Friday, March 05, 2010

WH II Honors: 5 March 2010


Current Events:

The British Army is being accused of failing its troops who develop deep psychological trauma after serving in combat. As one former soldier faces double murder trial in Iraq, his distraught mother says it would never have happened if her son was properly treated for severe post-traumatic stress.

Nationalism and the System of Alliances

Reading Check
Did the growth of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century lead to increased competition or increased cooperation among European nations?

Internal Dissent

Reading Check
According to some historians, how might internal disorder have been one of the causes of World War I?

Reading Check
What was the effect of conscription on events leading up to World War I?

The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914
The Serbian Problem

A crisis began when Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary announced that he would visit Sarajevo (sa ruh yay voh), the capital of Bosnia. Francis Ferdinand was the nephew and heir of the aging Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph. At the time of his visit, Bosnia was under the rule of Austria-Hungary. But it was also the home of many Serbs and other Slavs. News of the royal visit angered many Serbian nationalists. They viewed the Austrians as foreign oppressors. Some members of Unity or Death, a Serbian terrorist group commonly known as the Black Hand, vowed to take action.

Assassination in Sarajevo

The assassin, Gavrilo Princip. Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

The spark for World War I was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip (gav ree loh preen tseep), a member of a Serbian terrorist group, killed Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie.

The archduke ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo. On June 28, 1914, he and his wife, Sophie, rode through Sarajevo in an open car. As the car passed by, a conspirator named Gavrilo Princip (gav ree loh preen tseep) seized his chance and fired twice into the car. Moments later, the archduke and his wife were dead.

“The first [bullet] struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. . . . She died instantly.

The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart. He uttered only one word, ’Sofia’—a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly.”
—Borijove Jevtic, co-conspirator

The assassinations triggered World War I, called “The Great War” by people at the time.

Austria-Hungary Responds

The news of the assassination shocked Francis Joseph. Still, he was reluctant to go to war. The government in Vienna, however, saw the incident as an excuse to crush Serbia. In Berlin, Kaiser William II was horrified at the assassination of his ally’s heir. He wrote to Francis Joseph, advising him to take a firm stand toward Serbia. Instead of urging restraint, Germany gave Austria a “blank check,” or a promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost.

Austria sent Serbia a sweeping ultimatum, or final set of demands. To avoid war, said the ultimatum, Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plot. It must even let Austria join in the investigation. Serbia agreed to most, but not all, of the terms of Austria’s ultimatum. This partial refusal gave Austria the opportunity it was seeking. On July 28, 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia.

Russia Mobilizes

After Austria’s declaration of war, Serbia turned to its ally, Russia, the champion of Slavic nations. From St. Petersburg, Nicholas II telegraphed William II. The tsar asked the kaiser to urge Austria to soften its demands. When this plea failed, Russia began to mobilize, or prepare its military forces for war. On August 1, Germany responded by declaring war on Russia.

Russia, in turn, appealed to its ally France. In Paris, nationalists saw a chance to avenge France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Though French leaders had some doubts, they gave Russia the same kind of backing Germany offered to Austria. When Germany demanded that France keep out of the conflict, France refused. Germany then declared war on France.

The Conflict Broadens
Summary of the Conflict Broadening

The Germans’ Schlieffen (shlee fun) Plan failed for several reasons. First, Russia mobilized more quickly than expected. After a few small Russian victories, German generals hastily shifted some troops to the east, weakening their forces in the west. Then, in September 1914, British and French troops pushed back the German drive along the Marne River. The first battle of the Marne ended Germany’s hopes for a quick victory on the Western Front.

Reasons for the failure of the Schlieffen Plan: Belgium, Britain, and the Eastern Front. The video ends at the Battle of the Marne, 3:49.

Reading Check
What was the Schlieffen Plan and how did it complicate the events leading to World War I?

Section 2 The War

Most people in 1914 believed that the war would end quickly. The picture changed, though, as trench warfare between France and Germany turned into a stalemate and casualties mounted throughout Europe. Italy switched sides, and the Ottoman Empire joined the war on the side of the Triple Alliance. The war broadened further when German colonies came under attack and the British encouraged Ottoman provinces in the Middle East to revolt. The United States entered the war in 1917 in response to the German use of submarines against passenger ships. As the war dragged on, governments took control of national economies, censored the news media, and used propaganda to bolster public opinion. Women entered the workforce in large numbers. After the war, many lost their jobs to men but gained expanded rights and status. By 1921 women had the vote in Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.

Key Terms

trench warfare
war of attrition
total war
planned economies

1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate

Propaganda of World War I, 2:35

These are some recruitment and propaganda posters from England and France during World War I. The song: "Boys in Khaki, Boys in Blue," means British and French soldiers.


Each of the nations which participated in World War One from 1914-18 used propaganda posters not only as a means of justifying involvement to their own populace, but also as a means of procuring men, money and resources to sustain the military campaign.

In countries such as Britain the use of propaganda posters was readily understandable: in 1914 she only possessed a professional army and did not have in place a policy of national service, as was standard in other major nations such as France and Germany.

The Western Front

The Western Front and the Eastern Front, 1914–1918, Marne

For: Interactive map
Web Code: nap-2621

Map Skills

World War I was fought on several fronts in Europe. Despite huge loss of life and property, the two sides came to a stalemate on the Western and Eastern fronts in 1915 and 1916.

1. Locate

(a) Paris (b) Battle of the Marne (c) Verdun (d) Tannenberg

2. Movement

Using the scale, describe how the battle lines moved on the Western Front from 1914 to 1918.

3. Draw Inferences

Based on this map, why do you think many Russians were demoralized by the progress of the war?

The Human Cost To break the stalemate on the Western Front, both the Allies and the Central Powers launched massive offensives in 1916. German forces tried to overwhelm the French at Verdun (vur dun). The French defenders held firm, sending up the battle cry “They shall not pass.” The 11-month struggle cost more than a half a million casualties, or soldiers killed, wounded, or missing, on both sides.


American Battle Monuments Cemetery in Aisne Marne, France, 2:00

This video presents a brief narrated tour of Aisne-Marne American Cemetery's landscaped grounds, architecture, and works of art.

The 42.5-acre Aisne-Marne Cemetery and Memorial in France, its headstones lying in a sweeping curve, sits at the foot of the hill where stands Belleau Wood. The cemetery contains the graves of 2,289 war dead, most of whom fought in the vicinity and in the Marne valley in the summer of 1918. The memorial chapel sits on a hillside, decorated with sculptured and stained-glass details of wartime personnel, equipment and insignia. Inscribed on its interior wall are 1,060 names of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. During World War II, the chapel was damaged slightly by an enemy shell.

Belleau Wood adjoins the cemetery and contains many vestiges of World War I. A monument at the flagpole commemorates the valor of the U.S. Marines who captured much of this ground in 1918.

trench warfare

The Eastern Front

On Europe’s Eastern Front, battle lines shifted back and forth, sometimes over large areas. Even though the armies were not mired in trench warfare, casualties rose even higher than on the Western Front. The results were just as indecisive.

In August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany. Then, the Russians suffered a disastrous defeat at Tannenberg, causing them to retreat back into Russia. As the least industrialized of the great powers, Russia was poorly equipped to fight a modern war. Some troops even lacked rifles. Still, Russian commanders continued to send masses of soldiers into combat.

Battle of Tannenberg, 4:26

Battle of Masurian Lakes

Reading Check


How did the war on the Eastern Front differ from the war on the Western Front?

1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter

A film version of the novel "All Quiet on the Western Front illustrates the horror of trench warfare.

In the first scene, Paul Baumer (Richard Thomas) is chastised by his teacher (Donald Pleasence) for lack of attention in class, (specifically for furtively making a sketch of a small bird). He is ridiculed as an 'idealist' and a 'dreamer.'

In the final trench scene, Paul sympathetically chivvies his exhausted soldiers into staying alert for their own safety. Yet moments later he himself becomes (fatally) distracted by a small bird, the same symbol of beauty that had so irritated his mentor three years previously. Other ironic subtleties reveal themselves here. Paul now seeks solace in smoking, a habit he had until now totally despised. (Recall how he had haughtily rejected his teacher's proffering of a cigarette!). Even this actor's distinctive facial mole acquires significance. Devoid of any disguising make-up, it disturbs as an appalling disfigurement on an otherwise handsome face, a subtle symbol perhaps of the Great War's brutal despoiling of a whole generation of Europe's 'Golden Youth'. Most tellingly, the movie links the image of Paul's drawings as the metaphor for the idealism of the new generation, a hope that died with Paul in the mud of those hellish trenches.

If you enjoyed this excerpt, you may enjoy the entire film.

The horror of war during the great slaughter of World War I is illustrated by one of the most famous novels from the Great War; this is a film version of "All Quiet on the Western Front" (1979), 6:01.

Tactics of Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare, 7:57

First part of a short film describing various aspects of trench warfare. Presented by Oxford University's First World War Poetry Digital Archive project.


war of attrition, the Battle of Verdun, 3:58

This is a brief demo Eagle Films created for a War museum concerning the brutal and bloody WW-I battle of Verdun. It was one of about twenty multimedia projects that were to be produced under the supervision of Philip Cook of Eagle Films.

War in the Air

During World War I, advances in technology, such as the gasoline-powered engine, led the opposing forces to use tanks, airplanes, and submarines against each other. In 1916, Britain introduced the first armored tank. Mounted with machine guns, the tanks were designed to move across no man’s land. Still, the first tanks broke down often. They failed to break the stalemate.

Both sides also used aircraft. At first, planes were utilized simply to observe enemy troop movements. In 1915, Germany used zeppelins (zep uh linz), large gas-filled balloons, to bomb the English coast. Later, both sides equipped airplanes with machine guns. Pilots known as “flying aces” confronted each other in the skies. These “dogfights” were spectacular, but had little effect on the course of the war on the ground.

World War 1 Aircraft - Sopwith Camel F.1, 1:16

The Sopwith Camel is probably one of the most famous British fighters of the war, in addition to the SE5a simply because it was one of their first superior fighters of the war. The Camel was dreaded by most Entente pilots, however. It was fast and maneuverable, but the upper wing had numerous problems and tendencies to shear off entirely and plunge the airframe into the ground (and this caused the death of many pilots), and torque was so great to the left side of the plane that it was sometimes rendered unable to fly altogether. It was dangerous for both novice and seasoned pilots to fly, any many died trying to tame the beast.

Reading Check


Why were military leaders baffled by trench warfare?

Widening of the War

Though most of the fighting took place in Europe, World War I was a global conflict. Japan, allied with Britain, used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and islands in the Pacific.


Because of its strategic location, the Ottoman empire was a desirable ally. If the Ottoman Turks had joined the Allies, the Central Powers would have been almost completely encircled. However, the Turks joined the Central Powers in late October 1914. The Turks then cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the Dardanelles, a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.

In 1915, the Allies sent a massive force of British, Indian, Australian, and New Zealander troops to attempt to open up the strait. At the battle of Gallipoli (guh lip uh lee), Turkish troops trapped the Allies on the beaches of the Gallipoli peninsula. In January 1916, after 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies finally withdrew from the Dardanelles.

Gallipoli trailer (Mel Gibson), 1:44

Lawrence of Arabia

Gene Siskel & Roger Ebert discuss the 1962 Oscar-winning First World War film Lawrence of Arabia, 4:45.

The Turks were harmed severely in the Middle East. The Ottoman empire included vast areas of Arab land. In 1916, Arab nationalists led by Husayn ibn Ali (hoo sayn ib un ah lee) declared a revolt against Ottoman rule. The British government sent Colonel T. E. Lawrence—later known as Lawrence of Arabia—to support the Arab revolt. Lawrence led guerrilla raids against the Turks, dynamiting bridges and supply trains. Eventually, the Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territory to the Arabs, including the key city of Baghdad.

Reading Check


Entry of the United States

Reading Check


Why did the Germans resort to unrestricted submarine use?

The Home Front: The Impact of Total War

total war

Increased Government Powers

planned economies

Manipulation of Public Opinion

Total War and Women

Reading Check


What was the effect of total war on ordinary citizens?

People in History

Edith Cavell


Cassell Military Classics: Iron Fist: Classic Armoured Warfare by Bryan Perrett

Day of the Assassins: A Jack Christie Novel by Johnny O'Brien

War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot

A documentary about the battle of the Somme 1916 part 1, 9:58

World War I in Popular Culture

Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:08

Royal Guardsmen - Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:40

Email to

1. Study for the Ch. 16 Sec. 1 Quiz on Tuesday; be sure to review the Ch. 16 Sec. 1 Quiz Prep Page.

2. Friday: p. 500, Geography Skills, #1-2; p. 500,

Reading Check


Did the growth of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century lead to increased competition or increased cooperation among European nations?

Reading Check


According to some historians, how might internal disorder have been one of the causes of World War I?

AP Economics: 5 March 2010


Current Events:

Supply Side Economics: The Case of India

The Test for Tuesday on Chapter 17 is a combination of question types such as Multiple Choice and Short Answer. Refer to the Chapter 17 Test Prep Page for details.

We will pick up where we left off in Chapter 20.

Chapter 20 Fiscal Policy

Chapter Overview

The topic of fiscal policy is addressed in three major units: demand-side fiscal policy, supply-side fiscal policy, and the implementation of fiscal policy. The third section (on implementation) includes coverage of automatic stabilizers, lags, and the crowding out effect. The chapter also includes a section that considers the debate over the size of government.

Fiscal Policy, 4:34

Chapter Outline
Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand
Discretionary Fiscal Policy
Government Spending
Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy, 3:22

Checkpoint: Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand
Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Supply
Modern Growth Theory
Reducing Tax Rates

Understanding Supply Side Economics, 1:08

The Laffer Curve, 7:40

The Laffer Curve charts a relationship between tax rates and tax revenue. While the theory behind the Laffer Curve is widely accepted, the concept has become very controversial because politicians on both sides of the debate exaggerate. This video shows the middle ground between those who claim "all tax cuts pay for themselves" and those who claim tax policy has no impact on economic performance. This video, focusing on the theory of the Laffer Curve, is Part I of a three-part series. Part II reviews evidence of Laffer-Curve responses. Part III discusses how the revenue-estimating process in Washington can be improved. For more information please visit the Center for Freedom and Prosperity's web site:

High Marginal Income Tax Rates and the Labor Supply of Women

Average vs. Marginal Tax Rates, 5:18

Expanding Investment and Reducing Regulations
Checkpoint: Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Supply
Implementing Fiscal Policy
Automatic Stabilizers
Fiscal policy & automatic stabilizers, 8:24
Fiscal Policy Timing Lags
Crowding-Out Effect

Crowding Out & Lags, 5:52

The Size of Government Debate

Checkpoint: Implementing Fiscal Policy

Ideas for Capturing Your Classroom Audience
Celebrate tax freedom day! Never heard of it? According to The Tax Foundation,
it is the number of days in a year Americans work to pay for government. In 2007
it fell on April 30, four days later than in 2006. See the Web site at http://www. and relate this to the debate over the size of

Where's the pork? Visit the Web site of Citizens Against Government Waste at This self described taxpayer watchdog organization has developed criteria by which to
identify wasteful projects. Relate this to the text material about politics and government spending.

Chapter Checkpoints
Demand-Side Fiscal Policy
Question: Explain why cutting taxes represents expansionary fiscal policy.
The point is to check that students can: apply their knowledge of the determinants
of aggregate demand to help evaluate the effect of cutting taxes (the key link is less taxes to more income to more spending).

Supply-Side Fiscal Policy

Question: In 1962 at a speech before the Economic Club of New York, President
John F. Kennedy argued that "it is a paradoxical truth that taxes are too high
today and tax revenues are too low.and the soundest way to raise taxes in the long
run is to cut rates now. Is President Kennedy's argument consistent with supply side economics? Why or why not?

The point is to check that students can: apply their comprehension of the material
on supply-side economics and evaluate the quote from President Kennedy.

Implementing Fiscal Policy

Question: Unless the economy enters a deep recession, we rarely hear Congress
discuss the budget in terms of fiscal policy: passing a spending and taxing package for macroeconomic purposes. Most of the discussion is on particular spending priorities for specific programs and bringing home projects for an individual politician's district. Has Congress essentially abandoned fiscal policy and left macroeconomic stabilization to the Federal Reserve and the setting of monetary policy?

The point is to check that students can: understand how changes in the price of oil affect the economy. It might be useful to point out that the initial effect is a decrease in aggregate supply against an unchanging aggregate demand.

Extended Example in the Chapter

The Size of Government Debate

Fiscal policy debates may have as much (if not more) to do with the philosophical
debate about the proper size of government as about the state of the macroeconomy.
In general, those on the left of the political spectrum favor a larger and more
active government while those on the right are constantly looking for ways to limit the size and power of the government. Examining federal receipts and expenditures as a percentage of GDP reveals the federal government’s tendency to spend more and more. The reason for this seems obvious: to cut spending Congress must cut programs, and whose programs would be cut? (In a later chapter, Chapter 23, the question of the budget deficit will be considered in more detail.)

Examples Used in the End-of-Chapter Questions

Question 2 references an article by Robert Dunn, titled “Let the Surplus Go” (The
New York Times, August 19, 2001) regarding the declining budget surplus. A summary
of the article in outline form (with key words noted) appears on the Web site
of Truth and Politics at

Question 4 references The Power of Productivity by William Lewis (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2004). An interview with William Lewis (by Nick
Schultz) is available on the Web site of TCS Daily: Technology, Commerce, Society,
at Among the points elaborated
in the interview are Lewis’s views about the combination of big government and
underdeveloped economies.

The pieces are “Remember Fiscal Policy?” in the “Economics Focus” section and
“The Case for Using Fiscal Policy” in the “Economic Policy Section.” The first piece presents the arguments that fiscal policy may have less of an effect on the economy than its proponents contend and moreover, that for political reasons, policymakers are “incapable of designing the right measures or enacting them at the right time.” The second piece contends that Keynesian measures to counteract a recession (particularly deficit spending) went “out of fashion years ago.” It goes on to suggest that such methods had been misapplied, meaning that they were being used to promote growth as opposed to counteracting recession.

For Further Analysis
Using the AS/AD Model to Explore the Impacts of Demand-Side Fiscal Policy
This example can be used as an in-class small group exercise or as an individual in class exercise. It is designed to complement the text’s material by employing the graphical analysis of the AS/AD model to illustrate the effects of demand-side fiscal policy when the economy is below full employment and when it is above full employment. It would not be difficult to adapt the handout to have students consider contractionary policy as well.

Note that for the second question students will have to show a shift in aggregate
demand and then a resulting shift in aggregate supply in order for the economy to
return to long-run equilibrium. You may also wish to summarize the assignment,
pointing out how important it is for the government to assess how close GDP is to
full employment and that regardless of the current level of output (compared to Qf), expansionary fiscal policy seems to always result in higher prices.

Web-Based Exercise

Listen to the Candidates Debate
This example can be used as a small group exercise or as an individual exercise.
The exercise provides an opportunity for students to apply the material in the chapter to positions of political candidates. This also allows students to appreciate the political spectrum, particularly in terms of the “middle” where positions are not so clearly “left” or “right.” You can make the assignment more or less extensive by choosing a number of candidates for students to consider, including local or state candidates as well as presidential and congressional candidates. Alternatively, you can also have students learn more about the positions of their already-elected state (or local) representatives; for example, what are their voting records?

Listen to the Candidates Debate
Visit the Web sites of political candidates and learn more about their positions with regard to the economy, particularly in terms of taxes and spending. Remember that government spending is associated with funding particular programs.

Tips from a Colleague

Students may not appreciate that the size of government is an ongoing matter of
debate in the United States and other countries. You may wish to review the material from Chapter 1 regarding the role of government in the economy and discuss the normative aspects of economics. Students may not fully appreciate the role of Congress and the interaction between Congress and the Executive Branch in terms of fiscal policy, so the process may be worth a brief review, particularly in the discussion of lags.


This video is based on the book Economics by McConnell and Brue.

Sarah Zubairy, a Ph.D. job market candidate in economics at Duke University, talks about her research on fiscal multipliers and a micro-founded medium-scale dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model developed and estimated to explain the effects of discretionary fiscal policy.

The Laffer Curve: Past, Present, and Future by Arthur B. Laffer

The Laffer Curve charts a relationship between tax rates and tax revenue. While the theory behind the Laffer Curve is widely accepted, the concept has become very controversial because politicians on both sides of the debate exaggerate. This video shows the middle ground between those who claim "all tax cuts pay for themselves" and those who claim tax policy has no impact on economic performance. This video, focusing on the theory of the Laffer Curve, is Part I of a three-part series. Part II reviews evidence of Laffer-Curve responses. Part III discusses how the revenue-estimating process in Washington can be improved. For more information please visit the Center for Freedom and Prosperity's web site:

The Napkin Sketch That Introduced Supply-Side Economics, 2:50

Dan Roam, author of The Back of the Napkin, discusses how a simple graph drawn on the back of a napkin -- later to be known as the "Laffer Curve" -- became "the basis of supply-side economics" for the late 20th century.


Dan Roam urges us to think with our eyes and tackle tough business problems in a whole new way - even if we draw like a second-grader.

He introduces powerful techniques from his "visual thinking" toolbox and demonstrates how people in diverse organizational settings can discover, develop and share their best ideas with a simple drawing on a basic napkin. - The Commonwealth Club of California

Dan Roam is the founder and president of Digital Roam Inc., a consulting firm that helps clients solve complex problems through visual thinking. He's also the author of The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures.

Email HW to

1. Be sure to review the Chapter 17 Test Prep Page for details about the Test on Tuesday.

2. Review Chapters 18-19 (we will have Quizzes and Tests on this material as well, TBA).

3. Ch. 20, this material, in contrast to the older material, is new and you should answer in writing as part of your HW:

Questions and Problems, p. 542-43, #9-15.

4. As review for HW, a typical question that you may encounter on the actual AP Economics Macro Test is included daily:


If the demand for plums increases and the supply of plums decreases, which of hte following is true?

a) The price and the quantity will both increase.
b) The price will increase, bu the quantity will decrease.
c) The price will rise, but it will be impossible to determine the change in the quantity.
d) The price will fall, but it will be impossible to determine the change in the quantity.
e) The quantity will rise, but it will be impossible to determine the change in the price.