Monday, October 31, 2005

World History Ch. 21 Sec. 3 "How-to" Manual

Section 3 Latin American Wars of Independence
In-class Assignment

Students work in groups to write a “how-to” manual for carrying out a successful revolution in Latin America. Each group’s manual should include the following information:
A profile of a successful leader;
Ways to gain followers;
The steps for carrying out a revolution;
Recommending actions for the post-revolutionary period;
The mistakes to avoid.

Your How to Carry Out a Successful Revolution Manual should be written based on your study of the revolutions that are discussed in Section 3.

World History Ch. 21 Sec. 3 Latin American Wars of Independence

Ch. 21 Section 3 Latin American Wars of Independence
In-class Assignment

Students work in groups to write a “how-to” manual for carrying out a successful revolution in Latin America. Each group’s manual should include the following information:
A profile of a successful leader;
Ways to gain followers;
The steps for carrying out a revolution;
Recommending actions for the post-revolutionary period;
The mistakes to avoid.

Your How to Carry Out a Successful Revolution Manual should be written based on your study of the revolutions that are discussed in Section 3.

Thursday, October 27, 2005

Educational Community Events Consideration

Whereas “education is a shared partnership among . . . students . . . and community. . . . and “our rigorous curriculum evolves and develops diverse and creative educational experiences (Mission Statement Cardinal Daugherty High School),”
We the undersigned request that we be informed, invited, and have an opportunity to attend educational community events.
Thank you for consideration.
28 October 2005
Name (please print) Signature Social Studies Class
1. ________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________
6. ________________________________________________________________
7. ________________________________________________________________
8. ________________________________________________________________
9. ________________________________________________________________
10. _______________________________________________________________

Internet Activity: Ch. 16 Progressive Education and Popular Entertainment

Internet Activity: Ch. 16 Progressive Education and Popular Entertainment

From 1894 to 1915, the goals of Progressive reformers influenced education in the United States, since education was seen as a way to teach children the proper values needed to be a productive American citizen. It was thought that society's ills could in part be alleviated by education for all classes that would fit children for their proper role in society. Public education was also seen as a way to "Americanize" the vast number of immigrant children flooding into cities. Compulsory attendance laws were enacted to ensure that children from all classes received a basic, "common," education in elementary grades.
There is an example of a high school to provide a film sample of this era.
[Lancaster, Pa., high school] CREATED/PUBLISHED [United States: Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 190-?]. And, one more film can be viewed.
[End of school day at coeducational school] CREATED/PUBLISHED [United States? : Thomas A. Edison, Inc.?, 1914?].
What do you notice about how the students look?
What does the fashion of the time suggest? What ethnic group/s do they belong to? Do they look rich or poor? Middle Class?

Let’s switch from education to popular entertainment of the era.

What form is the mass entertainment of the day? __________________________

Step right up and be amazed!
See an exotic & titillating Turkish Dance!
How risqué is this entertainment?
Turkish Dance, Ella LolaThomas A. Edison, Inc., 1898Duration: 0:29 at 26 fps.The film features Ella Lola, a popular performer on the vaudeville stage, performing her rendition of a "belly dance." This type of performance was not uncommon and points to vaudeville's roots in earlier forms of burlesque. Ms. Lola's routine, although bordering on risqué, far from violates any accepted standards of decency. Presentations of dance, or other 'dumb' acts, generally opened or closed performances to give audiences time to filter in and out of the theatre.

W.E.B. DuBois Historical Marker

Marker Name:
W.E.B. DuBois
Date Dedicated:
Marker Type:
6th & Rodman Sts., Philadelphia
African American, Education

Marker Text:

African American scholar, educator, and activist. A founder of the NAACP. From 1896-1897, he lived in the College Settlement House at 617 Carver (now Rodman) Street while collecting data for his classic study, published in 1899, The Philadelphia Negro.

Wednesday, October 26, 2005

STUDY GUIDE Chs. 14-15

STUDY GUIDE Chs. 14-15
N.B.: The graphics do not appear here but if included on the actual test you will have the illustrations.

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description.

A. Edwin L. Drake

B. Henry Bessemer

C. Christopher Sholes

D. Thomas Alva Edison

E. Alexander Graham Bell

____ 1. invented the typewriter

____ 2. invented the telephone

____ 3. developed an efficient technique for transforming iron into steel

____ 4. introduced an efficient means of retrieving oil from beneath the earth's surface

____ 5. perfected the incandescent light bulb at his research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey

If the statement is true, answer "A" on the Scantron. If it is false, answer "B."

__________ 6. At Promontory Point, Utah, where the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met on May 10, 1869, a golden spike marked the linking of the nation by the first transcontinental railroad.

__________ 7. J.P. Morgan was an industrialist whose company produced standard railroad cars and elegant sleeping cars. His company town, which he hoped would ensure a stable workforce, was criticized as "un-American."

__________ 8. The stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad used the Pullman Company to make huge, unearned profits for themselves.

__________ 9. In Munn v. Illinois, the states won the right to regulate the railroads for the benefit of farmers and other consumers.

__________ 10. The Interstate Commerce Act reestablished the right of the railroad companies to supervise railroad activities and set up the Interstate Commerce Commission for that purpose.

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description.

A. monopoly

B. Industrial Workers of the World

C. holding company

D. Andrew Carnegie

E. vertical integration

____ 11. process by which a company buys out all of its suppliers

____ 12. millionaire tycoon who made his riches in the steel industry

____ 13. a corporation that does nothing but buy out the stock of other companies

____ 14. organized in Chicago, 1905, by a group of radical unionists and socialists

A. Edwin L. Drake

B. Eugene V. Debs

C. Christopher Sholes

D. John D. Rockefeller

E. Mary Harris "Mother" Jones

____ 15. invented the typewriter

____ 16. first successfully used a steam engine to remove oil from beneath the earth's surface

____ 17. ran the American Railway Union and later ran for president several times as a socialist

____ 18. organized coal miners, their wives, and their children to fight for better working conditions

____ 19. created trusts and was criticized as a robber baron while serving as head of the Standard Oil Company

Using the exhibit, choose the letter of the best answer.

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach14.gif

____ 20. Into how many time zones is the continental United States divided?

A. one

B. two

C. three

D. four

____ 21. How many hours separate Central and Eastern time?

A. one

B. three

C. four

D. five

____ 22. In 1870, how many railroads reached the West Coast?

A. one

B. two

C. three

D. four

____ 23. Which railway connected Butte and Minneapolis?

A. Great Northern

B. Northern Pacific

C. Union Pacific

D. Illinois Central

____ 24. Which two cities were connected by the Pennsylvania Railway?

A. Los Angeles and Tucson

B. Salt Lake City and Omaha

C. Atlanta and Pittsburgh

D. Pittsburgh and St. Louis

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\taart\ach14a.gif

____ 25. What is the setting of this cartoon?

A. the boardroom of a large corporation

B. the United States Senate

C. a railway station in a major city

D. a theater with a sold-out show

____ 26. What group do the large men at the back of the room represent?

A. labor organizers

B. wealthy monopolists

C. very powerful senators

D. typical American citizens

____ 27. Who are the smaller men in the picture?

A. U.S. senators

B. industrialists

C. mayors

D. railroad magnates

____ 28. Which entrance to the Senate is closed?

A. the monopolists'

B. the senators'

C. the president's

D. the people's

____ 29. What is the main idea of this cartoon?

A. The Senate is working for the people, not for special interests.

B. Owners of business monopolies control the Senate.

C. Ordinary people are not allowed in the Senate.

D. Senators can be bribed for small amounts of money.

Choose the letter of the best answer.

____ 30.
Which of the following most allowed manufacturers to build their factories away from rivers?

A. electricity

B. steel beams

C. railroads

D. the telephone

____ 31. Why was Pullman, Illinois, an unusual town?

A. It had one main industry.

B. It specialized in a regional product.

C. It owed its prosperity to the railroads.

D. It was built by a company to house its workers.

____ 32. Which of the following did Social Darwinism discourage?

A. hard work

B. Industrialization

C. government regulation

D. the accumulation of wealth

____ 33. In which of the following places did 146 female workers die in a fire?

A. Haymarket Square

B. the Pullman factory

C. the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

D. Carnegie Steel's Homestead Plant

____ 34. Why were scabs unpopular with striking workers during the late 1800s?

A. They were socialists.

B. They were federal troops.

C. They were part of management.

D. They were workers used to break strikes.

____ 35. What made it possible to construct skyscrapers in the 1800s?

A. cheap electric power

B. fire safety standards

C. the invention of the elevator

D. new methods of making steel

____ 36. What did industrial consolidation and trusts reduce during the late 1800s?

A. corruption

B. Monopolies

C. competition

D. interstate commerce

____ 37. Who organized the Industrial Workers of the World?

A. radical unionists and socialists

B. female workers in the dressmaking trade

C. railroad workers, both skilled and unskilled

D. African-American workers, both skilled and unskilled

____ 38. Which of the following resulted from the investigation of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire?

A. the imprisonment of company officials

B. the passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act

C. the adoption of equal wages for men and women

D. changes in local labor laws for women and children

____ 39. What was the goal of the Interstate Commerce Act?

A. to build new railroads

B. to destroy the railroad industry

C. to lower excessive railroad rates

D. to increase the power of railroads

Using the exhibit, choose the letter of the best answer.

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach14.gif

____ 40. What is the time difference between Pacific and Eastern time?

A. one hour

B. two hours

C. three hours

D. four hours

____ 41. Which West Coast city was connected to the East by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railways?

A. San Francisco

B. Los Angeles

C. Portland

D. Seattle

____ 42. In which time zones were railroads concentrated in 1870?

A. Pacific and Mountain

B. Mountain and Central

C. Central and Pacific

D. Central and Eastern

____ 43. What change does the map show between 1870 and 1890?

A. The Eastern time zone gained many more railroads.

B. Cleveland became a new center of rail transportation.

C. Railroads expanded greatly in the West.

D. Omaha, Nebraska, was finally connected by rail to the East.

____ 44. Which time zone had the largest concentration of railways in 1890?

A. Pacific

B. Mountain

C. Central

D. Eastern

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\taart\ach14a.gif

____ 45. What is the subject of this cartoon?

A. what the Senate chamber looks like

B. Standard Oil and the Senate

C. monopolists and the Senate

D. how senators treat voters

____ 46. What message is the cartoonist sending by portraying the monopolists as larger in size than the senators?

A. The monopolists have more power to influence the government.

B. The monopolists represent the majority of the population.

C. The monopolists work harder.

D. The monopolists voice the concerns of the people more effectively.

____ 47. What message is presented by the state of the two entrances to the Senate?

A. Common people and monopolists share equal rights to representation.

B. The monopolists need a larger door because they are larger people.

C. Common people's rights to government have been taken over by monopolists.

D. The Senate has been elected or appointed by wealthy people.

____ 48. Examine the clothing of the monopolists. How is each depicted?

A. as a short person

B. as a bag of money

C. as a cruel man

D. as a strong man

____ 49. To what does the sign in the center of the cartoon allude?

A. the Pledge of Allegiance

B. the Sherman Antitrust Act

C. the Gettysburg Address

D. the Constitution

Choose the letter of the best answer.

____ 50. The main purpose of the company known as Crédit Mobilier was to

A. build the transcontinental railroad.

B. steal railroad money for its shareholders.

C. obtain a monopoly of the railroad industry.

D. obtain political positions for its shareholders.

____ 51. All of the following factors contributed to the immense industrial boom of the early 1900s except

A. a wealth of natural resources.

B. government support for business.

C. a growing urban population.

D. the emergence of the middle class.

____ 52. Andrew Carnegie gained control of a large percentage of the steel industry by doing all of the following except

A. buying out his suppliers.

B. cutting the quality of his products.

C. buying out his competitors.

D. underselling his competitors.

____ 53. The Sherman Antitrust Act

A. outlawed the formation of trusts that interfered with free trade.

B. was supported by millionaire industrialists.

C. was used by labor unions to fight for workers' rights.

D. encouraged the establishment of large-scale businesses.

____ 54. The Great Strike of 1877 took place in the

A. steel industry.

B. textile industry.

C. railroad industry.

D. coal mining industry.

____ 55. In the late 1800s, collective bargaining was a technique used to

A. expand industry.

B. win workers' rights.

C. restrict labor unions.

D. organize labor unions.

____ 56. The use of standardized time and time zones was introduced in order to benefit

A. telephone and telegraph operators.

B. railroad companies and train travelers.

C. manufacturers who dealt in interstate trade.

D. factory owners whose workers had set schedules.

____ 57. Social Darwinism was used to justify all of the following except

A. the existence of poverty.

B. the success of big business.

C. the power of millionaire industrialists.

D. government regulation of business.

____ 58. Vertical integration, a business strategy used by steel mogul Andrew Carnegie, involves

A. buying out raw material producers and distributors.

B. merging with companies producing similar products.

C. forming trusts.

D. using new methods to increase production.

____ 59. The Interstate Commerce Act gave the right to supervise railroad activities to

A. the federal government.

B. railroad company officials.

C. farmers' groups, such as the Grange.

D. a select committee of wealthy industrialists.

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description.

A. Ellis Island

B. melting pot

C. nativism

D. Chinese Exclusion Act

E. Gentlemen's Agreement

____ 60. Which term is the name of a restriction on immigration passed by Congress?

____ 61. Which term refers to an agreement that limited the immigration of unskilled workers to the United States in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order?

____ 62. Which idea led to a rise in anti-immigrant groups and a demand for immigration restrictions?

____ 63. Which term refers to the mixture of diverse cultures whose people blended together by abandoning their native language and customs?

____ 64. Through which place did immigrants arriving on the East Coast pass before gaining entry into the United States?

(blank instruction text)

65. Describe the "new" immigrants and where they came from.

a) New immigrants tended to come from southern and eastern Europe, China, Japan, the Caribbean, or Mexico.

b) New immigrants tended to come from western and northern Europe or Africa.

If the statement is true, answer "A" on the Scantron. If it is false, answer "B" on the Scantron.

__________ 66. Urbanization is a term that describes the growth of farming regions.

__________ 67. Many city dwellers crowded into multifamily, often unsanitary, settlement houses.

__________ 68. Tenements were community centers that provided assistance to the urban poor.

__________ 69. The Americanization movement was designed to assimilate diverse people into the dominant culture.

__________ 70. Jane Addams, one of the most influential members of the Social Gospel movement, founded Chicago's Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr.

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description.

A. Stalwarts

B. graft

C. political machines

D. spoils system

E. Pendleton Act

____ 71. These Republican supporters of New York City boss Roscoe Conkling were strongly opposed to civil-service reform.

____ 72. This authorized an independent civil service commission to make government appointments based on the merit system.

____ 73. This was any type of unethical or illegal use of political influence for personal gain.

____ 74. These were organized groups that controlled the activities of a political party in a city.

Choose the letter of the best answer.

____ 75. The main immigration processing station in San Francisco was called

A. Ellis Island.

B. Tammany Hall.

C. Angel Island.

D. Hull House.

____ 76. The main goal of the Chinese Exclusion Act was to

A. decrease Chinese immigration.

B. create segregated classrooms.

C. settle a disagreement between China and the United States.

D. stop Chinese Americans from attending school in the United States.

____ 77. The main goal of the Americanization movement was to

A. limit the number of immigrants entering the country.

B. assimilate people of various cultures into the dominant culture.

C. improve the living conditions in America's largest cities.

D. encourage people to move from the country to the city.

____ 78. The row house was a new type of housing that conserved space by

A. rising ten or more stories high.

B. combining air vents with trash disposal areas.

C. sharing side walls with other buildings.

D. enclosing a park shared by several buildings.

____ 79. Settlement houses were founded in the late 1800s by

A. new immigrants.

B. social reformers.

C. political machines.

D. industrial workers.

____ 80. The illegal use of political influence for personal gain is called

A. nativism.

B. civil service.

C. gentlemen's agreement.

D. graft.

____ 81. Tammany Hall was the name of

A. a famous settlement house.

B. a New York Customs House.

C. a New York City political machine.

D. the federal courthouse in New York City.

____ 82. An example of patronage would be

A. bribing a government official.

B. assassinating a public official.

C. saying one thing and doing another.

D. appointing a friend to a political position.

____ 83. The Stalwarts were strong supporters of

A. low tariffs.

B. high tariffs.

C. the spoils system.

D. civil service reform.

____ 84. The Pendleton Civil Service Act required

A. applicants for government jobs to pass examinations.

B. native-born Americans to treat immigrants with courtesy.

C. government workers to renounce all party loyalties.

D. cities to provide services such as clean water to their residents.

Using the exhibit, choose the letter of the best answer.

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach15.gif

____ 85. Which city located on the East Coast had the most people living in or near it in 1870?

A. New York

B. Miami

C. Charleston

D. New Orleans

____ 86. In 1870, which region of the United States was most densely populated?

A. Southwest

B. Southeast

C. Northwest

D. Northeast

____ 87. In 1890, which region was least densely populated?

A. Northeast

B. West

C. South

D. Midwest

____ 88. By 1890, how many people had settled in Miami?

A. fewer than 100, 000

B. 100, 000-200, 000

C. 200, 000-500, 000

D. more than 500, 000

____ 89. What overall trend do these maps show?

A. decline in the population of rural areas

B. growth in population, concentrated in cities

C. decline in immigration, especially from Asia

D. movement of people from urban to rural areas

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach15a.gif

____ 90. From which country did the most immigrants enter the United States in 1880?

A. China

B. Japan

C. Ireland

D. Italy

____ 91. Between which two years did Chinese immigration drop most sharply?

A. 1882 and 1883

B. 1881 and 1882

C. 1899 and 1900

D. 1886 and 1887

____ 92. Which country's immigration rate rose the most dramatically between 1900 and 1910?

A. China

B. Japan

C. Ireland

D. Italy

____ 93. In which year did the Japanese immigration rate first rise higher than the Chinese immigration rate?

A. 1885

B. 1891

C. 1895

D. 1899

____ 94. Which two countries sent about the same number of immigrants to the United States in 1890?

A. China and Japan

B. Japan and Ireland

C. Ireland and Italy

D. China and Italy

(blank instruction text)

95. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, millions of people immigrated to the United States. Identify and explain several reasons people left their homelands to move to the United States.

a) Many immigrants came to the United States seeking better employment opportunities than were available in their homelands. The United States was experiencing an industrial boom that seemed to promise work for everyone. Other immigrants came to escape religious or political persecution, famine, land shortages, and overpopulation.

b) Some migrants came to the United States fleeing worse employer disincentives than were available in their homelands. The United States was experiencing an agricultural slowdown that seemed to hinder work for everyone. Other migrants came to encourage religious or political persecution, famime, land shortages, and overpopulation.

If the statement is true, answer "A" on the Scantron. If it is false, answer "B" on your Scantron.

__________ 96. New immigrants arriving on the East Coast gained admission at Angel Island.

__________ 97. Nativism is an overt favoritism toward native-born Americans.

__________ 98. The Gentleman's Agreement limited the immigration of unskilled workers from Mexico.

__________ 99. Some American workers felt threatened by Chinese immigration because Chinese workers would work for higher wages.

__________ 100. Many of the Southern farmers who lost their jobs because of improvements in farming techniques were African Americans.

__________ 101. The Social Gospel movement contributed to the development of settlement houses.

__________ 102. Political machines gained some of their power from immigrants for whom they performed favors.

__________ 103. Fraud is any type of illegal use of political influence for personal gain.

__________ 104. Boss Tweed led Tammany Hall in defrauding New York City when building the New York County Courthouse.

__________ 105. The assassination of President Garfield showed how strongly some people resisted reform of immigration laws.

Using the exhibit, choose the letter of the best answer.

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach15.gif

____ 106. Which area had the greatest population density in 1870?

A. the West Coast

B. the area around Dallas

C. the area around Charleston

D. the northeast Atlantic coast

____ 107. Which of the following is not true about changes in the U.S. population between 1870 and 1890?

A. Population density in the East increased.

B. Population density near major cities increased.

C. Total population stayed about the same but shifted to urban areas.

D. Some areas of the country attracted more new settlers than others.

____ 108. Which of the following do the majority of the cities shown on the map share in common?

A. Their surrounding areas contained more than 800, 000 people in 1870.

B. Their surrounding areas contained fewer than 80, 000 people in 1890.

C. They are located near large bodies of water.

D. Their population density decreased in the late 19th century.

____ 109. Which northern city had the most people living in or near it in 1890?

A. Dallas

B. New York

C. Portland

D. Detroit

____ 110. Based on your knowledge of the chapter, which of the following factors influenced the population change in the Los Angeles and San Francisco regions?

A. increased immigration from Asia

B. inadequate means of transportation

C. decreased popularity in coastal living

D. lack of industrial growth

Using the exhibit, answer the following questions.

111. Based on what you know about U.S. immigration, why might the maps show such a heavy concentration of dots on the northeastern coast of the United States?

a) Around the turn of the century, Ellis Island in New York was the main processing station for European immigrants entering the United States. Many new immigrants probably settled in the northeast, near their New York port of entry.

b) Around the beginning of the century, Angel Island in San Francisco was the main processing station for European immigrants entering the United States. Many new immigrants probably settled in the southwest, far from their San Francisco port of entry.

112. How does the information on this map reflect the growth of railroads in the late 1800s?

a) The small population growth in the East reflects the building of railroads in those regions. The railroads acted as a barrier for people to travel to and leave this region.

b) The large population growth in the West reflects the building of railroads in those regions. The railroads made it possible for people to travel to and settle in this region.

Using the exhibit, choose the letter of the best answer.

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach15a.gif

____ 113. Which of these countries sent the most immigrants to the United States in 1900?

A. China

B. Japan

C. Italy

D. Ireland

____ 114. Between which two years did the sharpest drop in Japanese immigration occur?

A. 1883 and 1884

B. 1890 and 1891

C. 1903 and 1904

D. 1908 and 1909

____ 115. What does the chart show about Italian immigration during this period?

A. It was carefully controlled by immigration laws.

B. It increased dramatically after 1900.

C. Very few Italians immigrated before 1900.

D. Italian immigrants tended to settle in urban areas.

____ 116. In which year did the rate of China's immigration to the United States exceed that of Italy?

A. 1800

B. 1882

C. 1888

D. 1893

____ 117. Which of the following might be associated with the sharp decline in Chinese immigration in 1883-1884?

A. the Chinese Exclusion Act

B. the building of U.S. railroads

C. the discovery of gold in the United States

D. the Gentlemen's Agreement

Using the exhibit, answer the following questions.

118. Compare immigration numbers from Italy and Ireland before and after 1890. What trend does the chart imply?

a) The chart shows a mushrooming number of Italian immigrants entering the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The number of immigrants from Ireland, by contrast, declines gradually from 1880 to 1910. Therefore, the chart implies a shift from northern to southern European immigration.

b) The chart shows a slowing number of Italian immigrants enterting the Unites States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The number of immigrants from Ireland, by contrast, increases sharply from 1880 to 1910. Therefore, the chart implies a shift from southern to northern European immigration.

119. How does the chart demonstrate the power of the U.S. government to control who is able to enter the country?

a) As a result of the Japanese agitation in 1907-1908, Chinese immigration dropped sharply. After the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1880, the number of Japanese migrants increased sharply. The chart shows that the government was effective in migrating immigrants from undefined countries.
b) As a result of the Gentleman's Agreement in 1907-1908, Chinese immigration dropped sharply. After the Chinese Exclusion Act in of 1889, the number of Japanese immigrants declined sharply. The chart shows that the government was ineffective in controlling immigration from particular countries.
c) As a result of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1883, Chinese immigration dropped sharply. After the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907-1908, the number of Japanese immigrants declined sharply. The chart shows that the government was effective in controlling immigration from particular countries.

(blank instruction text)

120. Note the factors that led to a rise in urbanization during the last half of the 19th century.

a) the increase of railroads, the demise of the buffalo.
b) the Pendleton Act, civil rights reform; and tariffs.
c) the needs of new immigrants; inventions and their effects; conveniences offered by cities.

121. Do you think that the relationship between political machines and their constituents was equally beneficial to both?

a) yes; the political machines helped citizens
b) no; no one was helped by the political machines

Choose the letter of the best answer.

____ 122. Which of the following is true of the Gentlemen's Agreement?

A. It decreased Japanese immigration.

B. It resulted in segregated classrooms.

C. It caused anti-American rioting in Japan.

D. It prohibited aliens from working in industrial jobs.

____ 123. What was the original purpose of the row house?

A. to alleviate slum conditions

B. to integrate lower-class neighborhoods

C. to provide inner-city housing for wealthy families

D. to provide single-family homes for working-class families

____ 124. Which of the following was the main interest of the Social Gospel movement?

A. religious reform

B. political reform

C. social reform

D. economic reform

____ 125. Which of the following had some of the same goals as the Americanization movement?

A. settlement houses

B. graft

C. Chinese Exclusion Act

D. patronage

____ 126. Which of the following does not describe a typical supporter of a political machine?

A. poor

B. urban

C. factory worker

D. opposed to immigration

____ 127. What is the main purpose of patronage?

A. to increase government funds

B. to increase government efficiency

C. to reward one's supporters

D. to avoid concentrating power in one individual or group

____ 128. Which of the following is an example of graft?

A. using a cartoon to illustrate political fraud

B. saying a project cost more than it did and keeping the difference for yourself

C. choosing your friends for political offices

D. using the threat of force to get people to vote for a particular candidate

____ 129. Who used the power of the presidency to clean up the New York Customs House but was unable to get support from Congress for civil service reform?

A. Grover Cleveland

B. Chester A. Arthur

C. Benjamin Harrison

D. Rutherford B. Hayes

____ 130. Which of the following issues prompted the assassination of President Garfield?

A. tariffs

B. kickbacks

C. immigration

D. civil service reform

____ 131. Which president changed his ideas on civil service reform when he gained the presidency?

A. Grover Cleveland

B. Chester A. Arthur

C. Benjamin Harrison

D. Rutherford B. Hayes

Using the exhibit, answer the following questions.

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach15.gif

132. In 1870, where was the U.S. population concentrated? In what type of settlement?

a) Population was concentrated in the Soutwest and in rural areas, many of which were on the Pacific coast or around the Gulf of Mexico.
b) Population was concentrated in the Northeast and in urban areas, many of which were on the Atlantic coast or around the Great Lakes.

133. How do the maps show the trend toward industrialization between 1870 and 1890?

a) The rapid population growth of urban areas reflects the trend toward imprimatur,
as many people, settled in cities to work in factories.
b) The rapid population growth of urban areas reflects the trend toward identification, as many people settled in cities to work in factories.
c) The rapid population growth of urban areas reflects the trend toward insemination, as many people settled in cities to work in factories.
d) The rapid population growth of urban areas reflects the trend toward maturation, as many people settled in cities to work in factories.
e) The rapid population growth of urban areas reflects the trend toward industrialization, as many people settled in cities to work in factories.

134. Based on your knowledge of the chapter, how is Asian immigration in the late 1800s reflected in the maps?

a) Immigrants from the East entered the United States through New York. This city and the surrounding area saw substantial population in the late 1800s.
b) Immigrants from Asia entered the United States through San Francisco. This city and the surrounding area saw substantial population growth in the late 1800s.

135. How do the maps reflect the growth of transportation in the late 19th century?

a) The growth of Native emmigration in the East is shown by the increased population in that region.
b) The growth of Chinese immigration in the South is shown by the increased population in that region.
c) The growth of railroads in the West is shown by the increased population density in that region.
d) The growth of buffalo in the West is shown by the increased population in that region.

136. What region of the country saw a rapid growth in population growth between 1870 and 1890?

a) Southeast
b) Northwest
c) Northeast
d) Midwest

Image available at: c:\program files\testgen\exhibits\Special\taart\ach15a.gif

137. Which country sent the most immigrants to the United States in the first decade covered by this chart?

a) China
b) Japan
c) Ireland
d) Brussels
e) Italy

138. Did more immigrants come from Asia or from Europe between 1880 and 1910?

a) Asia
b) Europe

(blank instruction text)

139. Which of the following is not a result of the rapid urbanization of the late 1800s?

a) housing and other everyday necessities; problems and challenges facing immigrants; social reformers and the Social Gospel movement.
b) rise of science and the fundamentalist movement; the election of 1896; Garfield's assassination; the increase in schooling.

World History, Debate for Daugherdania

Debate For Daugherdania

The year is 1815; the place is Daugherdania, a country in Europe. The first meeting of the Daugherdanian National Assembly is about to be called to order. The National Assembly is split between three groups—one for conservatism, another for liberalism, and a third for nationalism. All three groups are about equal in strength and in any vote taken by the Assembly each group has one vote.

The Assembly debates will center on which group best represents Daugherdania.

· First, each group is to meet to outline its political movement by listing its goals, attitude toward change, political ideas, economic ideas, and/or whether to revolt or not (pp. 528-529).
· Second, one party leader should be elected to represent your respective group during the debate while being supported by each member of your respective party.
· Third, each group must keep in mind the rules of debate and not violate faulty reasoning points (p. 524) or face censure by the Speaker of the Assembly (the wise Herr Doktor Vater Schmidt, otherwise known as Dr. Smith).

The Assembly has several pressing issues to consider quickly in these chaotic days.
1) Who will rule the country?

Should the Assembly invite the son of the deposed King to rule Daugherdania?
King Napoleon

Should the Assembly elect the reformer?
Adam Ricardo Mill

Should the Assembly ask the patriot Daugherty to lead the new nation?
Daugherty the Brave

2) What ideology should be in the new Constitution?

Established Church
Rights reserved for only the aristocracy
Peace and order based on the King
Freedom of the press, speech, religion, and to assemble and to revolt if necessary
A popularly elected president, no monarchy, no established church
Liberty, equality, property (natural rights)
Universal manhood suffrage
Common heritage, sense of identity, our own homeland
Intolerance, persecute non- Daugherdanian minorities

World History, Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America, Sections 1-3

Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America

Caption, p. 527

Section 1 An Age of Ideologies
Universal manhood suffrage

Lesson Plan Focus

After 1815, conservatives called for a return to the political and social structure that existed before 1789. Liberals embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment and wanted to limit the power of monarchs. Nationalists, by urging national independence, threatened the powerful empires of Europe. Conflicts emerged as conservative leaders opposed liberal and nationalist demands.

Caption, p. 528
Caption, p. 530

Section 2 To the Barricades!
Guide for Reading
Why did revolts break out in France in 1830 and 1848?
How did revolutions in France affect other parts of Europe?
Why did the revolts of 1830 and 1848 generally fail to achieve their goals?

Section 1 Review

Lesson Plan Focus

Charles X’s attempt to restore absolutism in France resulted in the July revolution of 1830. An economic slump, coupled with discontent over social and political issues, sparked revolution again in 1848. These French uprising inspired revolts in other parts of Europe. Many of the revolutions failed because they were put down by military force and because they did not have mass support.

Caption, p. 532
Map, p. 533
Caption, p. 535

Section 2 Review

Section 3 Latin American Wars of Independence

Lesson Plan Focus

Enlightenment ideas, revolutions in other lands, and dissatisfaction with European rule caused revolutions in Latin America. In Haiti, an army of former slaves ended French rule in a struggle that cost more lives than any other Latin American revolution. As a result of revolutions in Mexico, Central America, and South America, independent Latin American nations emerged.

Caption, p. 538
Parallels Through Time, p. 540
Cause and Effect, p. 541
Map, p. 542

Section 3 Review

Sample Rubric for a Portfolio

Sample Rubric for a Portfolio

Exceptional Qualities

Collection shows a wide range of interests and abilities.

Reflections are thoughtful. The student reveals strong insights about areas of strength and needs for improvement and indicates clear goals for the future.

Samples show thoughtful attention to process. They indicate that the student has grown from the experience of creating and reviewing the work.

Problem Solving
Samples indicate that the student recognizes their problems and responds to those that are pointed out. The student shows resourcefulness in solving problems.

Content, Form, and Mechanics
The student shows careful attention to the final product. Content, form, and mechanics show strong control.

Tuesday, October 25, 2005

Ch. 16 Section 2 Education and Culture

Ch. 16 Section 2 Education and Culture

To trace the expansion of public education at the turn of the century.
To summarize the educational opportunities open for immigrants.
To describe the expansion of higher education.
To show how expanding education enhanced American culture.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
What kinds of futures is your education preparing you for?
How might an educational system help a nation meet its social needs.

Objective 1 Instruct
Expanding Public Education
Discussing Key Ideas
States try to improve and expand public education to produce good citizens and skilled workers.
High schools emerge as industrial work demands more educated workers.
Discriminatory educational policies deny most African Americans equal educational opportunities.

History From Visuals
Expanding Education/Decreasing Illiteracy
Reading the Graph
Each stick figure in the graph equals 2 million students. Therefore, the six stick figures in the top row (1870) equal 12 million students.

The total school enrollment for the years given in the graph is below. Create an additional column for the graph.
Year Enrollment 1870, 6,872,000; 1880, 9,868,000; 1890, 14,479,000; 1900, 16,885,000; 1910, 19,372,000; 1920, 23,278,000.

Objective 2 Instruct
Education for Immigrants
Starting With the Student
How might a student assimilate to new schools and lifestyles if they immigrated to a different country?

Discussing Key Ideas
Public schools and employers attempt to Americanize immigrants.
Some immigrants resist the pressure to abandon their native cultures.

Now & Then
Technology and Schools
Critical Thinking:
What is the value of computers in the classroom or in instruction? Do you think computers are overrated as an educational tool or that computer skills are essential in today’s world?

Objective 3 Instruct
Expanding Higher Education
Discussing Key Ideas
Higher education greatly expands at the turn of the century, drawing students mainly from upper- and middle-class backgrounds.
The college curriculum changes to suit the new technological age.
African Americans establish colleges of their own to overcome their exclusion from most white schools.

Historical Spotlight
Women in College Life
Critical Thinking:
Even though the number of women attending college was climbing at the turn of the century, they still remained a minority on campus. How would college administrators and professors address the presence of female students.

More About. . .
Stanford University
Railroad magnate Leland Stanford donated a Palo Alto farm to provide land for the new University. The sandstone buildings, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, were styled to resemble the old Spanish missions of California.

More About. . . .
W.E.B. Du Bois (pronounced doo bois) attended Fisk University in Nashville before going to Harvard for graduate school. Although his doctorate was in history, he was more of a sociologist who devoted his scholarship to fighting racism. Du Bois used statistical evidence to disprove racist myths that were used to support segregation. Among he early writing with this goal was The Philadelphia Negro (1899), the first case study of an African-American community in the country.

Objective 4 Instruct
Education Influences Culture
Starting With the Student
What kinds of topics, issues, and activities (such as music, literature, film, or other hobbies) has education helped you to appreciate?

Discussing Key Ideas
The expansion of education broadens American’ cultural horizons, with art galleries, libraries, and museums making culture available to more people.
Many turn-of-the-century artists and writers embrace social realism, attempting to portray life as it is really lived.
Increased literacy boosts sales of “dime novels” and other light fiction.

More About
Thomas Eakins
Except for four years in Europe, when he studies art in France and viewed the masterpieces of Spain, Eakins spent virtually his entire life in the city of his birth, Philadelphia. His pioneering efforts in realism at first met with scorn. The Gross Clinic, the realistic depiction of a surgery, now deemed a masterpiece, was rejected for display at the Centennial Exposition held in Philadelphia in 1876.

More About. . . .
Mark Twain
Clemens grew up in the Mississippi River town of Hannibal, Missouri, and took his pen name from a riverboat pilot’s cry, “Mark twain!”—which meant the water was two fathoms deep, or safe for a boat to cross. Twain’s satirical pen gave late 19th-century American its nickname, the Gilded Age, which was the title of a novel he coauthored with Charles Dudley Warner. A pioneer work of American realism, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is usually cited as Twain’s masterpiece. “All modern American literature,” Ernest Hemingway once, said, “comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.”

Education, which expanded to train the work force and teach good American citizenship, also led to new cultural achievements.

Interpreting Graphs
Rate: 14%
Immigrants: Possible Answer: More impressive, because millions of immigrants could not read when they arrived in America.

Drawing Conclusions
Answer: Public schools multiplied and improved their curricula, and they granted many more children the opportunity to be educated for jobs and citizenship.

Analyzing Causes
Answer: Public schools and adult classes taught English to all members of the family; Americanization also took place in the workplace.

Recognizing Effects
Answer: Because of the number of death from infection during the war, reformers sought changes in medical schools to ensure a rigorous education for doctors.

Answer: All-black colleges and universities opened, but only a tiny percentage of African Americans received a college education.

Answer: New printing technologies and America’s growing literacy rate.

Section 2 Assessment

Terms & Names
W.E.B. Du Bois, p. 470
Booker T. Washington, p. 471
Thomas Eakins, p. 471
Mark Twain, p. 472

Compulsory education laws; Literacy increased.
Increase in number of kindergartens; immigrants become “Americanized.”
Growth of high schools; college enrollments increased.
Discrimination against African Americans; all-black colleges founded.
New curricula led to advances in science and medicine.

Students should be able to articulate reasons for their choices.

Developing Historical Perspective
Possible Answer: Students may note that in the early 20th century, cultural institutions promoted high culture, rather than the mass culture that was emerging. Today, museums and libraries are more integrated into mass culture and reach larger audiences.

Possible Answer: Without public schools, economic growth, the adapting of immigrants to American life, and the growth of high culture might have slowed. However, private schools might have developed more rapidly.

Monday, October 24, 2005

How to find information on Olney for the Neighborhood Project

How to find information on Olney for the Neighborhood Project

Philadelphia Neighborhoods

North Philadelphia is a district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is immediately north of the Center City district. Though the full
extent of the region is somewhat vague, "North Philadelphia" is generally regarded everything north of Spring Garden Street between Northwest Philadelphia
and Northeast Philadelphia. The city government views this sprawling chunk of Philadelphia more precisely as three smaller districts, drawn up by the
Redevelopment Authority in 1964. These regions are (from north to south) Olney/Oak Lane, Upper North Philadelphia, and Lower North Philadelphia.,_Pennsylvania

Olney/Oak Lane
Belfield, Cedarbrook / Stenton, Erlen, Logan, Ogontz, Upper Nicetown, West Oak Lane
East Logan, East Oak Lane, East Olney, Feltonville, Fern Rock, Melrose Park, Olney

Write a biography of your town or neighborhood. Using what you’ve learned about Industrialization and Urbanization, how cities grow, and why people
migrate and immigrate:

Discuss the following:
· The town’s or neighborhood’s founders;
Olney is named after the estate of Alexander Wilson (not the ornithologist), who resided on Rising Sun Avenue, near Tacony Creek. Wilson chose the name
for his residence because of his love for the poet Cowper, of Olney, England. The mansion was demolished in 1924, but the name was applied to the growing
village nearby.,_Philadelphia

Olney was originally vast, hilly farmland in the hinterland of Philadelphia County up to the late nineteenth century. The population was mainly farmers
and wealthy Philadelphians who could afford to live away from the city.

Early History

Prior to its incorporation into the city proper, North Philadelphia was little more than a collection of primarily agricultural townships above the
original City of Philadelphia. In the 18th century, as Philadelphia grew in importance and, consequently, population, then pastoral North Philadelphia
became an attractive alternative to the burgeoning city. The mansions of wealthy Philadelphians began to dot the landscape, and by the late 18th and early
19th century, several small town centers had developed to anchor the growing population. However, this suburban landscape was to be interrupted around the
middle of the 19th century, as rapid urban expansion led to The Consolidation Act of 1854. This state law annexed most of the townships within Philadelphia
County to the City of Philadelphia. With new territory now under the aegis of Philadelphia's city planners, and a rising influx of European immigrants, led
to the end of North as a suburb of Philadelphia. North Philadelphia's decentralized towns were gradually meshed into a sprawling network of the ubiquitous
Philadelphia rowhome. Many of the newly created neighborhoods retained the name of their ancestral towns and townships, for example, the Northern Liberties
was formerly Northern Liberties Township.,_Pennsylvania

Industrial Era
As the industrial age peaked in America, North Philadelphia became a working man's town. Upper North Philadelphia, Olney, Brewerytown, became major hubs of
production. Large factories and industrial complexes were erected, covering vast swaths of city land. Scores of rowhomes were constructed to house the
burgeoning worker population. This expansion was also the impetus for breaking ground on the Broad Street Line subway; designed specifically to carry a
passenger from the northern hub of Olney to Philadelphia City Hall in under 20 minutes. Major freight and passenger rail lines were built to intersect at
the newly constructed North Broad Street Station, and transmit cargo from the bustling factories. The completion of the BSL these major railways made the
region a thriving hub of transportation. For a time, North Broad Street station became the 2nd most heavily trafficked rail station in the city, and the
Olney metro the most used subway stop.

Along with many of Philadelphia's major manufacturing concerns came the nearby estates of the wealthy industrialists who had founded them. Lower North
Philadelphia in particular housed a number the nouveau riche; ambitious first or second generation immigrants or that had made their fortunes starting
manufacturing firms. Many were German Jews that had settled in the area, later founding companies and building synagogues. For a time, an age of opulence
and grand architecture returned to North Philadelphia, centered around what is now zoned as the Historic North Broad Street Mansion and Speculative Housing
Districts. Gentlemen's Clubs, upscale restaurants and shopping districts grew in this southern tier for a brief moment in history, peaking in the late
1920's. Upper-class foremen and executives lived farther north along Broad, in what is now the West Diamond Street Townhouse Historic District. Thriving
commercial districts sprung up along the great northern avenues; Columbia (renamed Cecil B. Moore Avenue), Susquehanna, Dauphin, Erie, Lehigh and Olney, to
name a few. However, just as this wealth was so suddenly gained, it would just as suddenly be lost. The new money culture proved to be an unstable
foundation for a lasting community, and like so many constructs of the Gilded Age, this core of wealth was doomed to rot.,_Pennsylvania

As Philadelphia grew northwards, the area became more urbanized. People seeking to escape the growing population density towards the center moved to
Olney. Soon after, businesses began appearing, centered at 5th Street and Olney Avenue. Industry was also attracted and companies such as Heintz
Manufacturing Company, Proctor and Schwartz, and Brown Instrument Division built factories in the neighborhood. But this took second place to the strong
commercial district, lead by the Olney Businessmans' Association.,_Philadelphia

20th Century and Decline

Over the next few decades The Great Depression, outsourcing, and white flight took their toll on North Philadelphia in a fashion similar to other major US
cities of the mid to late 20th century, if not in a more pronounced fashion. While residential corridors like Hope Street and Delhi Street had long housed
primarily African-American residents, redlining, racist loan companies, and rising unemployment led white residents out of the city, and forced poor blacks
in. For a time, Lower North Philadelphia became a great center of black culture and music, most notably Jazz. Many commercial corridors were maintained for
decades, and a great many musicians came to North Philadelphia, like John Coltrane and Stan Getz.

As the century marched past middle age, many other problems symptomatic of all US cities of the time came about. Many of the neighborhoods in North
Philadelphia sprung up around one monolithic factory, which was the center of the community's income. Each factory that closed down devastated its host
neighborhood. In this way, the wave of national industrial collapse caused the rapid break up of numerous "factory neighborhoods" in the predominantly
working class North Philadelphia. Furthermore, the Columbia Avenue race riots, became iconic for the rising ethnic tensions in the region, and the
continued withdrawal of white residents. The riot, which virtually destroyed the central shopping distict of North Philadelphia, signaled the beginning of
the end for the North's commericial sector. The withering of the American manufacturing sector led to the closing of many of the factories that many
northern neighborhoods were centered around and depended on. Increased urban blight and the general decline of Philadelphia in the late 20th century even
saw the decline of even many of the strong black communities in North Philadelphia. The legendary Connie Mack Stadium was closed in favor of the new
Pattison Sports Complex. North Broad Street Station lost Amtrak Service, and the BSL subway lines garnered a reputation for violent crime and rape. The
great art deco office buildings and government institutions were mostly abandoned, as were the mansions of the many ruined industrialists. Drugs, gangs,
educational problems, police corruption, and other woes common in the ghettos of America seemed to seal North Philadelphia's fate as a perpetual slum.

· Major ethnic groups, including when they arrived and what they contributed to the area;
Between the 60s and 80s, Olney began experiencing change. Large numbers of African Americans began migrating into the area from other parts of the city.
As part of the deindustrialization of Philadelphia, industry closed factories and moved from the area. People began to claim that Olney was detereorating:
crime was going up and property values were going down. Taking part in the white flight occuring across the country, many residents moved to the suburbs.

This receding population was quickly supplmented by a new wave of residents from Asia (Korea, mainly, as well as Vietnam, China, Cambodia, Laos) and Latin
America (Puerto Rico, Colombia, Mexico). This new population quickly filled the vacancies left behind in the commercial district and today 5th and Olney is
still a vital economic center. These groups also maintained Olney's historic civic pride through the creation of orgnizations such as the Korean Community
Development Center.

Today, Olney is one of the most diverse neighborhoods in Philadelphia. The Olney stop on the Broad Street Subway, while no longer the terminal, is the
second most used (next to City Hall). There are thriving business districts at 5th and Olney, Broad and Olney, and Front and Olney. The neighborhood is
home to four elementary schools (Lowell, Finletter, Morrison, Washington, and Olney), three high schools (Olney, Central, and Girls'), and borders La Salle

Olney was settled by German-Americans and the population remained homogenious throughout the first half of the 20th century. Today Olney is a melting pot
of ethnic groups in Philadelphia with large numbers of African Americans, Koreans, Sub-sahran Africans, West Indians, Hispanics, and Arabs as well as other
smaller groups representing other nationalites and ethnic groups.

As of the census2 of 2000, the racial makeup of Olney is 21.13% White, 44.60% African American, 17.92% Asian, and 11.66% from other races. 21.03% of the
population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

The population of Olney increased by 7% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.

Today, many remnants of more prosperous eras remain, albeit in a typically more dilapidated state. However, for as many remain, just as many thousands of
historic buildings have collapsed, either from neglect or demolition, and thousands more still lie abandoned. A handful have become protected historic
properties. Several blocks, with numerous old mansions, have been rezoned as the aforementioned historic districts. A great many extravagant churches were
built over the years, as well. Some still stand, but all too often money is scarce to preserve their deteriorating architecture. The stately trolley lines
which once crisscrossed the northern streets and connected the region with the rest of Philadelphia were shut down by SEPTA in 1992. Immense, abandoned
factories sit idle, warehouses empty, disused heavy rail lines scarring the landscape. The names of the old industrialists, such as Gratz, Poth, Uber, and
Schmidt, still adorn many buildings and street signs in the area, but are otherwise foreign to many modern day residents.

The Neighborhood Transformation Initiative, or NTI, was a City program launched by Mayor John Street during his first administration. The program called
for the demolition of thousands of condemned buildings and the construction of large scale, medium density public housing, with restoration efforts to be
employed on salvageable houses. Many blocks of old rowhomes have been bulldozed and replaced with suburban style tract houses. This program has radically
changed some sections of North Philadelphia. Some charge that little effort was made to save a number of historic buildings, others that NTI was needed to
change blighted neighborhoods. The lasting effects of the program remain to be seen.

Some areas, like Olney, Allegheny and Erie still have relatively active communities, but even they are often troubled by drugs, crime, or social
underfunding, sometimes all three. Allegheny West has advanced, mostly from support of some of the last industries in North Philadelphia, Tastykake and Pep
Boys which are headquartered in the neighborhood. Temple University continues to try to restore its Lower North Philadelphia neighborhood, with mixed
successes and failures. It has assumed control of several local public schools, gives extra benefits and aid to local residents that are admitted, and
sponsors many student volunteer projects to help the surrounding neighborhoods. However, this work pales in comparison to other revitalization efforts,
like the West Philadelphia University City project, in terms of its practical results. Some residents have also accused Temple of either ignoring the
wishes of local citizens in its moves to expand, or being more concerned with its own projects than the viability of the surrounding area. Critics note the
great many properties it has purchased, leveled and redeveloped for university use, while much of the surrounding area still struggles. A proposed private
commercial development just south of the campus, designed to spur a North Broad Street corridor revitalization, makes it seem likely that the rejuvenation
of the area will occur by virtue of the school's existence, but not because of its particular efforts.,_Pennsylvania

· The problems created by growth and the way that the problems were solved;
PHA Makes History in Olney with Opening of Latest Property Suffolk Manor
The Philadelphia Housing Authoritys newest property is also its oldest. Thanks in part to historic tax credits, PHA was able to acquire and redevelop
Suffolk Manor, an apartment complex built in 1929. PHA Executive Director Carl Greene said the property had deteriorated into a state of severe disrepair.
We saw this as a great opportunity to convert a building which had fallen on hard times into modern affordable housing, Greene said.

PHA sought and received special designation from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the National Park Service making the building a historical site. That
cleared the way for the historic rehabilitation tax credits. PHA has made extensive use of Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) to raise capital for new
construction throughout the city and has done so again in this case. However, Suffolk Manor marks the first time PHA has also received historic tax credits.

The overhaul of the 137-unit complex cost $24 million, of which $13 million is coming from tax credits. The remainder of the funding is a combination of
federal capital grants and the diversion of rental voucher money.

The redevelopment is expected to provide an immediate boost to both the quality of life and the economy in the Fern Rock/Olney section of North
Philadelphia. Carl Greene said the complex is a great example of how funds earmarked for public housing can be used to lift an entire community.

Broad Street Line & Broad-Ridge Spur
1928 - Olney - City Hall

Insurance Maps for Fire

· What the future of the town/neighborhood might be.

In past decades, North Philadelphia was hit very hard by white flight and economic recessions, and therefore the majority of North Philadelphia's
population are poor, working-class, African-Americans or Hispanics. Despite its wealth of history, schools, cultural sites, parkland, architecture and
other holdovers from more prosperous times, high crime and unfettered poverty have earned North Philadelphia a reputation as a slum of Philadelphia. The
region is highly segregated, with whites primarily living in the wealthier southern regions, Hispanics in the Logan, Hunting Park and West Kensington areas,
and African Americans dominating most other neighborhoods. Its inherent positive factors and recent developments have given North Philadelphia a brighter
future, as several neighborhoods begin to overcome some of the aformentioned problems.,_Pennsylvania

What is the Olney neighborhood pilot?
The Olney neighborhood pilot is any early deployment of Wireless Philadelphia. The Olney neighborhood will have free access to the public network sponsored
by AT&T, Lucent Technologies, BelAir Networks, Pronto Networks and Ninth Wave Media for the next twelve months.

Why was Wireless Philadelphia created?
Wireless Philadelphia was created to strengthen the City's economy and transform Philadelphia's neighborhoods by making broadband access more available and
affordable. Wireless Philadelphia will help citizens, businesses, schools, and community organizations make effective use of this technology to achieve
their goals while providing a greater experience for visitors to the City.

Where can I get coverage?
Currently, the Olney neighborhood network provides service to about one square mile area. Due to the nature of WiFi, coverage will vary and may not be
available in all spots in the serving area. Access equipment needs vary according to signal strength.

How much will the service cost?
The Olney Neighborhood Network will provide free wireless broadband access to local residents and businesses for a one-year period from July 2005 through
July 2006. Wireless Philadelphia and service providers will determine residential and small business access costs for the future. It is estimated that the
basic service will cost approximately $16.00 - $25.00 per month, with a discounted rate for very low-income and disadvantaged subscribers.

Tracing the Growth of a Town: Gathering Information
Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 1940

Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 1950

Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 1960

Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 1970

Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 1980

Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 1990

Northeast, clickable map
Philadelphia, 20000

Use the local newspaper, library, or museum to find books, maps, websites, and other information;
Prepare questions and then interview older members of the community, your family, tape or video recording them and their comments;
Get permission to visit schools, places of worship, the Chamber of Commerce, and other sites of interest;
Check your own family’s sources for photographs and memorabilia.

Olney History

Olney History

Olney/North Philadelphia
Olney-Oak Lane
Upper North Philadelphia

Ch. 16 Life at the Turn of the Century Section 1 Science and Urban Life

Ch. 16 Life at the Turn of the Century
SECTION 1 Science and Urban Life

SECTION 1 Science and Urban Life
Describe the impact of technological advances on turn-of-the-20th-century urban planning.
Summarize turn of the century communication innovations.

American Life at the Turn of the Century
Starting With the Student
A hundred years ago, how did Americans work and pay?
What new inventions were changing people’s ways of life?
Do you agree with the quotation of James Weldon Johnson?
If you applied the quotation to America today, what would you offer as the best or worst?

Previewing the Chapter
Examine the time line and list the things that look familiar.
Many aspects of the modern world in which you live emerged at this time in history.

More About. . .
James Weldon Johnson
The first African American to be accepted to the Florida bar, Johnson later served a U.S. consul in Venezuela. He had a varied career in the arts, composing and performing for a song-and-dance act with his brother John, editing anthologies of African-American verse and spirituals, and penning fine prose and poetry of his own.

Living History
Cataloging Mass Culture
Create your own version of a catalog displaying objects, places, and events that contribute do the formation of American mass culture.

Cataloguing Mass Culture Chart

Item Reason why important to include

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
What changes could be made in modern American cities to make them more livable?
What did Americans one hundred years ago feel about city life?

Objective 1 Instruct
Technology and City Life
Starting With the Student
What is life like in your city? What problems do the cities have that new technologies might solve?

Discussing Key Ideas
Technology helps cities grow both upward and outward.
The growth of cities prompts the new science of urban planning.

More About. . . .
Louis Sullivan
Often called the father of modern American architecture, Sullivan produced most of his finest work in partnership with Dankmar Adler, a skillful businessman and expert in acoustics. Their landmark works include the Auditorium Building in Chicago and the Wainwright Building in St. Louis.

History From Visuals
The Flatiron Building
Reading the Art
What urban improvements are visible in this picture?
Possible Responses: A skyscraper with steel construction, streetcars, and sidewalks.

Why does the Flatiron building have a triangular shape?
Possible Responses: To make the best use of space between two streets that meet in a “V;” to win fame and tenants; to be different; to create an exotic tapered-corner offices for higher rent.

More About. . . .
The Brooklyn Bridge
Like most of the workers who built the bridge, John Roebling immigrated to American, arriving from Prussia (roughly modern eastern Germany today) in 1831. A few weeks after his bridge plans won approval, he died of tetanus, which he contracted when his toes were crushed by a boat docking near the bridge site. His son Washington supervised the actual construction but was eventually bedridden from repeated bouts of “caisson disease,” or the bends.

On the World Stage
The Garden City
Critical Thinking:
Why is nature and wildlife important to city life? Identify a city, town, or neighborhood that you feel displays aspects of Howard’s plan.

More About. . . .
Central Park
The call to preserve a piece of park land on the island of Manhattan was made as early as 1844 by poet and editor William Cullen Bryant and echoed by eminent landscape designer Andrew Jackson Downing. The campaign took twelve years, but in 1856 the city purchased most of the park’s 840 acres with $5 million in state funds. The unappetizing land had a garbage dump, a bone-boiling works, and many shacks and squatters’ farms.

History From Visuals
Daniel Burnham’s Chicago Plan
Reading the Art
What is the pattern of the streets in Burnham’s plan? Why would someone plan streets set on a grid bisected by diagonals?
The grid makes the city easy to navigate. Streets running into the city center help create a unified city.

What aspects of urban planning can you identify in your neighborhood, city, or town?

More About. . . .
The Columbian Exposition
Celebrating the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s landing in America, the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago after cities across the nation competed to be the site. The White City sported the latest in electric lighting. President Grover Cleveland opened the fair by flicking a switch in Washington, D.C., to turn on the lights in Chicago.

Objective 2 Instruct
New Technologies Transform Communications
Discussing Key Ideas
Pioneering by the Wright brothers, airplanes revolutionize communications as well as transportation.
Advances in paper and printing spur the publications of newspapers, books, and magazines, while better photography greatly enhances journalism.

Key Player
George Eastman
Critical Thinking:
Why were Eastman’s slogan and other sales techniques so effective with consumers?
Possible Responses: He sold good products to begin with; a slogan stressed ease of use, made company seem helpful; simple operating instructions received good word of mouth advertising; sending new film back made people feel that they were getting value for their money.

Turn-of-the-century technological advances spurred the growth of America’s cities and improved both transportation and communications.

Technological Development Chart

Technological Improvements
Streetcars, elevated trains and subways
Steel construction
Suspension bridges, skycrapers
Internal combustion engines
Automobiles, airplanes

Section 1
Recognizing Effects
The invention of the elevator made it practical to build taller buildings; new building technology allowed iron or steel frames to bear the weight of a building’s walls.

Possible Answers: Skyscrapers conserved space by allowing cities to grow upwards; new transportation systems and bridges drew neighborhoods, closer together; urban planning put parks into cities.

Mail planes made it faster and easier for people in different regions to communicate.

New printing methods sped production and lowered costs for newspapers. New techniques in photography made it possible for reporters to photograph events as they happened.

Section 1 Assessment

Terms & Names
Louis Sullivan, p. 463
Frederick Law Olmsted, p. 464
Central Park, p. 464
Daniel Burnham, p. 465
Orville and Wilbur Wright, p. 465
Web-perfecting press, p. 465
Linotype machine, p. 466
George Eastman, p. 466

Diagrams might include the following:
City design: Suspension bridges; skyscrapers; urban planning; parks.

Urban transportation: Street cars; commuter trains; el trains; subways.

Communications: Web-perfecting press; Linotype machine; photography; airplanes.

Forming Opinions
Possible Answer:
Students should cite reasons, such as the long-term effect impact of air travel or the widespread influence of low-cost printing, to support their opinions.

Possible Response: Student plans might mention recreational facilities or increased numbers of parks or other personal preferences.

Ch. 16 Life at the Turn of the Century

Ch. 16 Life at the Turn of the Century
Chapter Objectives
Internet Sources
Historic Decisions of the Supreme Court
Primary Sources

Chapter ObjectiveTo analyze significant turn-of-the-20th-century trends in such areas as technology, education, race relations, and mass culture.
SECTION 1 Science and Urban Life
Describe the impact of technological advances on turn-of-the-20th-century urban planning.
Summarize turn of the century communication innovations.
Section 1: Science and Urban Life
Central Park History history of Central Park in New York City The Louis Sullivan Page at the life and work of Louis Sullivan, including links to photographs of buildings he designed. Olmsted in Buffalo information about Frederick Law Olmsted's pioneering design for the Buffalo, New York, public park system History of Kodak: From Glass Plates to Digital Images overview featuring a comprehensive biography of George Eastman—his early life and photographic experiments, creation of his company, and business philosophy and practices—enhanced by pictures. Also includes a history of the Eastman Kodak Company, time lines of the company's photographic milestones, and an introduction to film and imaging. The Plan of Chicago, 1909 about Daniel Burnham and his architectural plan for the city of Chicago.
Section 2: Education and Culture
Booker T. Washington Park Service biography of Booker T. Washington. The W.E.B. Du Bois Virtual University Bibliography: Books About Du Bois bibliography of secondary sources dealing with Du Bois Mark Twain in Cyberspace collection of links to Twain resources, including selected writings, biographies and criticism, and maxims and sayings
Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination
Persistence of the Spirit narrative, photo scrapbook, cultural information, and other resources dealing with the experience of African Americans in Arkansas We Challenged Jim Crow prepared for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Fellowship of Reconciliation in 1947, documenting a group's travels in the South to challenge segregation on buses and trains Chinese Exclusion Act of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. A Brief History of Chinese Immigration to America look at Chinese immigration to the United States and the 1882 exclusion act.
Section 4: The Dawn of Mass Culture
Vaudeville in Ohio history of vaudeville in Chicago Junction, Ohio, from 1903 to 1911, with a time line of performances, lists of performers and shows, and photographs William Randolph Hearst of Hearst, including a brief history his political career and journalistic empire Joseph Pulitzer biography of Pulitzer, written by one of his descendants, with links to related sites American Memory Collections: Original Format: Motion Pictures of early motion pictures in the Library of Congress collections, with background information and bibliographies.
Daily Life: Going to the Show
Vaudeville: A Dazzling Display of Hetereogeneous Splendor of Vaudeville, including images, playbills, and advertisements. Movie Audiences, Movie Myth detailing the history and culture of early American cinema, including information on the invention of the original motion picture machines. New York City at the Turn of the Century overview with links to sites covering the history of ragtime music, vaudeville, and theatre.

Historic Decisions of the Supreme Court
Plessy v. Ferguson
Use the Web sites below to research and read Justice Harlan's entire dissent in Plessy v. Ferguson. Based on his position, what view might Harlan have taken toward laws that denied African Americans the right to vote? Write a paragraph or two expressing what Harlan would say about those laws.
Plessy v. Ferguson article explaining the background of the case, its historical significance, and the Court's decision that eventually led to state instituted racially separate public accomodations. The ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson took nearly 60 years for the Court to reverse. Plessy v. Ferguson of the petition and opinion of the Court in PLESSY v. FERGUSON, 163 U.S. 537 (1896). Plessy v. Ferguson article on the landmark 1896 case where the Supreme Court held that separate but equal public facilities did not violate the Constitution.

Primary Sources
Primary sources allow us to read, view, and hear the ideas and images created by the people of past generations. Use the links below to view the primary sources for this chapter.
To view a PDF file, you must have the Adobe® Acrobat® Reader installed on your computer. You may download the Reader for free if you do not already have it installed.

Harper's Weeklyfrom The Base-Ball Season, 1886
Charles E. Boltonfrom A Visit to the World's Columbian Exposition, 1892
Frederick Dwightfrom Automobiles: The Other Side of the Shield, 1908
Lillian Gishfrom The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me, 1914

Friday, October 21, 2005

Chapter 15 Assessment #1-20

Chapter 15 Assessment #1-20

Terms & Names

melting pot, p. 442
Gentlemen’s Agreement, p. 443
urbanization, p. 446
Jane Addams, p. 451
graft, p. 452
political machine, p. 452
Thomas Nast, p. 454
patronage, p. 455
Chester A. Arthur, p. 456
Pendleton Act, p. 456

Main Ideas
Poverty, famine, shortage of land, lack of jobs, religious or political persecution, and a spirit of rebellion and independence.
Culture, shock, the negative effects of nativism, and the struggle to make a living.
Industrialization, new technology, and an influx or workers.
The need to provide adequate housing, transportation, water, and sanitation, and to fight fire and crime.
Efforts to help alleviate poverty of immigrants and other city dwellers; building churches in poor neighborhoods.
The growing need for city services and the large number of immigrants required a new power structure.
Tweed took the corruption practiced by many other city bosses to unprecedented heights.
Inefficiency, fraud, and incompetence.
Increased efficiency, decreased fraud, and closer ties between government and big business.
Cleveland wanted to reduce tariffs; Harrison wanted to keep them high.

Thursday, October 20, 2005

World History Agenda: 20 October 2005

World History Agenda: 20 October 2005

Skills for Success Recognizing Faulty Reasoning
Answer 1-3

1a) Student E;
1b) because it attacks a person rather than addressing the issue

2a) that the Industrial Revolution was connected to the suffering of the Civil War and World War I;
b) There is no evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship between these events.

3a) Student A
b) The student is claiming that the Industrial Revolution is good because it brought us the changes of the Industrial Revolution.

Neighborhood Project (Handout)
Tracing the Growth of a Town
Gathering Information
Project Planning Guide

Reviewing Vocabulary


Reviewing Facts

Many farm workers lost their jobs; small farmers were forced off their land; villages shrank; many people moved to cities in search of work.
The coal-powered steam engine.
Answers should include three of the following: natural resources such as coal, plenty of workers, scientists with advanced technological ideas, capital for investment, stable government, positive religious attitudes.
Inventions improving transportation are the steam locomotives and steamships.
Farm jobs were declining and the supply of jobs in the cities was rising.
Benefits included greater political power for the working class, more jobs, higher wages, new opportunities; problems included low pay, unemployment, and poor living conditions.
The government efforts to improve workers’ lives, giving the vote to women, child labor and public health reforms.
Workers did not rebel because their standard of living rose; workers did not join forces across countries because nationalism was stronger.

Tracing the Growth of a Town

Living History
Tracing the Growth of a Town

Write a biography of your town or neighborhood. Using what you’ve learned about Industrialization and Urbanization, how cities grow, and why people migrate and immigrate, discuss the following:
· The town’s or neighborhood’s founders;
· Major ethnic groups, including when they arrived and what they contributed to the area;
· The problems created by growth and the way that the problems were solved;
· What the future of the town/neighborhood might be.

Tracing the Growth of a Town: Gathering Information

Use the local newspaper, library, or museum to find books, maps, websites, and other information;
Prepare questions and then interview older members of the community, your family, tape or video recording them and their comments;
Get permission to visit schools, places of worship, the Chamber of Commerce, and other sites of interest;
Check your own family’s sources for photographs and memorabilia.

Project Planning Guide

Step 1
Students prepare a list of persons and places to visit.
Step 2
Students gather information from the persons and places they have listed in Step 1.
Step 3
Students organize the data they have collected.
Step 4
Students write a summary of the neighborhood’s past, including relevant materials such as photographs, maps, graphs, etc., to predict the neighborhood’s future.

Wednesday, October 19, 2005

Ch. 15 Section 4 Politics in the Gilded Age

Ch. 15 Section 4 Politics in the Gilded Age

To describe measures taken by Presidents Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur to reform the spoils system.
To explain the positions taken by presidents Cleveland, Harrison, and McKinley on the tariff issue.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
How does one go about getting a job? Would you get help from a friend or a friend’s parent? Is it fair to use “connections?”
Consider that the spoils system began in the early 19th century. Why do you suppose it lasted so long?

Objective 1 Instruct
Civil Service Replaces Patronage
Discussing Key Ideas
Patronage results in incompetence and fraud in government.
Hayes takes measures to reform civil service.
Garfield wins the 1890 election but is assassinated the following year.
With Arthur’s civil service reform, Congress passes the Pendleton Act in 1883.

More About. . .
Before moving into the White House, President Arthur had it completely cleaned out and refurnished. He managed to fill 24 wagons with items that had accumulated over the years, including a hat that had belonged to John Quincy Adams and a pair of trousers worn by Abraham Lincoln. These and other items were sold at auction. Ironically, a sideboard that the Women’s Christian Temperance Union had presented to Mrs. Rutherford Hayes—nicnamed “Lemonade Lucy,” because she had refused to serve liquor in the White House—was bought by a Washington saloonkeeper, who installed it in his barroom.

Objective 2 Instruct
Efforts to Regulate Tariffs Fail
Discussing Key Ideas
Cleveland runs on a low-tariff platform and loses the presidency to Harrison, who raises tariffs.
In his second term, Cleveland fails to lower tariffs.

Now & Then
Tariffs Versus NAFTA
Write an editorial about tariffs. The topics to be addressed may include jobs and the cost of goods.

In the Gilded Age, political reformers began to replace the evils of patronage with a civil service system. They did not have same success in reducing the high tariffs that protected American industry.

Recognizing Effects
By allowing people to be hired for government jobs on the basis of political beliefs, rather than competence, and by making possible opportunities for misuse of influence.

Analyzing Motives
Because they thought his antireform views would balance presidential candidate James A. Garfield’s belief in civil-service reform.

Recognizing Effects
Positive: More competent and honest federal workers.
Negative: Closer ties between government and big business.

Analyzing Causes
Because of political pressure exerted by companies that benefited from the tariff.

Section 4 Assessment

Terms & Names
Patronage, p. 455
Civil service, p. 455
Rutherford B. Hayes, p. 456
Stalwarts, p. 456
James A. Garfield, p. 456
Chester A. Arthur, p. 456
Pendleton Act, p. 456
Grover Cleveland, p. 457
Benjamin Harrison, p. 457

Leader Position Stand
Hayes president, p. 77-’81 for civil service reform
Conkling N.Y. Senator against civil service reform
Arthur president, p. 81-’85 supported Pendleton Act
Cleveland president, p. ’85-’89, supported lower tariffs
Harrison president, p. 89-’93 supported higher tariffs

Possible Response: Federal employment would have continued to be dominated by politics, politicians would have been less dependent on big business for campaign funds, and a key issue would have continued dividing the Republicans.
Forming An Opinion
Responses should reflect awareness that high tariffs might help business at the expense of consumers.