have become accepted as self-evident. We have accepted, so to speak, a second Bill of Rights under which a new basis of security and prosperity can be established for all—regardless of station, race, or creed.
Among these are—
The right to a useful and remunerative job…;
The right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation;
The right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return which will give him and his family a decent living;
The right of every businessman, large and small, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home and abroad;
The right of every family to a decent home;
The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health;
The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment;
The right to a good education.
All of these rights spell security. And after this war is won we must be prepared to move forward, in the implementation of these rights, to new goals of human happiness and well-being.
As Roosevelt noted, the “second Bill of Rights” would have to be “implemented” by the government—this Bill of Rights did not limit the government but rather required it to exercise power. As described by John Locke and the Framers, rights protected the individual against government intrusion. Now, Roosevelt concluded that rights could also protect the individual by dictating government intervention.
Roosevelt’s death precluded his acting upon these claims, though several were already the basis for New Deal programs. In the 1960s, President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs were expressive of this perspective. Still, many of these rights have yet to be embodied in government programs and remain the subject of extended political debate.

Discussion Questions
1. In the United States, the government is frequently described as a servant of the people. In what ways does Roosevelt’s speech endorse this perspective?
2. How would you define rights? Note that Roosevelt insists that rights be defined in the context of individual well-being, societal development, and international relations. Do you agree?
3. What is the proper role of the government? How should government stand in relation to the individual citizen?
4. How does Roosevelt’s speech reflect current political concerns? Think about current executive-legislative debates, and about prevailing Democratic-Republican disagreements.

World History, 7 September 2006

World History Agenda 5 September 2006

Begin with Chapter 17 The Age of Absolutism (1550-1800), p. 410-411.

During the 1500s and 1600s, several European monarchs became absolute rulers. In England, Parliament gained control. After the Thirty Years' War, Prussia emerged as a strong Protestant state. In Austria, the Hapsburgs expanded their territory. Peter the Great gained land and brought reforms to Russia but worsened the condition of the serfs.

Background: About the Pictures

Section 2 France Under Louis XIV

Bell Ringer
I draw your attention to the quotation from Louis XIV ('L'etat, c'est moi.) on p. 417. For Extra Credit, what kind of government do you think France had at this time? How do you feel the French people felt about such a government?

Lesson Plan Focus
Violent warfare between Catholics and Protestants divided France for a time. Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin increased royal power at the expense of nobles and Huguenots, or French Protestants. Under the absolutist rule of Louis XIV, France became the leading state of Europe. But costly wars and religious persecution undermined French power.

p. 419, You Are There. . .
Living at Versailles

Section 3 Triumph of Parliament in England, p. 421.

Lesson Plan Focus
The Stuart kings clashed with Parliament over money, foreign policy, and religion. A civil war erupted when Charles I tried to arrest the radical leaders in the House of Commons. Parliament's triumph led to the execution of the kin
g, the abolition of the monarchy, and the creation of a republic headed by Oliver Cromwell. After the monarchy was restored, the Glorious Revolution limited royal power and protected the rights of English citizens.

Synthesizing Information
The Struggle Between King and Parliament, p. 425.

Unit 5
Enlightenment and Revolution (1707-1850)

Ch. 18 The Enlightenment and the American Revolution ( 1707-1800)

Section 1 Philosophy in the Age of Reason

Lesson Plan Focus
Enlightenment thinkers tried to apply the laws of nature to human society. Their political ideas included the concepts of natural rights, separation of power, checks and balances, and freedom of thought. Their economic ideas included the policies of laissez faire and a free market.

Define the Vocabulary words
p. 446

Answer the Captions p. 446, 450.

Homework (hereafter HW)
p. 450 1, 3-5.
Extra Credit
#6 & 7.

Welcome! 5 September 2006


Dr. G. Mick Smith, Cardinal Daugherty High School, World History & AP Government, 215.276.2300,

Dear Parents/Guardians, and Students:

Welcome! This information guide emphasizes that a participating student will be successful by completing assignments and positively interacting in class. Above all, I hope that students will enjoy the class but will also grow in their knowledge level and increase their life skills which apply after graduation. Listed below are expectations for the class.

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