Tuesday, March 09, 2010

WH II Honors: 10 March


Current Events:

$32 Million "Big Dog" robot

The Ch. 14 Preliminary Test Analysis has been posted.

The early part of the war concerns mostly the trench warfare on the Western Front.

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

A worksheet on Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, is available to:

guide your reading.

Tactics of Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare, 7:57

First part of a short film describing various aspects of trench warfare. Presented by Oxford University's First World War Poetry Digital Archive project.

Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml

You can try your gaming luck during several front line missions with,

trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

Verdun, 1916

war of attrition, the Battle of Verdun, 3:58

This is a brief demo Eagle Films created for a War museum concerning the brutal and bloody WW-I battle of Verdun. It was one of about twenty multimedia projects that were to be produced under the supervision of Philip Cook of Eagle Films.

War in the Air

Interrupter gear, invented by the Frenchman Roland Garros but later perfected with deadly accuracy by Germany.

Diagram of German machine gun synchronization gear.

To fire the gun,

1. The gun's crank is worked twice, once to load, once to cock.
2. The green handle is pulled
3. which lowers the red cam follower onto the cam wheel.
4. When the cam raises the follower, the blue rod is pushed against the spring.
5. When the pilot presses the purple firing button, inside the breech block the cable lowers the blue bridge piece
6. so that when the blue rod is activated by the cam, the yellow trigger bar is pushed
7. and the gun fires.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons

During World War I, advances in technology, such as the gasoline-powered engine, led the opposing forces to use tanks, airplanes, and submarines against each other. In 1916, Britain introduced the first armored tank. Mounted with machine guns, the tanks were designed to move across no man’s land. Still, the first tanks broke down often. They failed to break the stalemate.

Both sides also used aircraft. At first, planes were utilized simply to observe enemy troop movements. In 1915, Germany used zeppelins (zep uh linz), large gas-filled balloons, to bomb the English coast. Later, both sides equipped airplanes with machine guns. Pilots known as “flying aces” confronted each other in the skies. These “dogfights” were spectacular, but had little effect on the course of the war on the ground.

Captain Albert Ball before his death at 20 years of age.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons

Albert Ball, 1:40

The young Englishman's early career is profiled. Paying for his own lessons, Ball learns to fly and is approved for service in the Royal Flying Corps.

The Battle of The Somme begins and the early career of Albert Ball is profiled, 5:16

Albert Ball (14 August 1896 – 7 May 1917) was an English First World War fighter pilot and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British or Commonwealth armed forces. At the time of his death, he was twenty years old and he was the leading Allied ace with 44 victories, second only to German ace Manfred Von Richthofen. By the end of the war he was the United Kingdom's fourth top scoring ace.

Richthofen - A German Legend - The Red Baron, 1:46

Richthofen - The Red Baron
A German Legend
Footage & Soundtrack:
Der Rote Baron (Germany 2008)

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 - 21 April 1918) was a German fighter pilot known as the "Red Baron". He was the most successful flying ace during World War I, being officially credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories. He served in the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte). Richthofen was a member of an aristocratic family with many famous relatives.
Freiherr (literally "Free Lord") is not a given name but a German aristocratic title, equivalent to a baron in other countries and the origin of Richthofen's most famous nickname: "The Red Baron". Red was the colour of his plane. The German translation of The Red Baron is About this sound "Der Rote Baron" . Richthofen is today known by this nickname even in Germany, although during his lifetime he was more often described in German as Der Rote Kampfflieger, (variously translated as the The Red Battle Flyer or The Red Fighter Pilot). This name was used as the title of Richthofen's 1917 "autobiography."
Richthofen's other nicknames include "Le Diable Rouge" ("Red Devil") or "Le Petit Rouge" ("Little Red") in French, and the "Red Knight" in English.

World War 1 Aircraft - Sopwith Camel F.1, 1:16

The Sopwith Camel is probably one of the most famous British fighters of the war, in addition to the SE5a simply because it was one of their first superior fighters of the war. The Camel was dreaded by most Entente pilots, however. It was fast and maneuverable, but the upper wing had numerous problems and tendencies to shear off entirely and plunge the airframe into the ground (and this caused the death of many pilots), and torque was so great to the left side of the plane that it was sometimes rendered unable to fly altogether. It was dangerous for both novice and seasoned pilots to fly, any many died trying to tame the beast.

Cf. War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray

Reading Check


Why were military leaders baffled by trench warfare?

Widening of the War

Though most of the fighting took place in Europe, World War I was a global conflict. Japan, allied with Britain, used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and islands in the Pacific.


Because of its strategic location, the Ottoman empire was a desirable ally. If the Ottoman Turks had joined the Allies, the Central Powers would have been almost completely encircled. However, the Turks joined the Central Powers in late October 1914. The Turks then cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the Dardanelles, a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.

In 1915, the Allies sent a massive force of British, Indian, Australian, and New Zealander troops to attempt to open up the strait. At the battle of Gallipoli (guh lip uh lee), Turkish troops trapped the Allies on the beaches of the Gallipoli peninsula. In January 1916, after 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies finally withdrew from the Dardanelles.

Gallipoli trailer (Mel Gibson), 1:44

Lawrence of Arabia

Gene Siskel & Roger Ebert discuss the 1962 Oscar-winning First World War film Lawrence of Arabia, 4:45.

The Turks were harmed severely in the Middle East. The Ottoman empire included vast areas of Arab land. In 1916, Arab nationalists led by Husayn ibn Ali (hoo sayn ib un ah lee) declared a revolt against Ottoman rule. The British government sent Colonel T. E. Lawrence—later known as Lawrence of Arabia—to support the Arab revolt. Lawrence led guerrilla raids against the Turks, dynamiting bridges and supply trains. Eventually, the Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territory to the Arabs, including the key city of Baghdad.

Reading Check


Entry of the United States

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

Cf. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/

Many Americans supported the Allies because of cultural ties. The United States shared a cultural history and language with Britain and sympathized with France as another democracy. On the other hand, some German Americans favored the Central Powers. So did many Irish Americans, who resented British rule of Ireland, and Russian Jewish immigrants, who did not want to be allied with the tsar.

Germany had ceased submarine attacks in 1915 after pressure from President Wilson. However, in early 1917, Germany was desperate to break the stalemate. On February 1, the German government announced that it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. Wilson angrily denounced Germany.

Also, in early 1917, the British intercepted a message from the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, to his ambassador in Mexico. In the note, Zimmermann authorized his ambassador to propose that Germany would help Mexico “to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona” in return for Mexican support against the United States. Britain revealed the Zimmermann note to the American government. When the note became public, anti-German feeling intensified in the United States.

Declaring War

In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. “We have no selfish ends to serve,” he stated. Instead, he painted the conflict idealistically as a war “to make the world safe for democracy” and later as a “war to end war.”

The United States needed months to recruit, train, supply, and transport a modern army across the Atlantic. But by 1918, about two million American soldiers had joined the war-weary Allied troops fighting on the Western Front. Although relatively few American troops engaged in combat, their arrival gave Allied troops a much-needed morale boost. Just as important to the debt-ridden Allies was American financial aid.

Reading Check


Why did the Germans resort to unrestricted submarine use?

The Home Front: The Impact of Total War

On total war the best reference is:

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot, pp. 198-201.

The broad impact of the Industrial Revolution resulted in both gains and losses. There was more food, medicine, clothing, more of everything, yet, the new technologies extinguished "life as effectively as they could be used to support it" (Boot, p. 198).

The Industrial Revolution did not cause WW I yet indirectly it "fostered the rise of Germany" (Boot, p. 198). "The figures boggle the mind:

from 1914 to 1918, sixty three million were seriously wounded or disabled.

Millions of civilians also died. . . . they were many orders of magnitude greater than those of any previous conflict. Pre-industrial states could not possibly have fed, clothed, equipped, moved--or slaughtered--so many individuals. Germany and France had 20 percent of their populations under arms. Britain mobilized only 13 percent, but this was still far higher than the 7 percent that Napoleon had been able to marshal with the levee en masse" (Boot, p. 198). Each soldier in addition had far more firepower than an entire regiment possessed a century earlier.

Increased Government Powers

Planned economies were necessary to fuel the increased demands of total war (Boot, p. 199). The pre-industrial state was not equal to the task of equipping and arming such large armies that were required in modern warfare. Governments nationalized industries along with the cooperation of major private companies. In Britain, France, and Germany, military spending shot up 2,000 percent (Boot, p. 199).

Manipulation of Public Opinion

Public dissent was not encouraged. A military dictatorship controlled Germany but even in the liberty-loving U.S. antiwar activists such as the socialist Eugene Debs was subject to arrest and confinement (Boot, p. 199).

Total war also meant controlling public opinion. Even in democratic countries, special boards censored the press. Their aim was to keep complete casualty figures and other discouraging news from reaching the public. Government censors also restricted popular literature, historical writings, motion pictures, and the arts.

Both sides waged a propaganda war. Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. Governments used propaganda to motivate military mobilization, especially in Britain before conscription started in 1916. In France and Germany, propaganda urged civilians to loan money to the government. Later in the war, Allied propaganda played up the brutality of Germany’s invasion of Belgium. The British and French press circulated tales of atrocities, horrible acts against innocent people. Although some atrocities did occur, often the stories were distorted by exaggerations or completely made up.

Total War and Women

Women gained more rights as they took jobs previously open only to men (Boot, p. 200). It is not surprising that not long after the war women were granted the right of suffrage.

Women played a critical role in total war. As millions of men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national economies going. Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies. Others joined women’s branches of the armed forces. When food shortages threatened Britain, volunteers in the Women’s Land Army went to the fields to grow their nation’s food.

Nurses shared the dangers of the men whose wounds they tended. At aid stations close to the front lines, nurses often worked around the clock, especially after a big “push” brought a flood of casualties. In her diary, English nurse Vera Brittain describes sweating through 90-degree days in France, “stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, and draining and reinserting innumerable rubber tubes” with “gruesome human remnants heaped on the floor.”

War work gave women a new sense of pride and confidence. After the war, most women had to give up their jobs to men returning home. Still, they had challenged the idea that women could not handle demanding and dangerous jobs. In many countries, including Britain, Germany, and the United States, women’s support for the war effort helped them finally win the right to vote, after decades of struggle.

Laissez-faire economic structures did not survive World War I. Social hierarchies broke down under the transformation. Women were granted the right to vote. World War I is "a conflict that could never have been waged on such a titanic, transformative scale were it not for the changes in warfare that had occurred in the previous half-century. This was the bittersweet legacy of the Industrial Age (Boot, p. 201).

Reading Check


What was the effect of total war on ordinary citizens?

People in History

Edith Cavell

Like most ordinary people caught up in war, Edith Cavell (1865–1915) did not plan on becoming a hero. An English nurse, she was in charge of a hospital in Belgium. After the German invasion, Cavell cared for wounded soldiers on both sides. She also helped Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands.

In 1915, the Germans arrested Cavell for spying. As she faced a firing squad, her last reported words were, “Standing as I do in view of God and Eternity, I realize that patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone.” Why do you think the British government spread the story of Edith Cavell?

The Lusitania

Germany used U-boats to create its own blockade. In 1915, Germany declared that it would sink all ships carrying goods to Britain. In May 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the British liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. Almost 1,200 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. Germany justified the attack, arguing that the Lusitania was carrying weapons. When American President Woodrow Wilson threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with Germany, though, Germany agreed to restrict its submarine campaign. Before attacking any ship, U-boats would surface and give warning, allowing neutral passengers to escape to lifeboats. Unrestricted submarine warfare stopped—for the moment.


Section 3 The Russian Revolution

Key Terms


war communism

Background to Revolution

“Mr. War Minister!

We, soldiers from various regiments,. . . ask you to end the war and its bloodshed at any cost…. If this is not done, then believe us when we say that we will take our weapons and head out for our own hearths to save our fathers, mothers, wives, and children from death by starvation (which is nigh). And if we cannot save them, then we’d rather die with them in our native lands then be killed, poisoned, or frozen to death somewhere and cast into the earth like a dog.”

—Letter from the front, 1917
Note Taking

Reading Skill: Summarize Copy the time line below and fill it in as you read this section. When you finish, write two sentences that summarize the information in your time line.
Beginnings of Upheaval

The year 1913 marked the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. Everywhere, Russians honored the tsar and his family. Tsarina Alexandra felt confident that the people loved Nicholas too much to ever threaten him. “They are constantly frightening the emperor with threats of revolution,” she told a friend, “and here,—you see it yourself—we need merely to show ourselves and at once their hearts are ours.”

Appearances were deceiving. In March 1917, the first of two revolutions would topple the Romanov dynasty and pave the way for even more radical changes.

The outbreak of war in 1914 fueled national pride and united Russians. Armies dashed to battle with enthusiasm. But like the Crimean and Russo-Japanese wars, World War I quickly strained Russian resources. Factories could not turn out enough supplies. The transportation system broke down, delivering only a trickle of crucial materials to the front. By 1915, many soldiers had no rifles and no ammunition. Badly equipped and poorly led, they died in staggering numbers. In 1915 alone, Russian casualties reached two million.

Vocabulary Builder

crucial—(kroo shul) adj. of vital importance

In a patriotic gesture, Nicholas II went to the front to take personal charge. The decision proved a disastrous blunder. The tsar was no more competent than many of his generals. Worse, he left domestic affairs to the tsarina, Alexandra. In Nicholas’ absence, Alexandra relied on the advice of Gregory Rasputin, an illiterate peasant and self-proclaimed “holy man.” The tsarina came to believe that Rasputin had miraculous powers after he helped her son, who suffered from hemophilia, a disorder in which any injury can result in uncontrollable bleeding.


By 1916, Rasputin’s influence over Alexandra had reached new heights and weakened confidence in the government. Fearing for the monarchy, a group of Russian nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916.

The March Revolution

By March 1917, disasters on the battlefield, combined with food and fuel shortages on the home front, brought the monarchy to collapse. In St. Petersburg (renamed Petrograd during the war), workers were going on strike. Marchers, mostly women, surged through the streets, shouting, “Bread! Bread!” Troops refused to fire on the demonstrators, leaving the government helpless. Finally, on the advice of military and political leaders, the tsar abdicated.

Duma politicians then set up a provisional, or temporary, government. Middle-class liberals in the government began preparing a constitution for a new Russian republic. At the same time, they continued the war against Germany.

Outside the provisional government, revolutionary socialists plotted their own course. In Petrograd and other cities, they set up soviets, or councils of workers and soldiers. At first, the soviets worked democratically within the government. Before long, though, the Bolsheviks, a radical socialist group, took charge. The leader of the Bolsheviks was a determined revolutionary, V. I. Lenin.

The revolutions of March and November 1917 are known to Russians as the February and October revolutions. In 1917, Russia still used an old calendar, which was 13 days behind the one used in Western Europe. Russia adopted the Western calendar in 1918.

Reading Check


Develop a sequence of events leading to the March Revolution.

The Rise of Lenin


Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (ool yahn uf) was born in 1870 to a middle-class family. He adopted the name Lenin when he became a revolutionary. When he was 17, his older brother was arrested and hanged for plotting to kill the tsar. The execution branded his family as a threat to the state and made the young Vladimir hate the tsarist government.

A Brilliant Revolutionary

As a young man, Lenin read the works of Karl Marx and participated in student demonstrations. He spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists, including Nadezhda Krupskaya (nah dyez duh kroop sky uh), the daughter of a poor noble family. In 1895, Lenin and Krupskaya were arrested and sent to Siberia. During their imprisonment, they were married. After their release, they went into exile in Switzerland. There they worked tirelessly to spread revolutionary ideas.

Lenin’s View of Marx

Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions. Marx had predicted that the industrial working class would rise spontaneously to overthrow capitalism. But Russia did not have a large urban proletariat. Instead, Lenin called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Though this elite revolutionary party represented a small percentage of socialists, Lenin gave them the name Bolsheviks, meaning “majority.”

In Western Europe, many leading socialists had come to think that socialism could be achieved through gradual and moderate reforms such as higher wages, increased suffrage, and social welfare programs. A group of socialists in Russia, the Mensheviks, favored this approach. The Bolsheviks rejected it. To Lenin, reforms of this nature were merely capitalist tricks to repress the masses. Only revolution, he said, could bring about needed changes.

In March 1917, Lenin was still in exile. As Russia stumbled into revolution, Germany saw a chance to weaken its enemy by helping Lenin return home. Lenin rushed across Germany to the Russian frontier in a special train. He greeted a crowd of fellow exiles and activists with this cry: “Long live the worldwide Socialist revolution!”

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Lenin (1870–1924) was the son of a teacher and his wife who lived in a little town on the Volga River. Vladimir lived with his parents and five siblings in a rented wing of a large house. By all accounts it was a happy home. Vladimir excelled at school and looked up to his older brother Alexander. But when Vladimir was 16, his father died. When he was 17, his beloved brother Alexander was hanged for plotting to kill the tsar.

Still reeling from the death of his brother, Vladimir enrolled at Kazan University. There he met other discontented young people. They united to protest the lack of student freedom in the university. Within three months, Vladimir was expelled for his part in the demonstrations. How do you think Lenin’s early life affected his later political ideas?

Reading Check


What was Lenin's plan when he arrived in Russia?

The Bolsheviks Seize Power

Lenin threw himself into the work of furthering the revolution. Another dynamic Marxist revolutionary, Leon Trotsky, helped lead the fight. To the hungry, war-weary Russian people, Lenin and the Bolsheviks promised “Peace, Land, and Bread.”

The Provisional Government’s Mistakes

Meanwhile, the provisional government, led by Alexander Kerensky, continued the war effort and failed to deal with land reform. Those decisions proved fatal. Most Russians were tired of war. Troops at the front were deserting in droves. Peasants wanted land, while city workers demanded an end to the desperate shortages. In July 1917, the government launched the disastrous Kerensky offensive against Germany. By November, according to one official report, the army was “a huge crowd of tired, poorly clad, poorly fed, embittered men.” Growing numbers of troops mutinied. Peasants seized land and drove off fearful landlords.

The Bolshevik Takeover

Conditions were ripe for the Bolsheviks to make their move. In November 1917, squads of Red Guards—armed factory workers—joined mutinous sailors from the Russian fleet in attacking the provisional government. In just a matter of days, Lenin’s forces overthrew the provisional government without a struggle.

The Bolsheviks quickly seized power in other cities. In Moscow, it took a week of fighting to blast the local government out of the walled Kremlin, the former tsarist center of government. Moscow became the Bolsheviks’ capital, and the Kremlin their headquarters.

“We shall now occupy ourselves in Russia in building up a proletarian socialist state,” declared Lenin. The Bolsheviks ended private ownership of land and distributed land to peasants. Workers were given control of the factories and mines. A new red flag with an entwined hammer and sickle symbolized union between workers and peasants. Throughout the land, millions thought they had at last gained control over their own lives. In fact, the Bolsheviks—renamed Communists—would soon become their new masters.

Reading Check


What was the impact of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on Russia?

Civil War in Russia

After the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin quickly sought peace with Germany. Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, giving up a huge chunk of its territory and its population. The cost of peace was extremely high, but the Communist leaders knew that they needed all their energy to defeat a collection of enemies at home. Russia’s withdrawal affected the hopes of both the Allies and the Central Powers, as you read in Section 3.
Vocabulary Builder

withdrawal—(with draw ul) n. the act of leaving

Opposing Forces

For three years, civil war raged between the “Reds,” as the Communists were known, and the counterrevolutionary “Whites.” The “White” armies were made up of tsarist imperial officers, Mensheviks, democrats, and others, all of whom were united only by their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. Nationalist groups from many of the former empire’s non-Russian regions joined them in their fight. Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania broke free, but nationalists in Ukraine, the Caucasus, and Central Asia were eventually subdued.

The Allies intervened in the civil war. They hoped that the Whites might overthrow the Communists and support the fight against Germany. Britain, France, and the United States sent forces to help the Whites. Japan seized land in East Asia that tsarist Russia had once claimed. The Allied presence, however, did little to help the Whites. The Reds appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners. In the long run, the Allied invasion fed Communist distrust of the West.

Brutality was common in the civil war. Counterrevolutionary forces slaughtered captured Communists and tried to assassinate Lenin. The Communists shot the former tsar and tsarina and their five children in July 1918 to keep them from becoming a rallying symbol for counterrevolutionary forces.


Who opposed the new Bolshevik regime?

Triumph of the Communists

The Communists used terror not only against the Whites, but also to control their own people. They organized the Cheka, a secret police force much like the tsar’s. The Cheka executed ordinary citizens, even if they were only suspected of taking action against the revolution. The Communists also set up a network of forced-labor camps in 1919—which grew under Stalin into the dreaded Gulag.

The Communists adopted a policy known as “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads. Peasants in the countryside were forced to deliver almost all of their crops to feed the army and hungry people in the cities. Peasant laborers were drafted into the military or forced to work in factories.

Meanwhile, Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force. He used former tsarist officers under the close watch of commissars, Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty. Trotsky’s passionate speeches roused soldiers to fight. So did the order to shoot every tenth man if a unit performed poorly.

The Reds’ position in the center of Russia gave them a strategic advantage. The White armies were forced to attack separately from all sides. They were never able to cooperate effectively with one another. By 1921, the Communists had managed to defeat their scattered foes.

Reading Check


Why did the Red Army prevail over the White Army?

War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921 by Dr Jonathan Smele

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/eastern_front_01.shtml

Section 4 End of the War

Tanks, 1:46

Cassell Military Classics: Iron Fist: Classic Armoured Warfare by Bryan Perrett

One helpful animation is:

Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

Animated battle of the Somme

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_somme_map.shtml

Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml

You can try your luck during several front line missions with

Trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

Cf. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/

American involvement in WW I, 4:11

The Great War #1, World War 1 Era Period Music and Pictures. WW 1 spanned from August of 1914 to November of 1918 and raged across the globe. The United States was officially involved in the war from April 1917 to the end.

The dough boys are nearly forgotten today in the shadow of World War 2, Vietnam and Iraq. Millions of American men and women, black and white, served our country in The Great War. This series of shorts shows the music of their time and photographs from the Great War.


BBC Schools Links

GCSE Bitesize Revision - History
A secondary revision resource for GCSE exams covering the First World War.

The Bitesize series features audio clips from history and commentators:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/

Standard Grade Bitesize Revision - History
A secondary revision resource for Standard Grade covering the First World War.

BBC Sites

BBC History - World War One
This World War One site from BBC History features interactive movies, animations, feature articles and 3-d models.

One helpful animation is:

Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

History Trail – How to do History
Follow in the footsteps of professional historians and find out how they do history. Discover how postcards, council records, tapestries and people's memories of the past are all valuable sources for the historian.

Other Sites

Learning Curve – The Great War
This is a comprehensive offering from the Public Records Office, which tells the story of the First World War through six different source based investigations. It aims to show how the War developed and includes teachers' notes.

Spartacus Educational – The First World War
Spartacus' World War One website offers a growing encyclopaedia of entries about the war, as well as links to other websites.

First World War.com - The war to end all wars
This site gives a general overview of the First World War. It offers a collection of insightful feature articles, photos and footage, memoirs and diaries.

Spark Notes – World War 1 (1914-1918)
Gives a summary and commentary on each main study area of the First World War.

Art of the First World War
Presents 100 paintings from international collections from around the world to commemorate the First World War.

The World War One Document Archive
The World War One Document Archive presents primary documents concerning the Great War.

World War 1 - Web Links
This site lists links to in-depth articles on all aspects of the First World War, including a large collection of links to primary source material.

National Curriculum Online: History
Information about the National Curriculum for History, QCDA and DfEE schemes of work, pupils' work and information about standards and support materials.

QCDA History
The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Authority (QCDA) History section.

Examine key issues with the help of original documents.

Cf. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/greatwar/g1/

The best overall war reference for the entire modern period:

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot

All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque

Cassell Military Classics: Iron Fist: Classic Armoured Warfare by Bryan Perrett

Day of the Assassins: A Jack Christie Novel by Johnny O'Brien

War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray
The Encyclopedia of Warfare: The Changing Nature of Warfare From Prehistory to Modern-day Armed Conflicts by Robin Cross, pp. 170-193.

The Encyclopedia of Weaponry: The Development of Weaponry from Prehistory to 21st Century Warfare, Ian V. Hogg, pp. 112-139.

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcolm Swanston

A documentary about the battle of the Somme 1916 part 1, 9:58

War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921

By Dr Jonathan Smele

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/eastern_front_01.shtml

World War I in Popular Culture

In 1966, the "Ace" was immortalized in song by the Royal Guardsmen with their hit, Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron. This was followed in 1967 by Return of the Red Baron, in which it is revealed that the Baron survived their previous encounter but runs away when Snoopy challenges him to a duel with pistols, and then by Snoopy's Christmas, in which the two foes temporarily set aside their differences for a Christmas toast, as per the Christmas Truces that occurred during World War I. Snoopy's Christmas continues to be played as a holiday favorite on many oldies radio stations.

During the 1968 U.S. Presidential election, the Guardsmen released two additional songs, "Snoopy for President", in which Snoopy's bid for the nomination of the Beagle party is tipped in his favor by the Red Baron, and "Down Behind the Lines", which does not mention Snoopy specifically but describes the attempts of a World War I pilot to fly his damaged Sopwith Camel back to friendly territory.

In 2006 the Guardsmen recorded a song called "Snoopy vs. Osama" in which Snoopy shifts his focus away from The Red Baron and captures Osama Bin Laden.

Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:08

1966, The Royal Guardsmen - Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:40

The group from Ocala, FL with the British moniker rose to fame in 1966 with its single, “Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron,” which became the title track of its debut album. The album reached No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart and remained there for 12 weeks. It went on to sell one million copies, earning it gold certification from the R.I.A.A. in 1967.

1. Wednesday: p. 506

Reading Check


Why were military leaders baffled by trench warfare?

2. p. 506

Reading Check


What caused the widening of the war?

3. p. 506, Then and Now, What kind of aircraft did the Germans use during World War I?

AP Economics: 10 March 2010


Current Events:

Worries of a 'Double Dip'

Rohmer, Summers Possible Candidates for Kohn's Fed Seat

March 9 (Bloomberg) -- Bloomberg's Hans Nichols reports on possible successors to Fed Vice Chairman Donald Kohn, who announced earlier this month that he will resign his post on June 23. (Source: Bloomberg)

We will pick up where we left off in Chapter 21.

Chapter 21 The Monetary System

Chapter Overview

This chapter covers the definition and functions of money (and the measurements
M1 and M2), then turns to a discussion of the demand for and supply of money
examining the market for money and the market for bonds. How banks create
money is next, followed by material on the Federal Reserve System and an introduction to the tools of monetary policy (monetary policy is the subject of the next chapter). It should be noted that the chapter discusses monetary policy in terms of the Fed changing the supply of money to cause changes in interest rates.

Chapter Outline
What Is Money?

What is Money?, 4:29

The Functions of Money

Types and functions of money, 9:52.

Medium of Exchange
Unit of Account
Store of Value
Defining the Money Supply
Narrowly Defined Money: M1
A Broader Definition of Money: M2
Where Did All the One-Dollar Coins Go?
Checkpoint: What Is Money?
Money: Demand and Supply
The Market for Money and Bonds
The Demand for Money
Equilibrium in the Money Market
Bond Prices and Interest Rates

A look at what happens to bond prices when interest rates change, 3:23.

How Banks Create Money

How Banks Create Money Out Of Thin Air, 7:06

Find out how banks create money out of thin air by using Federal Reserve rules to make multiple loans on the same deposits.

Money - How it gets created out of thin air, 5:17

So, how does the Federal Reserve and the banks under it create money out of nothing thereby inflating the dollar? The document "Modern Money Mechanics," produced BY the Federal Reserve, lays it all out.

Functions of Financial Institutions
Fractional Reserve System
The Money Creation Process

Money Creation by Chris Martenson, 4:19

Understanding how money is created provides a foundation for appreciating the implications of our massive levels of debt, because it tells us how that debt came into being. As John Kenneth Galbraith once said, "The process by which money is created is so simple, the mind is repelled." Dr. Martenson walks us through this simple process of fractional reserve banking.

The Money Multiplier

Multiplier effect and the money supply, 11:06

How "money" is created in a fractional reserve banking system. M0 and M1 definitions of the money supply: the multiplier effect.

The Federal Reserve System

Federal Reserve, 7:07

PBS NewsHour economics correspondent Paul Solman explains the workings of the Federal Reserve, c. 5:00, up to the sail analogy.

The Structure of the Federal Reserve
The Board of Governors
Federal Reserve Banks
Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)
The Tools of the Federal Reserve
Reserve Requirements
Discount Rate
Open Market Operations
Checkpoint: The Federal Reserve System
Ideas for Capturing Your Classroom Audience
■ Take a virtual field trip. Visit the online money museum at the Federal Reserve
Bank of Richmond, located on the Web at http://www.richmondfed.org/about_us/
■ Other links to educational resources from the Federal Reserve can be found at
■ Illustrate changes in bond prices using a value calculator such as the one available on the Smart Money site on the Web at http://www.smartmoney.com/
onebond/index.cfm?story=bondcalculator. This allows you to change the bond
parameters and instantly see the effects on price.
■ Look at the historical and current values for M1 (including rate of change from
previous period) on the Web at http://www.economagic.com/em-cgi/data.exe/
fedstl/m1sl+1. Similar data for M2 is available at http://www.economagic.
Chapter Checkpoints
What Is Money?
Question: Gresham’s law says that bad money drives out the good money from the
marketplace. One example was the 1965 U.S. Coinage Act that replaced silver quarters with “sandwich” coins made of a cheaper silver-nickel alloy. The pre-1965 quarters quickly vanished from circulation. Where did all the pre-1965 quarters go? Is Gresham’s Law much of a problem in today’s economy with paper (fiat) money and credit cards?

The point is to check that students can: understand the difference between the
intrinsic value of something used as money and its face value.
Money: Demand and Supply
Question: If the Federal Reserve did not have any reserve requirements for member
banks, would those banks hold zero reserves? Why or why not?

The point is to check that students can: understand that reserve holdings are necessary because the demand for cash at any bank is uncertain.
The Federal Reserve System
Question: The reserve requirement sets the required percent of vault cash plus
deposits with the regional Federal Reserve Banks that banks must keep for their
deposits. Many banks have widespread branches and ATMs. Would the existence
of branches and ATMs affect the level of excess reserves (above those required)
that banks hold? Why or why not? What would be the effect on the actual money

The point is to check that students can: relate increased holding of excess reserves by banks to less lending and therefore a smaller money multiplier.
Extended Example in the Chapter
Where Did All the One-Dollar Coins Go?
The U.S. government continually tries issuing dollar coins, but they don’t seem to
catch on. Dollar coins don’t seem to circulate in the United States. The 1979 Susan B. Anthony dollar was not popular (many people said it was too close in size to a quarter) and neither was the Sacagawea dollar coin introduced in 1999. So why would the government try again now in 2007 with the Presidents series of dollar coins?
It may be that the purpose has changed. While the argument was saving on the cost
of producing money in earlier decades (a dollar coin lasts longer than a dollar bill) the attraction now may be for the coins NOT to circulate! See the article by Gordon T. Anderson titled “Congress Tries Again for a Dollar Coin: After Two Bellyflops, Congress Is Considering a Dollar Coin Again. This Time It Might Actually Work” (CNN Money, April 28, 2005: 5:35 PM EDT), available on the Web at http://money. cnn.com/2005/04/27/pf/new_dollar/). The author points out the seigniorage profits the government can earn if people hoard the coins instead of using them.
Examples Used in the End-of-Chapter Questions
Question 2 asks about barter and modern economies. It’s worth noting that an
increase in barter characterized the late 1990s in Russia, a situation unusual among nations in transition. There are numerous studies of barter in Russia, but an interesting perspective can be found in this piece by the president of the Ukraine talking about the “murky” bartering of resources with Russia. The article is “A Deal to End All Barter” by Victor Yushchenko (09:44 25 JANUARY 2006, The Wall Street Journal Europe). See the Web at http://www.president.gov.ua/en/news/data/26_5700.html.
Question 7 references the FDIC. To learn more about the agency visit its Web site at http://www.fdic.gov/.
Questions 11 and 15 concern the independence of the Federal Reserve System. For
more information see the Web site at http://www.federalreserve.gov/generalinfo/
Question 12 asks about the membership of the FOMC. For more information see the
Web site at http://www.federalreserve.gov/generalinfo/faq/faqfomc.htm.
For Further Analysis
Required Reserves and the Money Multiplier
This example can be used as a small group exercise or as an individual exercise.
The exercise provides an opportunity for students to apply the material in the chapter on reserve requirements and the money multiplier to work through some of the calculations. Setting the required reserve ratio equal to zero allows students to see that the amount of money in circulation would grow by an infinite amount. You may also consider having students construct the same example as an Excel spreadsheet.
Web-Based Exercise
Learn more about the people who make up the Federal Reserve Board of
Governors. You can find links to their biographies from the site at http://www.
Note to instructors: In the summer of 2007 there were two vacancies on the Board.
In a May 15, 2007, story from Market Watch (Dow Jones), Greg Robb reported
that President George W. Bush had nominated Elizabeth Duke, the chief operating
officer of TowneBank of Portsmouth, Virginia, and Larry Klane, a senior official
at Capital One Financial Corp., to fill the positions. See the article at
aspx?guid=%7BAE3A0592-80B2-477C-8C4B-89719F6E51F1%7. Depending on the
time at which you cover this material, it might be of interest to learn more about
the confirmation hearings for new appointees.
After reading the biographies, answer the following:
1) Discuss the backgrounds of the people who make up the Board. Are they all
2) How long has each person served?
3) Has the fact that President Bush has appointed all of the current members
affected the Fed’s independence?
Tips from a Colleague
The topic of “how banks create money” always stumps students because they don’t
completely understand that the loan checks issued by banks result in transfers of
deposit funds. Emphasize what is and what is not money; for example, it is not the
check that is money but the funds on deposit. Even more important, debit cards are
money but credit cards are not.

Chapter 20 Material

Where's the pork? Visit the Web site of Citizens Against Government Waste at
http://www.cagw.org/site/PageServer?pagename=reports_pigbook2007. This self described taxpayer watchdog organization has developed criteria by which to
identify wasteful projects. Relate this to the text material about politics and government spending.

Chapter Checkpoints
Demand-Side Fiscal Policy
Question: Explain why cutting taxes represents expansionary fiscal policy.
The point is to check that students can: apply their knowledge of the determinants
of aggregate demand to help evaluate the effect of cutting taxes (the key link is less taxes to more income to more spending).

Supply-Side Fiscal Policy

Question: In 1962 at a speech before the Economic Club of New York, President
John F. Kennedy argued that "it is a paradoxical truth that taxes are too high
today and tax revenues are too low.and the soundest way to raise taxes in the long
run is to cut rates now. Is President Kennedy's argument consistent with supply side economics? Why or why not?

The point is to check that students can: apply their comprehension of the material
on supply-side economics and evaluate the quote from President Kennedy.

Implementing Fiscal Policy

Question: Unless the economy enters a deep recession, we rarely hear Congress
discuss the budget in terms of fiscal policy: passing a spending and taxing package for macroeconomic purposes. Most of the discussion is on particular spending priorities for specific programs and bringing home projects for an individual politician's district. Has Congress essentially abandoned fiscal policy and left macroeconomic stabilization to the Federal Reserve and the setting of monetary policy?

The point is to check that students can: understand how changes in the price of oil affect the economy. It might be useful to point out that the initial effect is a decrease in aggregate supply against an unchanging aggregate demand.

Extended Example in the Chapter

The Size of Government Debate

Fiscal policy debates may have as much (if not more) to do with the philosophical
debate about the proper size of government as about the state of the macroeconomy.
In general, those on the left of the political spectrum favor a larger and more
active government while those on the right are constantly looking for ways to limit the size and power of the government. Examining federal receipts and expenditures as a percentage of GDP reveals the federal government’s tendency to spend more and more. The reason for this seems obvious: to cut spending Congress must cut programs, and whose programs would be cut? (In a later chapter, Chapter 23, the question of the budget deficit will be considered in more detail.)

Examples Used in the End-of-Chapter Questions

Question 2 references an article by Robert Dunn, titled “Let the Surplus Go” (The
New York Times, August 19, 2001) regarding the declining budget surplus. A summary
of the article in outline form (with key words noted) appears on the Web site
of Truth and Politics at http://www.truthandpolitics.org/html_gen.php?entryId=55.

Question 4 references The Power of Productivity by William Lewis (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2004). An interview with William Lewis (by Nick
Schultz) is available on the Web site of TCS Daily: Technology, Commerce, Society,
at http://www.techcentralstation.com/061705A.html. Among the points elaborated
in the interview are Lewis’s views about the combination of big government and
underdeveloped economies.

The pieces are “Remember Fiscal Policy?” in the “Economics Focus” section and
“The Case for Using Fiscal Policy” in the “Economic Policy Section.” The first piece presents the arguments that fiscal policy may have less of an effect on the economy than its proponents contend and moreover, that for political reasons, policymakers are “incapable of designing the right measures or enacting them at the right time.” The second piece contends that Keynesian measures to counteract a recession (particularly deficit spending) went “out of fashion years ago.” It goes on to suggest that such methods had been misapplied, meaning that they were being used to promote growth as opposed to counteracting recession.

For Further Analysis
Using the AS/AD Model to Explore the Impacts of Demand-Side Fiscal Policy
This example can be used as an in-class small group exercise or as an individual in class exercise. It is designed to complement the text’s material by employing the graphical analysis of the AS/AD model to illustrate the effects of demand-side fiscal policy when the economy is below full employment and when it is above full employment. It would not be difficult to adapt the handout to have students consider contractionary policy as well.

Note that for the second question students will have to show a shift in aggregate
demand and then a resulting shift in aggregate supply in order for the economy to
return to long-run equilibrium. You may also wish to summarize the assignment,
pointing out how important it is for the government to assess how close GDP is to
full employment and that regardless of the current level of output (compared to Qf), expansionary fiscal policy seems to always result in higher prices.

Web-Based Exercise

Listen to the Candidates Debate
This example can be used as a small group exercise or as an individual exercise.
The exercise provides an opportunity for students to apply the material in the chapter to positions of political candidates. This also allows students to appreciate the political spectrum, particularly in terms of the “middle” where positions are not so clearly “left” or “right.” You can make the assignment more or less extensive by choosing a number of candidates for students to consider, including local or state candidates as well as presidential and congressional candidates. Alternatively, you can also have students learn more about the positions of their already-elected state (or local) representatives; for example, what are their voting records?

Listen to the Candidates Debate
Visit the Web sites of political candidates and learn more about their positions with regard to the economy, particularly in terms of taxes and spending. Remember that government spending is associated with funding particular programs.

Tips from a Colleague

Students may not appreciate that the size of government is an ongoing matter of
debate in the United States and other countries. You may wish to review the material from Chapter 1 regarding the role of government in the economy and discuss the normative aspects of economics. Students may not fully appreciate the role of Congress and the interaction between Congress and the Executive Branch in terms of fiscal policy, so the process may be worth a brief review, particularly in the discussion of lags.


Email HW to gmsmith@shanahan.org

1. Be sure to review Chapters 18-19 (we will have Quizzes and Tests on this material as well, TBA).

2. Now that we finished Ch. 20, we will have Quizzes and a Test too on this material.

3. Ch. 21, this material, in contrast to the older material, is new and you should answer in writing as part of your HW:

Email the answers to p. 565-566, #9-16.

4. As review for HW, typical questions that you may encounter on the actual AP Economics Macro Test are included daily:

National Income and Price Determination, Review Questions

3. Congressional action to increase funding for space projects will cause short-run price level an dRGDP to changer in which of the following ways?

Price level RGDP

a) Decrease Increase
b) Increase Increase
c) Decrease Decrease
d) No Change Increase
e) No Change No Change

4. If the tax multiplier is -2 and net taxes are reduced by $300 billion, output will
a) increase by $150 billion
b) decrease by $150 billion
c) increase by $300 billion
d) increase by $600 billion
e) decrease by $600 billion