Friday, October 20, 2006

WH, Ch. 20 Sec. 2 up to Ch. 21 Sec. 3

Note: p. numbers may refer to the old text; the work, however, is basically the same.

World History, Ch. 20, Sec. 2 Britain Leads the Way

Ch. 20, Section 2 Britain Leads the Way

Read intro, p. 510

1. Lesson Plan Focus
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain where there were favorable economic, political, and social conditions, a sufficient work force, and plentiful iron and coal. Iron was used to build the machines and coal was used to fuel them. As machinery took hold in the British textile industry, the factory system replaced the putting out system.

2. In-class Instruct
A museum exhibit is planned on the early years of the Industrial Revolution. The class is divided into groups and each group will detail a plan for part of the exhibit. Each group will be assigned one of the following topics:
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in Britain
The Importance of Iron and Coal
The Textile Industry
Changes in Transportation
Outside research can supplement the information in the text.
Students should list the objects, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, maps, and/or machines, etc., that they want to exhibit in their part of the exhibit.
Write a description of each item.
They should also create visual materials such as maps, graphs, charts, and posters for their exhibit.

3. Close
Consider how modern technology is used to facilitate transportation, communication, and education programs in museums of today.

Caption, p. 511 Art History
Answer to Caption. . .
Art and Literature
Possible Answer:
They seem proud of the forge’s power and their father’s work.

Caption, p. 512 Technology of the British Industrial Revolution
Answer to Caption. . .
Interpreting a Chart
All the inventions are complex machines that made human labor easier.

Background Historical Evidence
Britain’s Overseas Markets
The vast British Empire provided world-wide goods. In fact, during the 1700s, the overseas export market grew at a much faster rate than the domestic market. Between 1750 and 1770, for example, production for the export market increased by 80%, while production for the domestic market grew by only 7%. Although investing in new industries carried risks, the lucrative overseas trade made the gamble seem well worth taking.

Map, p. 514
Answers to. . .
Locations review together.
Possible answers: a) southern United States, India; b) British West Indies, Cape Colony.
Possible answer: Without this key source of cotton, development of the cotton industry might have been slowed. Britain would have had to seek other sources of raw cotton or pay more to the Indians for theirs. Britain might have even had to find a different product on which to concentrate its industry.

Graph, p. 515
Answer to Caption. . .
Interpreting a Graph
In 1750, it took about 48 hours to travel between London and Birmingham. In 1830, it took only about 12 hours. The invention of the steam-powered locomotive made this increased speed possible.

Section 2 Review, p. 515
#1, 3-5, Extra Credit #6-7.

World History, Ch. 20 Sec. 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life

World History, Ch. 20 The Industrial Revolution Begins,
Section 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life

Vocabulary, p. 516

1. Lesson Plan Focus
Factory work meant long hours, backbreaking jobs, unsafe conditions, and low pay. Many women worked both at home and in the factories. Child labor was a common practice. In the cities, working class families endured filthy and overcrowded living conditions. At the same time, however, the Industrial Revolution gradually brought more jobs, higher pay, and other material benefits.

2. In-class Instruct
Students are to imagine that they are living during the early years of the Industrial Revolution. Each student (and a partner) should assume one of the following roles:
a miner
a factory worker
a child laborer
a working class mother
a factory owner
a government inspector
a Luddite
a middle-class woman

Students are to write a diary entry in the role of their assumed character. Record the events of a complete day and include specific details of the person’s life. In your diary, include not only their activities and observations, but also your feelings and emotions. These diary entries will be shared with the class.

3. Close
List three or four ways that life today would be different for the person whose role you assumed.

Caption, p. 517
Caption, p. 518
Parallels Through Time, p. 519

Section 3 Review
#1, 3-5, Extra Credit 6-7.

WH, Ch. 20 Sec. 4 New Ways of Thinking

World History, Ch. 20, Sec. 4, New Ways of Thinking

Ch. 20, Section 4, New Ways of Thinking

What economic ideas helped shape the industrial age?
What reforms did individual thinkers urge?
How was socialism linked to the Industrial Revolution?

Vocabulary, p. 530

Read intro, p. 520

1. Lesson Plan Focus
The Industrial age gave rise to economic philosophies such as Utilitarianism, Socialism, and Communism. Individual thinkers offered a variety of opinions on what government should do to improve social and economic conditions. Socialists condemned the evils of industrial capitalism and urged radical changes in the way the economy operated.

2. In-class Instruct
Choose one of the following and write a position paper in which you explain that thinker’s point of view:
Adam Smith
Thomas Malthus
David Ricardo
Jeremy Bentham
John Stuart Mill
Robert Owen
Karl Marx

Students should use the text and library resources to set forth the philosophy of the person assigned. Be prepared to read your papers to the class and to answer any question that you or the other students might have.

3. Close
Illustrate the viewpoint of the chosen philosopher in a cartoon or a poster.

Caption, p. 521
Answer to Caption. . .
Political and Social Systems
Malthus believed in the unrestricted “laws of the free market.” He urged families to have fewer children. He also felt that war, disease, and famine would check population growth.

Caption, p. 523
Answer to Caption. . .
Global Interaction
Possible Answer: In London’s urban slums, Marx may have witnessed the poverty and hardships endured by the working class. In London’s better neighborhoods, he may have witnessed the wealth and luxuries of the bourgeoisie. The unequal conditions may have influenced his philosophy.

Cooperative Groups
In the United States today, people continue to debate the degree to which government should intervene to alleviate social and economic problems. The debate touches upon such specific issues as social security, welfare programs, environmental protection laws, affirmative action laws, school lunch programs, and the like.
One of these issues or one of your own choosing can be the focus for a debate on how much government should intervene to improve social and economic conditions. The class can be divided into two groups. One group will argue in favor of government intervention and the other group will argue against it. Time can be allotted to develop and organize arguments. Before the debate, the rules of debate will be covered.

Heterogeneous Groups
Writing a Letter
Imagine that you are an English textile worker who has just finished reading The Communist Manifesto. Write a letter to a co-worker in which you describe Marx’s ideas. In your letter, explain whether you agree or disagree with Marx’s theories.

Section 4 Review
1. a) Malthus, p. 520
b) “iron law of wages, p. 521
c) John Stuart Mill, p. 522
d) Utopians, p. 522
e) The Communist Manifesto, p. 522

3. a) Successful businesspeople of the middle and upper classes supported free market ideas; b) Since they were successful, they saw no need for government intervention in the economy.
4. Utopian socialist proposed the creation of self-sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common.
5. a) Marx believed that economics was the driving force in history and that history was a continuous struggle between the “haves” and the “have nots.” b) Marx underestimated the powerful influence of national loyalties on the working class. As the standard of living rose, class conflict lessened.

Extra Credit
6. Answers will vary. Student’s answers should reflect an understanding of the theory that they select.
7. Students’ work should reflect an ability to compare perspectives and to organize ideas in a concise format.

WH, Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America, Sec. 1 An Age of Ideologies, Sec. 2 To The Barricades!

World History, Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America, Sections 1-2

Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America

Caption, p. 527

Section 1 An Age of Ideologies
Universal manhood suffrage

1. Lesson Plan Focus

After 1815, conservatives called for a return to the political and social structure that existed before 1789. Liberals embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment and wanted to limit the power of monarchs. Nationalists, by urging national independence, threatened the powerful empires of Europe. Conflicts emerged as conservative leaders opposed liberal and nationalist demands.

Caption, p. 528
Caption, p. 530
2. In-class Instruct
Divide the class into three groups: conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism. Assign each group to outline its political movement by listing its attitudes, goals, policies, and actions. Each group should have an expert to summarize the main points of the assigned viewpoint.

3. Close
Describe any characteristic of liberalism, conservatism, or nationalism. Then, ask volunteers to name the political philosophy that included that characteristic.

Section 1 Review
#1-4, Extra Credit #5-6.

Section 2 To the Barricades!
Guide for Reading
Why did revolts break out in France in 1830 and 1848?
How did revolutions in France affect other parts of Europe?
Why did the revolts of 1830 and 1848 generally fail to achieve their goals?

1. Lesson Plan Focus
Charles X’s attempt to restore absolutism in France resulted in the July revolution of 1830. An economic slump, coupled with discontent over social and political issues, sparked revolution again in 1848. These French uprising inspired revolts in other parts of Europe. Many of the revolutions failed because they were put down by military force and because they did not have mass support.

Caption, p. 532
Map, p. 533
Caption, p. 535

2. In-class Instruct
Construct a chart that profiles the revolutions that occurred in Europe between 1800 and 1848. There should be six columns for each:
1. Country;
2. Date;
3. Goals;
4. Opponent;
5. Outcome;
6. Reasons for Success or Failure

Use the info from Sections 1 and 2 of this chapter to fill in the chart. Students should fill in the chart under the appropriate headings.

3. Close
The students should use the chart to write generalizations about this period in Europe.

Section 2 Review
Extra Credit

WH, Ch. 21 Sec. 3 Latin American Wars of Independence

World History, Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America, Section 3

Ch. 21 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America

Section 3 Latin American Wars of Independence

1. Lesson Plan Focus

Enlightenment ideas, revolutions in other lands, and dissatisfaction with European rule caused revolutions in Latin America. In Haiti, an army of former slaves ended French rule in a struggle that cost more lives than any other Latin American revolution. As a result of revolutions in Mexico, Central America, and South America, independent Latin American nations emerged.

Caption, p. 537
Caption, p. 538
Parallels Through Time, p. 540
Cause and Effect, p. 541
Map, p. 542

2. In-class Instruct
Students will work in groups to write a “how-to” manual for carrying out a successful revolution in Latin America. Each group’s manual should include the following information:
A profile of a successful leader;
Ways to gain followers;
The steps for carrying out a revolution;
Recommended actions for the post-revolutionary period;
The mistakes to avoid.

Students should write their manuals on their study of the revolutions that are
discussed in this section.

3. Close
A class discussion will examine how Latin American revolutions were both successful and unsuccessful.

HW Section 3 Review
Extra Credit #6-7