Friday, October 29, 2010

Honors World History II: 29 October 2010

Current Events:

Up to the first 25 seconds quite standard phrases used except for one omission. What is the omission?

Is there anything in these images that contradict Catholic teaching or Catholic identity? Is it just a coincidence that there is an omission during the recitation of the Declaration of Independence?

Screen shots of a currently running ad: Declaration of Forward

Obama Cites 'Creator' Four Times Since Reporter Asked WH Spokesperson Gibbs About Omission

"To the distinguished Character of Patriot, it should be our highest Glory to add the more distinguished Character of Christian. The signal Instances of providential Goodness which we have experienced and which have now almost crowned our labours with complete Success, demand from us in a peculiar manner the warmest returns of Gratitude and Piety to the Supreme Author of all Good." --George Washington

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

HW is available below (per our usual procedure HW is also posted at the bottom of the daily blog post as well as being posted on GradeConnect):

Chapter 11 Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

During the first years of the revolution, a republic was established, Louis XVI was executed, and thousands of people were killed on suspicion of opposing the revolution. While factions fought over control within France, European states fearing the spread of revolution made plans to invade France. The National Convention responded by forming a Committee of Public Safety. The committee led a 12-month Reign of Terror, executing close to 40,000 suspected enemies and expunging signs of Catholic influence. The committee also raised the largest army in European history and repelled the invading armies. With the crisis past, the National Convention ended the Reign of Terror and executed its zealous leader, Maximilien Robespierre. Power shifted into the hands of more moderate middle-class leaders who produced a constitution in 1795. The constitution called for a two-house legislative body and an executive committee, called the Directory. The Directory faced mounting problems. In 1799 a popular General, Napoleon Bonaparte, seized power in a coup d'état.


Word Cloud for Chapter 11 Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

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Terms, People, and Places

The Move to Radicalism

Radicals Take Control and Execute the King

Comparing Viewpoints

On the Execution of a King

King Louis XVI of France was executed by order of the National Convention. Reaction to this event was both loud and varied throughout Europe. The excerpts below present two different views on this event.

Critical Thinking

Which of the two viewpoints makes a better case for or against the execution of King Louis XVI? Cite examples from both statements to support your argument.

For the Execution

The crimes of Louis XVI are unhappily all too real; they are consistent; they are notorious. Do we even have to ask the question of whether a nation has the right to judge, and execute, its highest ranking public official . . . when, to more securely plot against the nation, he concealed himself behind a mask of hypocrisy? Or when, instead of using the authority confided to him to protect his countrymen, he used it to oppress them? Or when he turned the laws into an instrument of violence to crush the supporters of the Revolution? Or when he robbed the citizens of their gold in order to subsidize their foes, and robbed them of their subsistence in order to feed the barbarian hordes who came to slaughter them? Or when he created monopolies in order to create famine by drying up the sources of abundance so that the people might die in misery and hunger? . . .

—Jean-Paul Marat

Against the Execution

The Republican tyrants of France have now carried their bloody purposes to the uttermost diabolical stretch of savage cruelty. They have murdered their King without even the shadow of justice, and of course they cannot expect friendship nor intercourse with any civilized part of the world. The vengeance of Europe will now rapidly fall on them; and, in process of time, make them the veriest wretches on the face of the earth. The name of Frenchman will be considered as the appellation of savage, and their presence shunned as a poison, deadly destructive to the peace and happiness of Mankind. It appears evident, that the majority of the National Convention, and the Executive Government of that truly despotic country, are comprised of the most execrable villains upon the face of the earth. . . .

—London Times, January 25, 1793

The latter perspective, is one of the most well-known perspectives, and is considered the Burkean reaction based on ideas of the Englishman Edmund Burke.

Bastille Day at Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia, 1:52


What occurred after radicals took control of the Assembly?

Crises and Response

By early 1793, danger threatened France on all sides. The country was at war with much of Europe, including Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, and Prussia. In the Vendée (vahn day) region of France, royalists and priests led peasants in rebellion against the government. In Paris, the sans-culottes demanded relief from food shortages and inflation. The Convention itself was bitterly divided between Jacobins and a rival group, the Girondins.

The Girondins, here identified, now that we have covered the Jacobins, are defined in The Crowd in the French Revolution by George Rude.

Cf. The Vendee: A Sociological Analysis of the Counter-Revolution of 1793
by Charles Tilly.

The Convention Creates a New Committee

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Description: Comite de Salut, 1794 18th century print Licensing:
This is a faithful photographic reproduction of an original two-dimensional work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason:
Public domain This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.
To deal with the threats to France, the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety. The 12-member committee had almost absolute power as it battled to save the revolution. The Committee prepared France for all-out war, issuing a levée en masse, or mass levy (tax) that required all citizens to contribute to the war effort. In addition, the 12 members of the Committee were in charge of trials and executions.

Spurred by revolutionary fervor, French recruits marched off to defend the republic. Young officers developed effective new tactics to win battles with masses of ill-trained but patriotic forces. Soon, French armies overran the Netherlands. They later invaded Italy. At home, they crushed peasant revolts. European monarchs shuddered as the revolutionaries carried “freedom fever” into conquered lands.

Robespierre “the Incorruptible”

At home, the government battled counterrevolutionaries under the guiding hand of Maximilien Robespierre (rohbz pyehr). Robespierre, a shrewd lawyer and politician, quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety. Among Jacobins, his selfless dedication to the revolution earned him the nickname “the incorruptible.” The enemies of Robespierre called him a tyrant.

Robespierre had embraced Rousseau’s idea of the general will as the source of all legitimate law. He promoted religious toleration and wanted to abolish slavery. Though cold and humorless, he was popular with the sans-culottes, who hated the old regime as much as he did. He believed that France could achieve a “republic of virtue” only through the use of terror, which he coolly defined as nothing more than “prompt, severe, inflexible justice.” “Liberty cannot be secured,” Robespierre cried, “unless criminals lose their heads.”



Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794) did not have an easy childhood. His mother died when he was only 6 years old. Two years later, his father abandoned him and his three siblings. The children’s aunts and grandfather then raised them. Because of this, Robespierre assumed responsibilities at an early age. Eventually, he went to study law at the University of Paris. His performance was so noteworthy that he was chosen to deliver a speech to Louis XVI on the occasion of the king’s coronation. But young Robespierre was snubbed. After listening to the address in a pouring rainstorm, the king and queen left without acknowledging Robespierre in any way. Years later, in 1789, Robespierre was elected to the Estates-General, where his career as a revolutionary began. How do you think Robespierre’s early life might have influenced his political ideas?

The Guillotine Defines the Reign of Terror

Robespierre was one of the chief architects of the Reign of Terror, which lasted from September 1793 to July 1794. Revolutionary courts conducted hasty trials. Spectators greeted death sentences with cries of “Hail the Republic!” or “Death to the traitors!”

In a speech given on February 5, 1794, Robespierre explained why the terror was necessary to achieve the goals of the revolution:

Primary Source

“It is necessary to stifle the domestic and foreign enemies of the Republic or perish with them. . . . The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror. . . . If the basis of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror.”

—Maximilien Robespierre, quoted in Pageant of Europe (Stearns)

Suspect were those who resisted the revolution. About 300,000 were arrested during the Reign of Terror. Seventeen thousand were executed. Many were victims of mistaken identity or were falsely accused by their neighbors. Many more were packed into hideous prisons, where deaths from disease were common.

The engine of the Terror was the guillotine (gil uh teen). Its fast-falling blade extinguished life instantly. A member of the legislature, Dr. Joseph Guillotin (gee oh tan), had introduced it as a more humane method of beheading than the uncertain ax. But the guillotine quickly became a symbol of horror.

Within a year, the Terror consumed those who initiated it. Weary of bloodshed and fearing for their own lives, members of the Convention turned on the Committee of Public Safety. On the night of July 27, 1794, Robespierre was arrested. The next day he was executed. After the heads of Robespierre and other radicals fell, executions slowed dramatically.


Why did Robespierre think the Terror was necessary to achieve the goals of the revolution?

Reading Check


What were the differences between the Girondins and the Mountain?

The Reign of Terror


Go Online
For: Interactive French Revolution
Web Code: nap-1821

Thinking Critically

1. Identify Point of View

What were the goals of the Committee of Public Safety?

2. Predict Consequences

How do you think life (it should read "life") in France changed after the Terror came to an end?

Crushing Rebellion

The Republic of Virtue

Reading Check


Whom did the Committee of Public Safety consider to be enemies of the state?

A Nation in Arms

End of the Terror

In reaction to the Terror, the revolution entered a third stage. Moving away from the excesses of the Convention, moderates produced another constitution, the third since 1789. The Constitution of 1795 set up a five-man Directory and a two-house legislature elected by male citizens of property. The middle class and professional people of the bourgeoisie were the dominant force during this stage of the French Revolution. The Directory held power from 1795 to 1799.

Weak but dictatorial, the Directory faced growing discontent. Peace was made with Prussia and Spain, but war with Austria and Great Britain continued. Corrupt leaders lined their own pockets but failed to solve pressing problems. When rising bread prices stirred hungry sans-culottes to riot, the Directory quickly suppressed them. Another threat to the Directory was the revival of royalist feeling. Many émigrés were returning to France, and devout Catholics, who resented measures that had been taken against the Church, were welcoming them. In the election of 1797, supporters of a constitutional monarchy won the majority of seats in the legislature.

As chaos threatened, politicians turned to Napoleon Bonaparte, a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy. The politicians planned to use him to advance their own goals. To their dismay, however, before long Napoleon would outwit them all to become ruler of France.


What changes occurred after the Reign of Terror came to an end?

By 1799, the 10-year-old French Revolution had dramatically changed France. It had dislodged the old social order, overthrown the monarchy, and brought the Church under state control.

New symbols such as the red “liberty caps” and the tricolor confirmed the liberty and equality of all male citizens. The new title “citizen” applied to people of all social classes. All other titles were eliminated. Before he was executed, Louis XVI was called Citizen Capet, from the name of the dynasty that had ruled France in the Middle Ages. Elaborate fashions and powdered wigs gave way to the practical clothes and simple haircuts of the sans-culottes.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Description: Louis le dernier

Louis XVI of France wearing a phrygian cap, drinking a toast to the health of the sans-culottes. Etching and mezzotint, with watercolor. Scanned from a photographic slide.

Captions, in English:

"Long live the nation" (from bottle to mouth)


Louis XVI, having put on the Phrygian cap, cried 'long live the nation'. He drank to the health of the sans-culottes and affected a show of great calm. He spoke high-sounding words about how he never feared the law, that he had never feared to be in the midst of the people; finally he pretended to play a personal part in the insurrection of June 20. Well! The same Louis XVI has bravely waited until his fellow citizens return to their hearths to wage a secret war and extract his revenge.

Date: 1792 Source: Library of Congress Author: unknown Permission Public domain: This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Summary: Cabinet des médailles de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, France Description: Attis as a child, wearing the Phrygian cap. Parian marble, 2nd century AD, probably during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.
Nationalism Spreads

Revolution and war gave the French people a strong sense of national identity. In earlier times, people had felt loyalty to local authorities. As monarchs centralized power, loyalty shifted to the king or queen. Now, the government rallied sons and daughters of the revolution to defend the nation itself. Nationalism, a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country, spread throughout France. The French people attended civic festivals that celebrated the nation and the revolution. A variety of dances and songs on themes of the revolution became immensely popular.

By 1793, France was a nation in arms. From the port city of Marseilles (mahr say), troops marched to a rousing new song. It urged the “children of the fatherland” to march against the “bloody banner of tyranny.” This song, “La Marseillaise” (mahr say ez), would later become the French national anthem.
Revolutionaries Push For Social Reform

Revolutionaries pushed for social reform and religious toleration. They set up state schools to replace religious ones and organized systems to help the poor, old soldiers, and war widows. With a major slave revolt raging in the colony of St. Domingue (Haiti), the government also abolished slavery in France’s Caribbean colonies.

Reading Check


How did the French revolutionary army help to create modern nationalism?

The Directory

Reading Check


Describe the government that replaced the National Convention.


Bibliographic resources for the French Revolution

Previous to or the buildup to the Revolution

Cf. The Coming of the French Revolution (Princeton Classic Editions)
by Georges Lefebvre.

The Fall of the French Monarchy 1787-1792 (The French Revolution) by Michel Vovelle.

Great Fear of 1789
by Georges Lefebvre.

General works on the Revolution

The Crowd in the French Revolution (Galaxy Books) by George Rude.

A Short History of the French Revolution, 1789-1799 by Albert Soboul.

The Abolition Of Feudalism: Peasants, Lords, And Legislators In The French Revolution, by John Markoff.

Interpreting the French Revolution by Francois Furet.

Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution by Simon Schama.

The Radical Revolution

The Sans-Culottes
by Albert Soboul.

The Vendee: A Sociological Analysis of the Counter-Revolution of 1793 by Charles Tilly.

Revolutionary Themes After the Revolution

Reflections on the Revolution in France (Oxford World's Classics) by Edmund Burke.

The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848 by Eric Hobsbawm.

Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime by William H. Sewell Jr.

The Course in German History by A.J.P. Taylor.


Chapter 10 Test Prep page


These questions may be--but there is no guarantee--on the Test. They are here as possible questions on the Test for study purposes.

The Enlightenment and the American Revolution (1700–1800)
Philosophy in the Age of Reason


Enlightenment Ideas Spread Self-Test


Birth of the American Republic Self-Test


Chapter Self-Test


Sec. 1 The French Revolution Begins


On the Eve of Revolution


And, additional questions.

Marie Antoinette downfall and execution, 3:57

Marie Antoinette was finally tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October. Unlike the king, who had been given time to prepare a defense, the queen's trial was far more of a sham, considering the time she was given (less than one day) and the Jacobin's misogynistic view of women in general.

She was accused of (most, if not all, of the accusations were untrue and probably libelous accusations, sending millions of livres, treasury money, to Austria, plotting to kill the duc d'Orléans, declaring her son to be the new king of France and orchestrating the massacre of the Swiss Guards in 1792. People were impressed with her defense and the women present in the courtroom were the market women who had stormed the palace for her in 1789 began to support her.

The outcome of the trial had already been decided by the Committee of Public Safety and she was declared guilty of treason in the early morning of 16 October, after two days of proceedings. The same day at 12:15 pm, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthday, wearing a simple white dress, she was executed Place de la Révolution (present-day Place de la Concorde). Her last words were, "Pardon me Sir, I meant not to do it", to Sanson the executioner, whose foot she accidentally stepped on before she was executed by guillotine.

Her body was thrown into an unmarked grave in the former Madeleine cemetery, rue d'Anjou, (which was closed the following year). Both her body and that of Louis XVI were exhumed on 18 January 1815, during the Bourbon Restoration, when the comte de Provence had become King Louis XVIII. Proper Christian burial of the royal remains took place three days later, on 21 January, in the necropolis of French Kings at the Basilica of St Denis.

Allan Sherman - You Went The Wrong Way Old King Louie, 3:33

Chapter: Know It? Show It

Radical Days of the Revolution


HW: email (or hard copy) me at

Friday HW
1. p. 343, #4-6