Tuesday, March 29, 2016

HUM 112 Week 1

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00. I will take roll at 9:45 pm--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at the end of class.

Bernard Lewis Islamic projection onto the West, 4:14

Historian Bernard Lewis on tvo - Islamic/Western civilizational misunderstanding. The dangers of projecting your own motivations onto others, and how that reveals your own. The background to 9/11.


  • Download the Course Guide and Assignments and Rubrics documents located in the Student Center
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 21: The Baroque in Italy
    • Chapter 22: The Secular Baroque in the North

  • Pre-Built Course Content

  • Explore the Week 1 Music Folder
  • View the Week 1 Lecture videos
  • Do the Week 1 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 1 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points

What is the canzona's dominant rhythm?


  1. What is a defining characteristic of Baroque art?

    Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work

  1. What is the meaning of the Portuguese term barroco, from which "Baroque" likely derived?

    Misshapen pearl

  1. Why is Vivaldi's The Four Seasons known as program music?

    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea

  1. What Greek myth inspired Monteverdi's first opera?

    Orpheus and Eurydice

  1. From where did Europe receive the first load of tulip bulbs?


  1. What requirement did the Dutch state place on people in public service?

    Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church

  1. Of what does a vanitas painting remind the viewer?

    To focus on the spiritual, not the material

  1. What distinguished Bach's cantatas from the simple melodies of the Lutheran chorales on which they were based?

    Addition of counterpoint

What might the pearls In Vermeer's Woman with a Pearl Necklace represent?


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the canzona's dominant rhythm?
    Given Answer:
    Correct Answer:

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Vivaldi's The Four Seasons known as program music?
    Given Answer:
    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea
    Correct Answer:
    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    While his coworkers constructed his designs, what hobby did Bernini pursue?
    Given Answer:
    Writing plays and designing stage sets
    Correct Answer:
    Writing plays and designing stage sets

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What inspired the first operas?
    Given Answer:
    Ancient Greek drama
    Correct Answer:
    Ancient Greek drama

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Gabrieli organize his compositions around a single note-the tonic note?
    Given Answer:
    To heighten the sense of harmonic drama
    Correct Answer:
    To heighten the sense of harmonic drama

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why were the Catholic and the Protestant Churches opposed to Kepler's and Galileo's heliocentric theory?
    Given Answer:
    For contradicting certain biblical passages
    Correct Answer:
    For contradicting certain biblical passages

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. According to Francis Bacon, what were the greatest obstacles to human understanding?

    Correct Answer:
    Superstition and religion

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why in 1656 was Rembrandt forced to declare bankruptcy?
    Given Answer:
    He was notorious for living beyond his means
    Correct Answer:
    He was notorious for living beyond his means

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Why in 1637 did the Dutch economy come close to collapse?

    Correct Answer:
    Frenzied speculation in tulip futures

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

What creates the "broken" tulip, so highly valued by the seventeenth-century Dutch?

Correct Answer:
A virus

PART FOUR Excess, Inquiry, and Restraint


Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Embarkation from Cythera (detail). ca. 1718–19. Oil on canvas, 50¼" × 76⅛". (See Fig. 25.3 in Chapter 25.) Staatliche Museen, Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin.

For more than 200 years, from the late sixteenth century until the dawn of the nineteenth, the entrenched traditions of culture were challenged as never before. Not just in the West, but around the world, no era had been entangled in such a complex web of competing values. Indeed, it began with a civil war and ended with two revolutions. England, in the last half of the sixteenth century, was embroiled in conflict between Catholic and Protestant factions that led to civil war, the execution of a king, and abolition of monarchical authority. Two hundred years later, in the late eighteenth century, the American colonies would rebel against British control, and the French people against their king.

The question of political power—who possessed the right to rule—dominated the age. In the centuries before, the papacy had exercised authority over all people. Now, the rulers of Europe emphatically asserted their divine right to rule with unquestioned authority over their own dominions. In contrast, the thinkers of the age increasingly came to believe that human beings were by their very nature free, equal, and independent, and that they were not required to surrender their own sovereignty to any ruler. In essence, these thinkers developed a secularized version of the contest between Catholicism and Protestantism that had defined the sixteenth century after the Reformation. Protestant churches had freed themselves from what they believed to be a tyrannical and extravagant papacy. In fact, many people found strong similarities between the extravagances of the European monarchies and the extravagance of Rome. Now, many believed, individuals should free themselves from the tyrannical and profligate rule of any government to which they did not freely choose to submit.

At the beginning of the era, the Counter-Reformation was in full swing, and the Church, out to win back the hearts and minds of all whom the Reformation had drawn away, appealed not just to the intellect, but to the full range of human emotion and feeling. In Rome, it constructed theatrical, even monumental, spaces—not just churches, but avenues, fountains, and plazas—richly decorated in an exuberant style that we have come to call “the Baroque.” This dramatic and emotional style found expression in painting and music as well, and artistic virtuosity became the hallmark of this new Baroque style.

The courts of Europe readily adapted the Baroque to their own ends. In France, Louis XIII never missed an opportunity to use art and architecture to impress his grandeur and power upon the French people (and the other courts of Europe). In the arts, the stylistic tensions of the French court were most fully expressed. The rational clarity and moral uprightness of the Classical contrasted with the emotional drama and flamboyant sensuality of the Baroque. In music, for example, we find both the clarity of the Classical symphony and the spectacle of Baroque opera.

At the same time, scientific and philosophical investigation—the invention, for instance, of new tools of observation like the telescope and microscope—helped to sustain a newfound trust in the power of the rational mind to understand the world. When Isaac Newton demonstrated in 1687, to the satisfaction of just about everyone, that the universe was an intelligible system, well-ordered in its operations and guiding principles, it seemed possible that the operations of human society—the production and consumption of manufactured goods, the social organization of families and towns, the operations of national governments, to say nothing of its arts—might be governed by analogous universal laws. The pursuit of these laws is the defining characteristic of the eighteenth century, the period we have come to call the Enlightenment.

Thus, the age developed into a contest between those who sought to establish a new social order forged by individual freedom and responsibility, and those whose taste favored a decorative and erotic excess—primarily the French court. But even the high-minded champions of freedom found themselves caught up in morally complex dilemmas. Americans championed liberty, but they also defended the institution of slavery. The French would overthrow their dissolute monarch, only to see their society descend into chaos, requiring, in the end, a return to imperial rule. And, when the Europeans encountered other cultures—for example in the South Pacific, China, and India—they tended to impose their own values on cultures that were, in many ways, not even remotely like their own. But if the balance of power fell heavily to the West, increasingly the dynamics of global encounter resulted in the exchange of ideas and values.

HUM112 Music Clips for Week 1

In this week's readings (chaps. 21-22), there are several musical compositions mentioned.  These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.   Watch and give them a listen.   Here below is some background and description of each--and the link to the YouTube (and sometimes other helps).
The following three musical compositions are mentioned in the Week 1 readings, especially pp. 706-710 (in chap. 21).   

Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533[1] – August 30, 1585) was an Italian[1] composer and organist of the late Renaissance. The uncle of the somewhat more famous Giovanni Gabrieli, he was the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of composers, and was extremely influential in spreading the Venetian style in Italy as well as in Germany
1.A:  Gabrieli, Canzona Duodecimi Toni (pp. 706-7) (=Canzona in the 12th Mode or Toneselection for this at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXriKjAqnHA
Please read pp. 706-7 for how Gabrieli achieved "surround sound" with this in Venice's great St. Mark's cathedral when he composed this in the 1590s.    Note how there are two groups of brass instrument musicians facing each other in the YouTube above.

1.B    Gabrieli:  Ricercar a 4 del duodecimo tuono (pp. 706-707) selection for this at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cihvujvb_pQ
This is simply a follow-up to illustrate Gabrieli's ideas in 1A above. The Italian word "Ricercar" means to search out or pursue.  But, it was used as a label for an instrumental musical composition of the late 1500s and early 1600s that explored a certain tone or motif.  In this case, it was Gabrieli's musical exploration of the 12th mode or tone, which was the key or tonic note "C" in his system.)

Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (Italian: [ˈklaudjo monteˈverdi]; 15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, gambist, singer and Roman Catholic priest.[2]

Monteverdi's work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the change from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.[3] He developed two styles of composition – the heritage of Renaissance polyphony and the new basso continuo technique of the Baroque.[4] Monteverdi wrote one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo, a novel work that is the earliest surviving opera still regularly performed. He is widely recognized as an inventive composer who enjoyed considerable fame in his lifetime.

  1. Monteverdi:  "Tu se' morta" from Orfeo. (pp. 707-708) selection of this at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ll_u870PG8
Monteverdi was the great pioneer of what we call "opera" today. The song title (Tu se' morta) means "You are dead".  This selection is a recitativo from the opera called Orfeo, written in 1607.   Seep. 708 for the meaning of this term and a description of this selection. The main character, Orpheus or Orfeo, has just learned of the death of his beloved Eurydice.  The story comes out of ancient Greek myth and drama.  Read p. 708 for more details on the story and this music.   For the whole opera from a great production in Barcelona, Spain, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ma4OelX45I   . 

The Four Seasons (Italian: Le quattro stagioni) is a group of four violin concerti by Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi, each of which gives a musical expression to a season of the year. They were written about 1723 and were published in 1725 in Amsterdam, together with eight additional violin concerti, as Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione ("The Contest Between Harmony and Invention").

The Four Seasons is the best known of Vivaldi's works. Unusually for the time, Vivaldi published the concerti with accompanying poems (possibly written by Vivaldi himself) that elucidated what it was about those seasons that his music was intended to evoke. It provides one of the earliest and most-detailed examples of what was later called program music—music with a narrative element.

Vivaldi took great pains to relate his music to the texts of the poems, translating the poetic lines themselves directly into the music on the page. In the middle section of the Spring concerto, where the goatherd sleeps, his barking dog can be marked in the viola section. Other natural occurrences are similarly evoked. Vivaldi separated each concerto into three movements, fast-slow-fast, and likewise each linked sonnet into three sections.
  1. Vivaldi:  Spring, I from The Four Seasons  (p. 710) selection of this at:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFHPRi0ZeXE
This selection is from the first concerto (see p. 710 for a definition of this) in a set of four concertos related to the theme of the four seasons. Vivaldi composed this in 1723. He also wrote a brief poetic sonnet at the start of this first concerto; read it on p. 710. That same page has a great description of this work.  On pp. 709-710, read about the orphanage for young women that trained and developed very talented female musicians in Venice, who were probably the normal performers of this sort of music.
The following musical compositions are mentioned in the Week 1 readings, especially pp. 734-8 (in chap. 22) .  

Johann Sebastian Bach[a] (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He enriched established German styles through his skill in counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and the adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor, two Passions, and over three hundred cantatas of which around two hundred survive.[1] His music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth.
Bach's abilities as an organist were highly respected during his lifetime, although he was not widely recognised as a great composer until a revival of interest and performances of his music in the first half of the 19th century. He is now generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.[2]

 Jesu, der du meine Seele (Jesus, You, who my soul),[1] BWV 78,[a] is a church cantata of Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for the 14th Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 10 September 1724. It is based on the hymn by Johann Rist.
  1. Bach: Cantata BWV 78 - Jesu, der meine Seele ("Jesus, It is by you that my soul....")
  1. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto 2, 3rd movement
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1BEDBsSDJw  (composed by Bach ca. 1721) (pp. 737-8 in chap. 22)

      The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two series of Preludes and Fugues in all major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach. In the German of Bach's time Clavier (keyboard) was a generic name indicating a variety of keyboard instruments, most typically a harpsichord or clavichord – but not excluding an organ either.

      The modern German spelling for the collection is Das wohltemperierte Klavier (WTK). Bach gave the title Das Wohltemperirte Clavier to a book of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, dated 1722, composed "for the profit and use of musical youth desirous of learning, and especially for the pastime of those already skilled in this study". Some 20 years later Bach compiled a second book of the same kind, which became known as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Part Two (in German: Zweyter Theil, modern spelling: Zweiter Teil).
      Modern editions usually refer to both parts as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (WTC I) and The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II (WTC II), respectively.[1] The collection is generally regarded as being among the most influential works in the history of Western classical music.
  1.  Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Part II  (p. 738 in chap. 22)
Fugue in D minor  (composed ca. 1740)
(p.  738); Clavier originally simply meant any instrument with claves or keys.  In the early 1700s, this could include the harpischord, the clavichord, or the instrument that would eventually evolve into the modern piano. J. S. Bach (1685-1750) lived in a period when he made much use of the clavichord and eventually early forms of the piano.  The piano was invented by Cristofori in the early 1700s; it was developed as a major advance on the clavichord. Pieces like the "Well-Tempered Clavier" were probably played mostly on the clavichord by Bach, though he clearly intended it as music for a variety of instruments. Bach's work here is baroque music at its best. Read p. 738 carefully and give this a listen.

The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach. Its time of origin, narrowed down depending on author, lies between c.1704 and the 1750s. The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. To a large extent the piece complies to the characteristics deemed typical for the north German organ school of the baroque era, but divergent stylistic influences, such as south German characteristics, have been described in scholarly literature on the piece.

For a century after its creation the only certainty about this Toccata and Fugue is that it survived in a manuscript written by Johannes Ringk. The first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was in 1833, through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, who also performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in 1840. The piece knew a fairly successful piano version by Carl Tausig in the second half of the 19th century, but it wasn't until the 20th century that its popularity rose above that of other organ compositions by Bach. That popularity further expanded, for instance by its inclusion in Walt Disney's Fantasia, until the Toccata and Fugue in D minor came to be considered as the most famous work in the organ repertoire.

A wide, and often conflicting, variety of analyses has been published about the piece: for instance in literature on organ music it is often described as some sort of program music depicting a storm, while in the context of Disney's Fantasia it was promoted as absolute music, nothing like program music depicting a storm. In the last quarter of the 20th century scholars like Peter Williams and Rolf-Dietrich Claus published their studies on the piece, and argued against it authenticity. Bach scholars like Christoph Wolff defended the attribution to Bach. Other commentators ignored the authenticity doubts or considered the attribution issue undecided. No edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis listed the Toccata and Fugue among the doubtful works, nor does its entry on the website of the Bach Archiv Leipzig even mention alternative views on the attribution issue.
  1. Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D minor

Pre-Built Course Content

Week 1 Explore

Monteverdi and Vivaldi
The Baroque (US /bəˈrk/ or UK /bəˈrɒk/) is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy, and spread to most of Europe.[1]

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement.[2] The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period.[3

Baroque Visual Arts

21 The Baroque in Italy:

Italian Baroque art is a term that is used here to refer to Italian painting and sculpture in the Baroque manner executed over a period that extended from the late sixteenth to the mid eighteenth centuries.[1]

 During the Counter Reformation, the Council of Trent (1545–63), in which the Roman Catholic Church answered many questions of internal reform raised by both Protestants and by those who had remained inside the Catholic Church, addressed the representational arts in a short and somewhat oblique passage in its decrees. This was subsequently interpreted and expounded by clerical authors such as Molanus, the Flemish theologian, who demanded that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should depict their subjects clearly and powerfully, and with decorum, without the stylistic airs of Mannerism.

Otis Art History 21 - Italian Baroque, 6:24

Presented by Dr. Jeanne Willette, faculty at Otis College of Art and Design.


    Baroque Style and the Counter-Reformation 691

The Catholic Church was a leading arts patron across much of Europe. The goal of much art in the Counter-Reformation, especially in the Rome of Bernini and the Flanders of Peter Paul Rubens, was to restore Catholicism's predominance and centrality. This was one of the drivers of the Baroque style that emerged across Europe in the late sixteenth century. In areas where Catholicism predominated, architecture[18] and painting,[19] and to a lesser extent music, reflected Counter-Reformation goals.[20]
The Council of Trent proclaimed that architecture, painting and sculpture had a role in conveying Catholic theology. Any work that might arouse "carnal desire" was inadmissible in churches, while any depiction of Christ's suffering and explicit agony was desirable and proper. In an era when some Protestant reformers were destroying images of saints and whitewashing walls, Catholic reformers reaffirmed the importance of art, with special encouragement given to images of the Virgin Mary.[21]

Art History Genres : What Is Baroque? 3:29

Baroque art took place after the Renaissance through the 17th and 18th century as a Catholic counter-reformation to draw people back into the church. Understand the style of baroque art with information from an art historian, critic and curator in this free video on art.

Expert: Dr. Betty Ann Brown
Contact: www.midmarchartspress.org
Bio: Betty Ann Brown is an art historian, critic and curator.
Filmmaker: Jared Drake


Sculpture and Architecture: Bernini and His Followers 692

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒan loˈrɛntso berˈniːni]; also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.[1] A major figure in the world of architecture, he was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture.[2] As one scholar has commented, "What Shakespeare is to drama, Bernini may be to sculpture: the first pan-European sculptor whose name is instantaneously identifiable with a particular manner and vision, and whose influence was inordinately powerful..."[3] In addition, he was a painter (mostly small canvases in oil) and a man of the theater: he wrote, directed and acted in plays (mostly Carnival satires), also designing stage sets and theatrical machinery, as well as a wide variety of decorative art objects including lamps, tables, mirrors, and even coaches. As architect and city planner, he designed both secular buildings and churches and chapels, as well as massive works combining both architecture and sculpture, especially elaborate public fountains and funerary monuments and a whole series of temporary structures (in stucco and wood) for funerals and festivals.

Gianlorenzo Bernini, 5:30
Examples with the monks singing in the background.
The Italian Baroque Sculptor, Painter and Architect Gianlorenzo Bernini and the Monks of St. Michael's.


The Society of Jesus 695

The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice and ecumenical dialogue.

Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber, gathered and professed vows of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".

Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the Society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God[1] (Spanish: "todo el que quiera militar para Dios"),[2] to strive especially for the defense and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine."[3] Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's Soldiers",[4] "God's Marines", or "the Company", references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions.[5] The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council.

The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General, currently Adolfo Nicolás.[6][7]
The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.[8] The historic curia of St. Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church.
In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, taking the name Pope Francis.

Society of Jesus: largest Catholic order in the world, 1:19

ROME REPORTS, www.romereports.com, is an independent international TV News Agency based in Rome covering the activity of the Pope, the life of the Vatican and current social, cultural and religious debates. Reporting on the Catholic Church requires proximity to the source, in-depth knowledge of the Institution, and a high standard of creativity and technical excellence. As few broadcasters have a permanent correspondent in Rome, ROME REPORTS is geared to inform the public and meet the needs of television broadcasting companies around the world through daily news packages, weekly newsprograms and documentaries.


San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane 700

The church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Saint Charles at the Four Fountains), also called San Carlino, is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy. The church was designed by the architect Francesco Borromini and it was his first independent commission. It is an iconic masterpiece of Baroque architecture, built as part of a complex of monastic buildings on the Quirinal Hill for the Spanish Trinitarians, an order dedicated to the freeing of Christian slaves. He received the commission in 1634, under the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, whose palace was across the road. However, this financial backing did not last and subsequently the building project suffered various financial difficulties.[1] It is one of at least three churches in Rome dedicated to San Carlo, including San Carlo ai Catinari and San Carlo al Corso.

Borromini: San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane, Roma, 2:33
Views with background music.


 The Drama of Painting: Caravaggio and the Caravaggisti 701

Michelangelo Merisi (Michael Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (Italian pronunciation: [karaˈvaddʒo]; 29 September 1571 in Caravaggio – 18 July? 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 (1595?) and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting.[1][2][3]

        Master of Light and Dark: Caravaggio 701

        Elisabetta Sirani and Artemisia Gentileschi: Caravaggisti Women 703

    Venice and Baroque Music 706

The city of Venice in Italy has played an important role in the development of the music of Italy. The Venetian state – i.e., the medieval Maritime Republic of Venice – was often popularly called the "Republic of Music", and an anonymous Frenchman of the 17th century is said to have remarked that "In every home, someone is playing a musical instrument or singing. There is music everywhere."[72]

During the 16th century, Venice became one of the most important musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of composition (the Venetian school) and the development of the Venetian polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert, who worked at St Mark's Basilica. Venice was the early center of music printing; Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to attract composers from all over Europe, especially from France and Flanders. By the end of the century, Venice was famous for the splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli, which used multiple choruses and instrumental groups. Venice was also the home of many famous composers during the baroque period, such as Antonio Vivaldi, Ippolito Ciera, Giovanni Picchi, and Girolamo Dalla Casa, to name but a few.

        Giovanni Gabrieli and the Drama of Harmony 706

        Claudio Monteverdi and the Birth of Opera 707

        Arcangelo Corelli and the Sonata 708

Arcangelo Corelli (/kɔːˈrɛli/;[1] 17 February 1653 – 8 January 1713) was an Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era. His music was key in the development of the modern genres of sonata and concerto, in establishing the preeminence of the violin, and as the first coalescing of modern tonality and functional harmony.[2]

        Antonio Vivaldi and the Concerto 709


        21.1 from Teresa of Ávila,“Visions,” Chapter 29 of The Life of Teresa of Ávila (before 1567) 692

Biography of Saint Teresa of Avila, 3:46

A short biography of Saint Teresa of Avila. Some basic facts about Teresa de Avila: - Born on 28 March 1515 in Gotarrendura, Ávila, Crown of Castile (today Spain) - Died on 4 October 1582 (aged 67) in Alba de Tormes, Salamanca, Spain - Venerated in: Roman Catholic Church, Lutheran Church and Anglican Communion - Beatified on: 24 April 1614, Rome by Pope Paul V - Canonized 12 March 1622, Rome by Pope Gregory XV - Major shrine Convent of the Annunciation, Alba de Tormes, Spain - Feast celebrated on 15 October - Attributes: Habit of the Discalced Carmelites, Book and Quill, arrow-pierced heart - Patronage: Bodily ills; headaches; chess; lacemakers; laceworkers; loss of parents; people in need of grace; people in religious orders; people ridiculed for their piety; Požega, Croatia; sick people; sickness; Spain. All images are taken from the public domain Music soudtrack from Incompetech: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-...


21.2a from Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, Fifth Exercise (1548) 696


It contains in it, after the Preparatory Prayer and two Preludes, five Points and one Colloquy:

Prayer. Let the Preparatory Prayer be the usual one.

First Prelude. The first Prelude is the composition, which is here to see with the sight of the imagination the length, breadth and depth of Hell.

Second Prelude. The second, to ask for what I want: it will be here to ask for interior sense of the pain which the damned suffer, in order that, if, through my faults, I should forget the love of the Eternal Lord, at least the fear of the pains may help me not to come into sin.

First Point. The first Point will be to see with the sight of the imagination the great fires, and the souls as in bodies of fire.

Second Point. The second, to hear with the ears wailings, howlings, cries, blasphemies against Christ our Lord and against all His Saints.

Third Point. The third, to smell with the smell smoke, sulphur, dregs and putrid things.

Fourth Point. The fourth, to taste with the taste bitter things, like tears, sadness and the worm of conscience.

Fifth Point. The fifth, to touch with the touch; that is to say, how the fires touch and burn the souls.

Colloquy. Making a Colloquy to Christ our Lord, I will bring to memory the souls that are in Hell, some because they did not believe the Coming, others because, believing, they did not act according to His Commandments; making three divisions:

First, Second, and Third Divisions. The first, before the Coming; the second, during His life; the third, after His life in this world; and with this I will give Him thanks that He has not let me fall into any of these divisions, ending my life.

Likewise, I will consider how up to now He has always had so great pity and mercy on me.

I will end with an OUR FATHER.

Note. The first Exercise will be made at midnight; the second immediately on rising in the morning; the third, before or after Mass; in any case, before dinner; the fourth at the hour of Vespers; the fifth, an hour before supper.

This arrangement of hours, more or less, I always mean in all the four Weeks, according as his age, disposition and physical condition help the person who is exercising himself to make five Exercises or fewer.


First Addition. The first Addition is, after going to bed, just when I want to go asleep, to think, for the space of a HAIL MARY, of the hour that I have to rise and for what, making a resume of the Exercise which I have to make.

Second Addition. The second: When I wake up, not giving place to any other thought, to turn my attention immediately to what I am going to contemplate in the first Exercise, at midnight, bringing myself to confusion for my so many sins, setting examples, as, for instance, if a knight found himself before his king and all his court, ashamed and confused at having much offended him, from whom he had first received many gifts and many favors: in the same way, in the second Exercise, making myself a great sinner and in chains; that is to say going to appear bound as in chains before the Supreme Eternal Judge; taking for an example how prisoners in chains and already deserving death, appear before their temporal judge. And I will dress with these thoughts or with others, according to the subject matter.

Third Addition. The third: A step or two before the place where I have to contemplate or meditate, I will put myself standing for the space of an OUR FATHER, my intellect raised on high, considering how God our Lord is looking at me, etc.; and will make an act of reverence or humility.

Fourth Addition. The fourth: To enter on the contemplation now on my knees, now prostrate on the earth, now lying face upwards, now seated, now standing, always intent on seeking what I want.
We will attend to two things. The first is, that if I find what I want kneeling, I will not pass on; and if prostrate, likewise, etc. The second; in the Point in which I find what I want, there I will rest, without being anxious to pass on, until I content myself.

Fifth Addition. The fifth: After finishing the Exercise, I will, during the space of a quarter of an hour, seated or walking leisurely, look how it went with me in the Contemplation or Meditation; and if badly, I will look for the cause from which it proceeds, and having so seen it, will be sorry, in order to correct myself in future; and if well, I will give thanks to God our Lord, and will do in like manner another time.

Sixth Addition. The sixth: Not to want to think on things of pleasure or joy, such as heavenly glory, the Resurrection, etc. Because whatever consideration of joy and gladness hinders our feeling pain and grief and shedding tears for our sins: but to keep before me that I want to grieve and feel pain, bringing to memory rather Death and Judgment.

Seventh Addition. The seventh: For the same end, to deprive myself of all light, closing the blinds and doors while I am in the room, if it be not to recite prayers, to read and eat.

Eighth Addition. The eighth: Not to laugh nor say a thing provocative of laughter.

Ninth Addition. The ninth: To restrain my sight, except in receiving or dismissing the person with whom I have spoken.

Tenth Addition. The tenth Addition is penance.

This is divided into interior and exterior. The interior is to grieve for one's sins, with a firm purpose of not committing them nor any others. The exterior, or fruit of the first, is chastisement for the sins committed, and is chiefly taken in three ways.

First Way. The first is as to eating. That is to say, when we leave off the superfluous, it is not penance, but temperance. It is penance when we leave off from the suitable; and the more and more, the greater and better -- provided that the person does not injure himself, and that no notable illness follows.

Second Way. The second, as to the manner of sleeping. Here too it is not penance to leave off the superfluous of delicate or soft things, but it is penance when one leaves off from the suitable in the manner: and the more and more, the better -- provided that the person does not injure himself and no notable illness follows. Besides, let not anything of the suitable sleep be left off, unless in order to come to the mean, if one has a bad habit of sleeping too much.

Third Way. The third, to chastise the flesh, that is, giving it sensible pain, which is given by wearing haircloth or cords or iron chains next to the flesh, by scourging or wounding oneself, and by other kinds of austerity.

Note. What appears most suitable and most secure with regard to penance is that the pain should be sensible in the flesh and not enter within the bones, so that it give pain and not illness. For this it appears to be more suitable to scourge oneself with thin cords, which give pain exteriorly, rather than in another way which would cause notable illness within.

First Note. The first Note is that the exterior penances are done chiefly for three ends: First, as satisfaction for the sins committed;

Second, to conquer oneself -- that is, to make sensuality obey reason and all inferior parts be more subject to the superior;

Third, to seek and find some grace or gift which the person wants and desires; as, for instance, if he desires to have interior contrition for his sins, or to weep much over them, or over the pains and sufferings which Christ our Lord suffered in His Passion, or to settle some doubt in which the person finds himself.

Second Note. The second: It is to be noted that the first and second Addition have to be made for the Exercises of midnight and at daybreak, but not for those which will be made at other times; and the fourth Addition will never be made in church in the presence of others, but in private, as at home, etc.

Third Note. The third: When the person who is exercising himself does not yet find what he desires -- as tears, consolations, etc., -- it often helps for him to make a change in food, in sleep and in other ways of doing penance, so that he change himself, doing penance two or three days, and two or three others not. For it suits some to do more penance and others less, and we often omit doing penance from sensual love and from an erroneous judgment that the human system will not be able to bear it without notable illness; and sometimes, on the contrary, we do too much, thinking that the body can bear it; and as God our Lord knows our nature infinitely better, often in such changes He gives each one to perceive what is suitable for him.

Fourth Note. The fourth: Let the Particular Examen be made to rid oneself of defects and negligences on the Exercises and Additions. And so in the SECOND, THIRD AND FOURTH WEEKS.

Who was St. Ignatius? Marquette University, 2:31

The story behind the founder of the Jesuit order, Ignatius of Loyola. As told by Stephanie Russell, Executive Director of Marquette University's Office of Mission and Identity.


        21.2b from Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, Rules (1548) 696

        21.3 John Donne, “Batter My Heart” (1618) 703

John Donne (/ˈdʌn/ DUN) (22 January 1572[1] – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. His works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor, especially compared to that of his contemporaries. Donne's style is characterised by abrupt openings and various paradoxes, ironies and dislocations. These features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques. His early career was marked by poetry that bore immense knowledge of English society and he met that knowledge with sharp criticism. Another important theme in Donne's poetry is the idea of true religion, something that he spent much time considering and about which he often theorized. He wrote secular poems as well as erotic and love poems. He is particularly famous for his mastery of metaphysical conceits.[2]

        21.4 John Donne, “The Flea” (1633) 713

        21.5 from Giulio Caccini, New Works of Music (1602) 707


        MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES The Facade from Renaissance to Baroque 697

        CLOSER LOOK Andrea Pozzo’s Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius 698

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE The End of Italian Ascendancy 711

22 The Secular Baroque in the North


    Calvinist Amsterdam: City of Contradictions 716

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Calvinists broke with the Roman Catholic Church but differed with Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things.[1][2] Calvinism can be a misleading term because the religious tradition it denotes is and has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. The movement was first called Calvinism by Lutherans who opposed it, and many within the tradition would prefer to use the word Reformed.[3][4] Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition — as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism — divided into separate groups, Arminians and Calvinists.[a][5][6]

Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity, but most are presbyterian or congregationalist with some being episcopalian.

While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism. Some have also argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation.

Early influential Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til and Gordon Clark were influential, while contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, R. C. Sproul, Timothy J. Keller, John Piper, and Michael Horton.

The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world.[7][8] There are more conservative Reformed federations like the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches.

Calvinism Explained, 2:31


Gaining Independence from Spain 717

In the 16th century, England and the Netherlands had been close allies against the ambitions of the Habsburgs. They cooperated in fighting the Spanish Armada. England supported the Dutch in the Eighty Years' War by sending money and troops. There was a permanent English representative in the Dutch government to ensure coordination of the joint war effort. The separate peace in 1604 between England and Spain strained this relationship. The weakening of Spanish power at the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 also meant that many colonial possessions of the Portuguese and some of the Spanish empire and their mineral resources were effectively up for grabs. The ensuing rush for empire brought the former allies into conflict. Also the Dutch, having made peace with Spain, quickly replaced the English as dominant traders with the Iberian peninsula, adding to an English resentment about Dutch trade that had steadily grown since 1590.

Wars II- Dutch Revolt & England vs Spain, 6:42
Dutch Revolt, William of Orange, Spanish Armada

Tulipomania 718

Capitalism, arising in the West with a modern banking system as opposed to the Middle East hindered by Islamic sharia law, produced great wealth and raised the fortunes of many ordinary persons. However, there are periods of boom and bust and the tulip collapse is the first classic example of a bust in capitalism.

Tulip mania or tulipomania (Dutch names include: tulpenmanie, tulpomanie, tulpenwoede, tulpengekte and bollengekte) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed.[2]
At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the annual income of a skilled craftsman. It is generally considered the first recorded speculative bubble (or economic bubble),[3] although some researchers have noted that the Kipper- und Wipperzeit episode in 1619–22, a Europe-wide chain of debasement of the metal content of coins to fund warfare, featured mania-like similarities to a bubble.[4] The term "tulip mania" is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values.[5]

The 1637 event was popularized in 1841 by the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by British journalist Charles Mackay. According to Mackay, at one point 12 acres (5 ha) of land were offered for a Semper Augustus bulb.[6] Mackay claims that many such investors were ruined by the fall in prices, and Dutch commerce suffered a severe shock. Although Mackay's book is a classic, his account is contested. Many modern scholars feel that the mania was not as extraordinary as Mackay described and argue that not enough price data are available to prove that a tulip bulb bubble actually occurred.[7][8]

Research is difficult because of the limited economic data from the 1630s—much of which come from biased and very speculative sources.[9][10] Some modern economists have proposed rational explanations, rather than a speculative mania, for the rise and fall in prices. For example, other flowers, such as the hyacinth, also had high initial prices at the time of their introduction, which immediately fell. The high asset prices may also have been driven by expectations of a parliamentary decree that contracts could be voided for a small cost—thus lowering the risk to buyers.

Tulipomania, 2:03

In which John takes you to Amsterdam to discuss the tulip mania that overtook the Netherlands in the 17th century, culminating with the famed flower bubble of 1636 and 1637, the original irrational exuberance. (Or was it irrational?) Buy ATLAS by Katrina Vandenberg now: http://amzn.to/gV8LBS You will not regret it. HERE ARE A LOT OF LINKS TO NERDFIGHTASTIC THINGS: Shirts and Stuff: http://dftba.com/artist/30/Vlogbrothers Hank's Music: http://dftba.com/artist/15/Hank-Green John's Books: http://amzn.to/j3LYqo ====================== Hank's Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/hankgreen Hank's Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/hankimon Hank's tumblr: http://edwardspoonhands.tumblr.com John's Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/realjohngreen John's Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/johngreenfans John's tumblr: http://fishingboatproceeds.tumblr.com ====================== Other Channels Crash Course: http://www.youtube.com/crashcourse SciShow: http://www.youtube.com/scishow Gaming: http://www.youtube.com/hankgames VidCon: http://www.youtube.com/vidcon Hank's Channel: http://www.youtube.com/hankschannel Truth or Fail: http://www.youtube.com/truthorfail ====================== Nerdfighteria http://effyeahnerdfighters.com/ http://effyeahnerdfighters.com/nftumblrs http://reddit.com/r/nerdfighters http://nerdfighteria.info/ A Bunny (\(\ ( - -) ((') (')


        The Dutch Reformed Church: Strict Doctrine and Whitewashed Spaces 719

The Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK) was a Reformed Christian denomination in the Netherlands, which later spread to the United States, South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization.

It developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin and other major Reformed theologians. It was founded in the 1570s and lasted until 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations.[citation needed] A minority of members of the Church chose not to participate in the merger. These former members re-organised as the Restored Reformed Church.

It was one of the many local churches reconstituted across Europe during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. While the Dutch Reformed Church was based in the Netherlands, other churches holding similar theological views were founded in England, Scotland, Switzerland, Germany, France, and Hungary. The theology and practice of the Dutch Reformed Church, and its sister churches in the countries named, were based on the teachings of John Calvin and other leading figures of the Reformed faith at the time.

What Was the False Doctrine of the Dutch Reformed Church? 1:11

The Science of Observation 720

The scientific method requires observations of nature to formulate and test hypotheses.[1] It consists of these steps:[2][3]
  1. Asking a question about a natural phenomenon
  2. Making observations of the phenomenon
  3. Hypothesizing an explanation for the phenomenon
  4. Predicting a logical consequence of the hypothesis
  5. Testing the hypothesis by an experiment, observational study, field study or simulation
  6. Creating a conclusion with data gathered in the experiment, or forming a revised/new hypothesis and repeating the process
  7. Publishing your results.
  8. Peer review of the results of others.

Observation - Science Trick, 4:20

Science is about making deductions based upon observations - in these experiments I use hidden information for a seemingly impossible task.


Francis Bacon and the Empirical Method 720

Empirical evidence, also known as sense experience, is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation.[1] The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (empeiría). After Immanuel Kant, it is common in philosophy to call the knowledge thus gained a posteriori knowledge. This is contrasted with a priori knowledge, the knowledge accessible from pure reason alone.

Empirical and Non-empirical Methods, 2:46

René Descartes and the Deductive Method 721

René Descartes (/ˈdˌkɑːrt/;[8] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian";[9] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings,[10][11] which are studied closely to this day. He spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations) — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution.

Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, and refused to trust his own senses. He frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the schools on two major points: First, he rejects the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to final ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena.[12] In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation.

Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza[13] and Descartes were all well-versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.

His best known philosophical statement is "Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je suis; I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637; written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).[14]

Cartesianism is the name given to the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza.[1] Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural sciences.[2] For him, the philosophy was a thinking system that embodied all knowledge, and expressed it in this way:[3]

Cartesians view the mind as being wholly separate from the corporeal body. Sensation and the perception of reality are thought to be the source of untruth and illusions, with the only reliable truths to be had in the existence of a metaphysical mind. Such a mind can perhaps interact with a physical body, but it does not exist in the body, nor even in the same physical plane as the body. The question of how mind and body interact would be a persistent difficulty for Descartes and his followers, with different Cartesians providing different answers.[4]

Descartes in his Passions of the Soul and The Description of the Human Body suggested that the body works like a machine, that it has material properties. The mind (or soul), on the other hand, was described as a nonmaterial and does not follow the laws of nature. Descartes argued that the mind interacts with the body at the pineal gland. This form of dualism or duality proposes that the mind controls the body, but that the body can also influence the otherwise rational mind, such as when people act out of passion. Most of the previous accounts of the relationship between mind and body had been uni-directional.

Descartes suggested that the pineal gland is "the seat of the soul" for several reasons. First, the soul is unitary, and unlike many areas of the brain the pineal gland appeared to be unitary (though subsequent microscopic inspection has revealed it is formed of two hemispheres). Second, Descartes observed that the pineal gland was located near the ventricles. He believed the cerebrospinal fluid of the ventricles acted through the nerves to control the body, and that the pineal gland influenced this process. Sensations delivered by the nerves to the pineal, he believed, caused it to vibrate in some sympathetic manner, which in turn gave rise to the emotions and caused the body to act.[31] Cartesian dualism set the agenda for philosophical discussion of the mind–body problem for many years after Descartes' death.[49]

In present-day discussions on the practice of animal vivisection, it is normal to consider Descartes as an advocate of this practice, as a result of his dualistic philosophy. Some of the sources say that Descartes denied the animals could feel pain, and therefore could be used without concern.[50] Other sources consider that Descartes denied that animals had reason or intelligence, but did not lack sensations or perceptions, but these could be explained mechanistically.[51]

Three Minute Philosophy: Rene Descartes, 3:56

Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and the Telescope 722

Johannes Kepler (German: [ˈkɛplɐ]; December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.

Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy). Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason.[1] Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics",[2] as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics",[3] and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens",[4] transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.[5]

Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642), was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Galileo has been called the "father of observational astronomy",[4] the "father of modern physics",[5][6] and the "father of science".[7] His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.

Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[8] He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax.[8] The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established fact.[8][9] Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point.[8] He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.[10][11] It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his most well known works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.[12][13]

A telescope is an instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light). The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, using glass lenses. They found use in terrestrial applications and astronomy.
Within a few decades, the reflecting telescope was invented, which used mirrors. In the 20th century many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s. The word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in some cases other types of detectors.

The word "telescope" (from the Ancient Greek τῆλε, tele "far" and σκοπεῖν, skopein "to look or see"; τηλεσκόπος, teleskopos "far-seeing") was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.[1][2][3] In the Starry Messenger, Galileo had used the term "perspicillum".

How the universe is revealed by Telescopes: from Galileo to Hubble, 3:25

Richard takes you through a history of telescopes, and what they have progressively told us about the universe. In 1610 by Galileo, who is credited with having pioneered modern astronomy, discovered the four moons of Jupiter with his very basic telescope. In his eye those moons were mere pin pricks. Today, the latest advanced telescopes in Space reveal the true beauty and intricate detail of that universe around us. Captured using cutting edge telescopes and cameras that can detect infrared, ultraviolet and X-rays, these pictures provide views that would be impossible to see with the human eye, especially that of Galileo. Those pictures feature in a new exhibition, Visions of the Universie, at Royal Observatory in Greenwich that aims to show how astronomical imaging has transformed our understanding of our place in the vastness of space Among those to be on display are photographs taken by probes from the far side of the ringed planet Saturn, along with pictures of Galileo's moons orbiting Jupiter, now with pinpoint detail! With thanks to Marek Kukula at the Royal Observatory. Images courtesy of Nasa & ESA.


Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, and the Microscope 723

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek[note 1] (/ˈlvənhʊk/, Dutch: [ɑnˈtoːni vɑn ˈleːuə(n)ˌɦuk]; October 24, 1632 – August 26, 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology.
Raised in Delft, Netherlands, Van Leeuwenhoek worked as a draper in his youth, and founded his own shop in 1654. He made a name for himself in municipal politics, and eventually developed an interest in lensmaking. Using his handcrafted microscopes, he was the first to observe and describe microorganisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules (from Latin animalculum = "tiny animal"). Most of the "animalcules" are now referred to as unicellular organisms, though he observed multicellular organisms in pond water. He was also the first to document microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries. Van Leeuwenhoek did not author any books; his discoveries came to light through correspondence with the Royal Society, which published his letters.

Robert Hooke FRS (/hʊk/; 28 July [O.S. 18 July] 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes. These issues may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity.

He was at one time simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society and a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry and a Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London, in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire. He was also an important architect of his time – though few of his buildings now survive and some of those are generally misattributed – and was instrumental in devising a set of planning controls for London whose influence remains today. Allan Chapman has characterised him as "England's Leonardo".[1]
Robert Gunther's Early Science in Oxford, a history of science in Oxford during the Protectorate, Restoration and Age of Enlightenment, devotes five of its fourteen volumes to Hooke.

Hooke studied at Wadham College during the Protectorate where he became one of a tightly knit group of ardent Royalists led by John Wilkins. Here he was employed as an assistant to Thomas Willis and to Robert Boyle, for whom he built the vacuum pumps used in Boyle's gas law experiments. He built some of the earliest Gregorian telescopes and observed the rotations of Mars and Jupiter. In 1665 he inspired the use of microscopes for scientific exploration with his book, Micrographia. Based on his microscopic observations of fossils, Hooke was an early proponent of biological evolution.[2][3] He investigated the phenomenon of refraction, deducing the wave theory of light, and was the first to suggest that matter expands when heated and that air is made of small particles separated by relatively large distances. He performed pioneering work in the field of surveying and map-making and was involved in the work that led to the first modern plan-form map, though his plan for London on a grid system was rejected in favour of rebuilding along the existing routes. He also came near to an experimental proof that gravity follows an inverse square law, and hypothesised that such a relation governs the motions of the planets, an idea which was subsequently developed by Isaac Newton.[4] Much of Hooke's scientific work was conducted in his capacity as curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a post he held from 1662, or as part of the household of Robert Boyle.

A microscope (from the Ancient Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.

There are many types of microscopes. The most common (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses light to image the sample. Other major types of microscopes are the electron microscope (both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope), the ultramicroscope, and the various types of scanning probe microscope.

Cell Theory, 3:32

Dutch Vernacular Painting: Art of the Familiar 724

The Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history generally spanning the 17th century,[1] during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.

The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe, and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state had traditionally been less important artistic centres than cities in Flanders in the south, and the upheavals and large-scale transfers of population of the war, and the sharp break with the old monarchist and Catholic cultural traditions, meant that Dutch art needed to reinvent itself entirely, a task in which it was very largely successful.

Although Dutch painting of the Golden Age comes in the general European period of Baroque painting, and often shows many of its characteristics, most lacks the idealization and love of splendour typical of much Baroque work, including that of neighbouring Flanders. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism inherited from Early Netherlandish painting.
A distinctive feature of the period is the proliferation of distinct genres of paintings, with the majority of artists producing the bulk of their work within one of these. The full development of this specialization is seen from the late 1620s, and the period from then until the French invasion of 1672 is the core of Golden Age painting.

    Still Life 724

Pieter Claesz, Vanitas (1630)

    Landscapes 725

Esaias van de Velde, Winter Landscape (1623)

    Genre Scenes 726

    Johannes Vermeer and the Domestic Scene 727

Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer (/vərˈmɪər/;[3] Dutch: [joːˈɦɑnəs jɑn vərˈmeːr]; 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings.[4]

Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work.[5]

Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes. "Almost all his paintings are apparently set in two smallish rooms in his house in Delft; they show the same furniture and decorations in various arrangements and they often portray the same people, mostly women."[6]

He was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. He was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbraken's major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting (Grand Theatre of Dutch Painters and Women Artists), and was thus omitted from subsequent surveys of Dutch art for nearly two centuries.[7][8] In the 19th century, Vermeer was rediscovered by Gustav Friedrich Waagen and Théophile Thoré-Bürger, who published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him, although only 34 paintings are universally attributed to him today.[2] Since that time, Vermeer's reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age.

 The Group Portrait 729

The Meagre Company, an Amsterdam militia group portrait or schutterstuk by Frans Hals and Pieter Codde (1633-37)

    Rembrandt van Rijn and the Drama of Light 730

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (/ˈrɛmbrænt, -brɑːnt/;[2] Dutch: [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin]; 15 July 1606[1] – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history.[3] His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high,[4] and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters.[5] Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified most notably in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.[3]

In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population.[6] Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization."[7]

Rembrandt van Rijn - Self-Portrait - Google Art Project.jpg Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

   The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990.

The Baroque Keyboard 734

    Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck’s Fantasias for the Organ 736

    The North German School: Johann Sebastian Bach 737

Johann Sebastian Bach - Mini Biography, 3:06

Watch a video biography about Johann Sebastian Bach, from his early years growing up in a family of musicians to his composing sacred music for churches. Learn more about Johann Sebastian Bach: http://bit.ly/17peATS Watch more Johann Sebastian Bach video:http://bit.ly/14HzS0h Raised in a family of musicians, Johann Sebastian Bach played the harpsichord and organ from an early age. Deeply religious, he composed sacred music to be played in churches.



    22.1 from Francis Bacon, Novum Organum Scientiarum (New Method of Science) (1620) 741

    22.2 from René Descartes, Meditations (1641) 721

Meditations on First Philosophy[1] (subtitled In which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in 1641 (in Latin). The French translation (by the Duke of Luynes with Descartes' supervision) was published in 1647 as Méditations Metaphysiques. The original Latin title is Meditationes de prima philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas demonstratur. The title may contain a misreading by the printer, mistaking animae immortalitas for animae immaterialitas, as suspected already by A. Baillet.[2]
The book is made up of six meditations, in which Descartes first discards all belief in things that are not absolutely certain, and then tries to establish what can be known for sure. He wrote the meditations as if he had meditated for six days: each meditation refers to the last one as "yesterday" (In fact, Descartes began work on the Meditations in 1639.[3]) One of the most influential philosophical texts ever written, it is widely read to this day.[4]

The Meditations consist of the presentation of Descartes' metaphysical system in its most detailed level and in the expanding of Descartes' philosophical system, which he first introduced in the fourth part of his Discourse on Method (1637). Descartes' metaphysical thought is also found in the Principles of Philosophy (1644), which the author intended to be a philosophy guidebook.

Meditation I: Concerning Those Things That Can Be Called into Doubt


The First Meditation, subtitled "What can be called into doubt", opens with the Meditator reflecting on the number of falsehoods he has believed during his life and on the subsequent faultiness of the body of knowledge he has built up from these falsehoods. He has resolved to sweep away all he thinks he knows and to start again from the foundations, building up his knowledge once more on more certain grounds. He has seated himself alone, by the fire, free of all worries so that he can demolish his former opinions with care.
The Meditator reasons that he need only find some reason to doubt his present opinions in order to prompt him to seek sturdier foundations for knowledge. Rather than doubt every one of his opinions individually, he reasons that he might cast them all into doubt if he can doubt the foundations and basic principles on which the opinions are founded.

Everything that the Meditator has accepted as most true he has come to learn from or through his senses. He acknowledges that sometimes the senses can deceive, but only with respect to objects that are very small or far away, and that our sensory knowledge on the whole is quite sturdy. The Meditator acknowledges that insane people might be more deceived, but that he is clearly not one of them and needn't worry himself about that.

However, the Meditator realizes that he is often convinced when he is dreaming that he is sensing real objects. He feels certain that he is awake and sitting by the fire, but reflects that often he has dreamed this very sort of thing and been wholly convinced by it. Though his present sensations may be dream images, he suggests that even dream images are drawn from waking experience, much like paintings in that respect. Even when a painter creates an imaginary creature, like a mermaid, the composite parts are drawn from real things—women and fish, in the case of a mermaid. And even when a painter creates something entirely new, at least the colors in the painting are drawn from real experience. Thus, the Meditator concludes, though he can doubt composite things, he cannot doubt the simple and universal parts from which they are constructed like shape, quantity, size, time, etc. While we can doubt studies based on composite things, like medicine, astronomy, or physics, he concludes that we cannot doubt studies based on simple things, like arithmetic and geometry.

On further reflection, the Meditator realizes that even simple things can be doubted. Omnipotent God could make even our conception of mathematics false. One might argue that God is supremely good and would not lead him to believe falsely all these things. But by this reasoning we should think that God would not deceive him with regard to anything, and yet this is clearly not true. If we suppose there is no God, then there is even greater likelihood of being deceived, since our imperfect senses would not have been created by a perfect being.

The Meditator finds it almost impossible to keep his habitual opinions and assumptions out of his head, try as he might. He resolves to pretend that these opinions are totally false and imaginary in order to counterbalance his habitual way of thinking. He supposes that not God, but some evil demon has committed itself to deceiving him so that everything he thinks he knows is false. By doubting everything, he can at least be sure not to be misled into falsehood by this demon.


    CLOSER LOOK Rembrandt’s The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp 732

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Art of the People and the Tastes of the Court 739

Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800
The Scientific Revolution gave rise to a intellectual movement—the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thought provided the philosophical foundations for the American Revolution. Britain lost its colonies in North America to the newly formed United States, while Spain and Portugal held onto their profitable Latin American colonies.
The Scientific Revolution
Sixteenth-century Europeans began to question the scientific assumptions of the ancient authorities and to develop new theories about the universe. Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Galilei revolutionized astronomy.
Copernicus claimed that the sun, not the earth, was at the center of the universe—an idea considered heresy by the Catholic Church.
Equally revolutionary were Isaac Newton's explanations of gravity and the movement of the planets.
There were breakthroughs in medicine and chemistry, and numerous women contributed to the body of scientific research. The new view of the universe affected Western philosophy.
The Frenchman Rene Descartes, the first rationalist, declared that matter could be independently investigated by reason.
Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, developed the scientific method—a system for collecting and analyzing evidence.
The Enlightenment
The Scientific Revolution gave rise to the Enlightenment, an eighteenth-century movement that stressed the role of philosophy and reason in improving society. Enlightenment intellectuals, known as philosophes, were chiefly social reformers from the nobility and the middle class. They often met in the salons of the upper classes to discuss the ideas of such giants as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. In the economic sphere, Adam Smith put forth the doctrine of laissez-faire economics. The later Enlightenment produced social thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and an early advocate of women's rights, Mary Wollstonecraft. Salon gatherings, along with the growth of book and magazine publishing, helped spread Enlightenment ideas among a broad audience. Most Europeans were still Christians. However, the desire for a more spiritual experience inspired new religious movements, such as the Methodism of John Wesley.
The Impact of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment influenced both art and politics. The baroque and neoclassical styles of art endured, while a more delicate style, called rococo, emerged. The works of Bach, Handel, Haydn, and Mozart represented one of the greatest periods in European music. Novels attracted a middle-class audience. The Enlightenment interested the absolutist rulers of Europe. However, only one, Joseph II of Austria, attempted far-reaching reforms based on Enlightenment ideas; they were largely a failure. The reforms of Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia were far more limited. Territorial disputes in Europe and in the colonial empires of Britain and France produced the War of Austrian Succession, followed by the Seven Years' War. In the end, France lost India and most of North America, and Britain emerged as the world's greatest colonial power.
Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to control Brazil, while Spain established an empire in the Western Hemisphere that included parts of North America and most of Latin America. Portugal and Spain held onto their Latin American colonies for over 300 years. During that time, they profited richly by exporting Latin American gold, silver, and other natural resources and farm products. Spanish and Portuguese officials and Christian missionaries played important roles in Latin American societies. In North America, British control over its colonies began to unravel over issues of taxation. Multiple crises led the Americans to declare their independence in 1776 and to fight Britain until its defeat in 1783. The Articles of Confederation that formed the United States were soon replaced with a Constitution, which created a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights added important freedoms derived from the natural rights expressed by the philosophes.
The Scientific Revolution
In What Went Wrong?, Bernard Lewis writes of the key role of the Middle East in the rise of science in the Middle Ages, before things went wrong: And then, approximately from the end of the Middle Ages, there was a dramatic change. In Europe, the scientific movement advanced enormously in the era of the Renaissance, the Discoveries, the technological revolution, and the vast changes, both intellectual and material, that preceded, accompanied, and followed them. In the Muslim world, independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to the veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge. There were some practical innovations — thus, for example, incubators were invented in Egypt, vaccination against smallpox in Turkey. These were, however, not seen as belonging to the realm of science, but as practical devices, and we know of them primarily from Western travelers. Another example of the widening gap may be seen in the fate of the great observatory built in Galata, in Istanbul, in 1577. This was due to the initiative of Taqi al-Din (ca. 1526-1585), a major figure in Muslim scientific history and the author of several books on astronomy, optics, and mechanical clocks. Born in Syria or Egypt (the sources differ), he studied in Cairo, and after a career as jurist and theologian he went to Istanbul, where in 1571 he was appointed munejjim-bash, astronomer (and astrologer) in chief to the Sultan Selim II. A few years later her persuaded the Sultan Murad III to allow him to build an observatory, comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But there the comparison ends. Tycho Brahe's observatory and the work accomplished in it opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science. Taqi al-Din's observatory was razed to the ground by a squad of Janissaries, by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of Chief Mufti. This observatory had many predecessors in the lands of Islam; it had no successors until the age of modernization. The relationship between Christendom and Islam in the sciences was now reversed. Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. They were willing enough to accept the products of infidel science in warfare and medicine, where they could make the difference between victory and defeat, between life and death. But the underlying philosophy and the sociopolitical context of these scientific achievements proved more difficult to accept or even recognize.
The Scientific Revolution Objectives
* Explain how new discoveries in astronomy changed the way people viewed the universe.
* Understand the new scientific method and how it developed.
* Analyze the contributions that Newton and other scientists made to the Scientific Revolution.
Terms, People, and Places
Nicolaus Copernicus
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
Francis Bacon
René Descartes
scientific method
Robert Boyle
Isaac Newton
In 1609, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei heard of a new Dutch invention, the telescope. It was designed to help people see distant enemy ships. Galileo was interested for another reason—he wondered what would happen if he trained a telescope on the night sky. So he built his own telescope for this purpose. When he pointed it at the sky, he was amazed. The new telescope allowed him to see mountains on the moon, fiery spots on the sun, and four moons circling the planet Jupiter. “I did discover many particulars in Heaven that had been unseen and unheard of until this our age,” he later wrote.
Focus Question
How did discoveries in science lead to a new way of thinking for Europeans?
The Renaissance and the Reformation facilitated the breakdown of the medieval worldview. In the mid-1500s, a profound shift in scientific thinking brought about the final break with Europe’s medieval past. Called the Scientific Revolution, this movement pointed toward a future shaped by a new way of thinking about the physical universe. At the heart of the Scientific Revolution was the assumption that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe. The physical world, therefore, could be known, managed, and shaped by people.
Baroque pp
Baroque and Roll

Lecture 1 The Baroque in Italy
Lecture 2 The Art of Observation (Northern artistry)
In this week's readings (chaps. 21-22), there are several musical compositions mentioned. These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube. Watch and give them a listen. Here below is some background and description of each--and the link to the YouTube (and sometimes other helps).
The following three musical compositions are mentioned in the Week 1 readings, especially pp. 706-710 (in chap. 21).
Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1554/1557 – 12 August 1612) was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.

Music and style

Though Gabrieli composed in many of the forms current at the time, he preferred sacred vocal and instrumental music. All of his secular vocal music is relatively early; he never wrote lighter forms, such as dances; and late in his career he concentrated on sacred vocal and instrumental music that exploited sonority for maximum effect. Among the innovations credited to him – and while he was not always the first, he was the most famous to do these things – were the use of dynamics; the use of specifically notated instrumentation (as in the famous Sonata pian' e forte); and the use of massive forces arrayed in multiple, spatially separated groups, an idea which was to be the genesis of the Baroque concertato style, and which spread quickly to northern Europe, both by the report of visitors to Venice and by Gabrieli's students, which included Hans Leo Hassler and Heinrich Schütz.
Like composers before and after him, he would use the unusual layout of the San Marco church, with its two choir lofts facing each other, to create striking spatial effects. Most of his pieces are written so that a choir or instrumental group will first be heard on one side, followed by a response from the musicians on the other side; often there was a third group situated on a stage near the main altar in the center of the church. While this polychoral style had been extant for decades (Adrian Willaert may have made use of it first, at least in Venice) Gabrieli pioneered the use of carefully specified groups of instruments and singers, with precise directions for instrumentation, and in more than two groups. The acoustics were and are such in the church that instruments, correctly positioned, could be heard with perfect clarity at distant points. Thus instrumentation which looks strange on paper, for instance a single string player set against a large group of brass instruments, can be made to sound, in San Marco, in perfect balance. A fine example of these techniques can be seen in the scoring of In Ecclesiis.
Gabrieli's first motets were published alongside his uncle Andrea's compositions in his 1587 volume of Concerti. These pieces show much influence of his uncle's style in the use of dialogue and echo effects. There are low and high choirs and the difference between their pitches is marked by the use of instrumental accompaniment. The motets published in Giovanni's 1597 Sacrae Symphoniae seem to move away from this technique of close antiphony towards a model in which musical material is not simply echoed, but developed by successive choral entries. Some motets, such as Omnes Gentes developed the model almost to its limits. In these motets, instruments are an integral part of the performance, and only the choirs marked "Capella" are to be performed by singers for each part.
There seems to be a distinct change in Gabrieli's style after 1605, the year of publication of Monteverdi's Quinto libro di madrigali, and Gabrieli's compositions are in a much more homophonic style as a result. There are sections purely for instruments – called "Sinfonia" – and small sections for soloists singing florid lines, accompanied simply by a basso continuo. "Alleluia" refrains provide refrains within the structure, forming rondo patterns in the motets, with close dialogue between choirs and soloists. In particular, one of his best-known pieces, In Ecclesiis, is a showcase of such polychoral techniques, making use of four separate groups of instrumental and singing performers, underpinned by the omnipresent organ and continuo.
1.A: Gabrieli, Canzona Duodecimi Toni (pp. 706-7) (=Canzona in the 12th Mode or Tone) selection for this at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXriKjAqnHA
Please read pp. 706-7 for how Gabrieli achieved "surround sound" with this in Venice's great St. Mark's cathedral when he composed this in the 1590s. Note how there are two groups of brass instrument musicians facing each other in the YouTube above.

1.B Gabrieli: Ricercar a 4 del duodecimo tuono(pp. 706-707) selection for this at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cihvujvb_pQ
This is simply a follow-up to illustrate Gabrieli's ideas in 1A above. The Italian word "Ricercar" means to search out or pursue. But, it was used as a label for an instrumental musical composition of the late 1500s and early 1600s that explored a certain tone or motif. In this case, it was Gabrieli's musical exploration of the 12th mode or tone, which was the key or tonic note "C" in his system.)
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (Italian: [ˈklaudjo monteˈverdi]; 15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, gambist, singer and Roman Catholic priest.
Monteverdi's work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the change from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period. He developed two styles of composition – the heritage of Renaissance polyphony and the new basso continuo technique of the Baroque. Monteverdi wrote one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo, a novel work that is the earliest surviving opera still regularly performed. He was recognized as an inventive composer and enjoyed considerable fame in his life.
Claudio Monteverdi was born in 1567 in Cremona, Lombardy. His father was Baldassare Monteverdi, a doctor, apothecary and amateur surgeon. He was the oldest of five children. During his childhood, he was taught by Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, the maestro di cappella at the Cathedral of Cremona. The Maestro’s job was to conduct important worship services in accordance with the liturgy of the Catholic Church. Monteverdi learned about music as a member of the cathedral choir. He also studied at the University of Cremona. His first music was written for publication, including some motets and sacred madrigals, in 1582 and 1583. His first five publications were: Sacrae cantiunculae, 1582 (a collection of miniature motets); Madrigali Spirituali, 1583 (a volume of which only the bass partbook is extant); Canzonette a tre voci, 1584 (a collection of three-voice canzonettes); and the five-part madrigals Book I, 1587, and Book II, 1590. He worked at the court of Vincenzo I of Gonzaga in Mantua as a vocalist and viol player, then as music director. In 1602, he was working as the court conductor and Vincenzo appointed him master of music on the death of Benedetto Pallavicino.
In 1599 Monteverdi married the court singer Claudia Cattaneo, who died in September 1607. They had two sons (Francesco and Massimilino) and a daughter (Leonora). Another daughter died shortly after birth. In 1610 he moved to Rome, arriving in secret, hoping to present his music to Pope Paul V. His Vespers were printed the same year, but his planned meeting with the Pope never took place.
In 1612 Vincenzo died and was succeeded by his eldest son Francessco. Heavily in debt, due to the profligacy of his father, Francesco sacked Monteverdi and he spent a year in Mantua without any paid employment. His 1607 his opera L'Orfeo was dedicated to Francesco. The title page of the opera bears the dedication "Al serenissimo signor D. Francesco Gonzaga, Prencipe di Mantoua, & di Monferato, &c."
By 1613, he had moved to San Marco in Venice where, as conductor, he quickly restored the musical standard of both the choir and the instrumentalists. The musical standard had declined due to the financial mismanagement of his predecessor, Giulio Cesare Martinengo. The managers of the basilica were relieved to have such a distinguished musician in charge, as the music had been declining since the death of Giovanni Croce in 1609.
In 1632, he became a priest. During the last years of his life, when he was often ill, he composed his two last masterpieces: Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (The Return of Ulysses, 1641), and the historic opera L'incoronazione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea, 1642), based on the life of the Roman emperor Nero. L'incoronazione especially is considered a culminating point of Monteverdi's work. It contains tragic, romantic, and comic scenes (a new development in opera), a more realistic portrayal of the characters, and warmer melodies than previously heard. It requires a smaller orchestra, and has a less prominent role for the choir. For a long period of time, Monteverdi's operas were merely regarded as a historical or musical interest. Since the 1960s, The Coronation of Poppea has re-entered the repertoire of major opera companies worldwide.
Monteverdi died, aged 76, in Venice on 29 November 1643 and was buried at the church of the Frari
  1. Monteverdi: "Tu se' morta" from Orfeo. (pp. 707-708) selection of this at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ll_u870PG8
Monteverdi was the great pioneer of what we call "opera" today. The song title (Tu se' morta) means "You are dead". This selection is a recitativo from the opera called Orfeo, written in 1607. Seep. 708 for the meaning of this term and a description of this selection. The main character, Orpheus or Orfeo, has just learned of the death of his beloved Eurydice. The story comes out of ancient Greek myth and drama. Read p. 708 for more details on the story and this music.
For the whole opera from a great production in Barcelona, Spain, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ma4OelX45I .
  1. Vivaldi: Spring, I from The Four Seasons (p. 710) selection of this at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFHPRi0ZeXE
This selection is from the first concerto (see p. 710 for a definition of this) in a set of four concertos related to the theme of the four seasons. Vivaldi composed this in 1723. He also wrote a brief poetic sonnet at the start of this first concerto; read it on p. 710. That same page has a great description of this work. On pp. 709-710, read about the orphanage for young women that trained and developed very talented female musicians in Venice, who were probably the normal performers of this sort of music.
The following musical compositions are mentioned in the Week 1 readings, especially pp. 734-8 (in chap. 22) .
  1. Bach: Cantata BWV 78 - Jesu, der meine Seele ("Jesus, It is by you that my soul....")
  1. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto 2, 3rd movement 3:26
  1. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Part II (p. 738 in chap. 22)
Fugue in D minor (composed ca. 1740)k, 3:13
(p. 738); Clavier originally simply meant any instrument with claves or keys. In the early 1700s, this could include the harpischord, the clavichord, or the instrument that would eventually evolve into the modern piano. J. S. Bach (1685-1750) lived in a period when he made much use of the clavichord and eventually early forms of the piano. The piano was invented by Cristofori in the early 1700s; it was developed as a major advance on the clavichord. Pieces like the "Well-Tempered Clavier" were probably played mostly on the clavichord by Bach, though he clearly intended it as music for a variety of instruments. Bach's work here is baroque music at its best. Read p. 738 carefully and give this a listen.
  1. Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D minor
Italian Baroque video
Explore Activity
Monteverdi and Vivaldi
Chapter 21 (pp. 707-710), Baroque music and composers; review the Week 1 “Music Folder”
Monteverdi’s Orfeo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ll_u870PG8 (lyrics with translation: http://introtomusicdeanza.wordpress.com/class-resources/examples-baroque/)
Vivaldi’s "Spring" from Vivaldi: A Man For All Seasons at http://www.npr.org/2011/07/18/104868631/vivaldi-a-man-for-all-seasons and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFHPRi0ZeXE (background and lyric translation at http://www.baroquemusic.org/vivaldiseasons.html)
Baroque Visual Arts
Chapter 21 (pp. 689-691; 701-703) and Chapter 22 (pp. 715-720; 726-735); Baroque style and its characteristics; Baroque in the north
Baroque samples at https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/beginners-guide-baroque1/a/baroque-art-in-europe-an-introduction; (also see http://www.artinthepicture.com/styles/Baroque/ and click on the names of the artists to see their works)
Examples of Baroque paintings from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam at https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection/styles/baroque (click on images; go full-screen; click “i” for info on the artist and date and painting)

Week 1 Discussion

"Baroque Style" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Listen to one (1) composition that demonstrates the qualities of the Baroque musical style. It may be from the Websites below or from this week’s Music Folder. Identify your choice, and describe it by relating key terms from the textbook to your selection. Explain what you like or admire about the work. Compare it to a modern soundtrack or song that evokes a similar mood.
  • Select two (2) Baroque style paintings from the Websites below that no other student has selected. Identify each as to artist, date, and title or description. From the summaries of the Baroque style’s features in our class text, identify specific key aspects of each painting that fit the Baroque style. Explain why you selected each and what you like or dislike about it. Compare this style to a modern film, type of film, or to a modern situation.  
Monteverdi and Vivaldi
 Baroque Visual Arts
  • Chapter 21 (pp. 689-691; 701-703) and Chapter 22 (pp. 715-720; 726-735); Baroque style and its characteristics; Baroque in the north
  • Baroque samples at https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/beginners-guide-baroque1/a/baroque-art-in-europe-an-introduction; (also seehttp://www.artinthepicture.com/styles/Baroque/ and click on the names of the artists to see their works)
  • Examples of Baroque paintings from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam at https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/explore-the-collection/styles/baroque (click on images; go full-screen; click “i” for info on the artist and date and painting)
    Lord of the Flies (2/11) Movie CLIP - Whoever Holds the Conch Gets to Speak (1990) HD, 2:26
    Lord of the Flies movie clips: http://j.mp/1IjNfIC BUY THE MOVIE: http://j.mp/1cb9ti0 Don't miss the HOTTEST NEW TRAILERS: http://bit.ly/1u2y6pr CLIP DESCRIPTION: Ralph (Balthazar Getty) leads the boys in a discussion about how they should set up camp. FILM DESCRIPTION: Harry Hook directed this second screen adaptation of William Golding's cult novel about a group of British schoolchildren who revert to savagery when marooned on a deserted island. The new adaptation replaces British school children with a group of American military cadets and instead of a shipwreck, their plane crashes into the sea. The children swim ashore onto an island and try to fend for themselves, with the only surviving adult wracked with fever and crazed with pain. As the children get the feel of the island, the group separates into two different camps: Ralph (Balthazar Getty) and his followers prefer to act civilized and want to expand their efforts toward finding a way off the island; on the other hand, Jack (Chris Furrh) and his band revert to painting their faces, carrying spears and exploiting the island for survival. When the chances for rescue become less and less likely, the two factions go to war with each other, with tragic results. CREDITS: TM & © MGM (1990) Cast: Vincent Amabile, Chuck Bell, Angus Burgin, James Badge Dale, Gordon Elder, Everado Elizondo, Chris Furrh, Balthazar Getty, Michael Greene, James Hamm, Brian Jacobs, Braden MacDonald, Brian Matthews, Judson McCune, Charlie Newmark, Danuel Pipoly, Zane Rockenbaugh, Gary Rule, Robert Shea, Shawn Skie, Andrew Taft, Edward Taft, David Weinstein, Terry Wells, Martin Zentz Director: Harry Hook Producers: Lewis M. Allen, Jeffrey Bydalek, Ross Milloy, Lewis Newman, Walker Stuart, Peter Newman, David V. Lester Screenwriters: William Golding, Sara Schiff