Sunday, October 10, 2010

Honors World History II: 11 October 2010

Current Events:

HW Avatar is available below (per our usual procedure HW is also posted at the bottom of the daily blog post as well as being posted on GradeConnect):

The "Pop" Quiz will be returned and grades posted ASAP (once the Make-Ups are done); Quiz 1 can be reviewed. You can also compare your performance with your colleagues at the Preliminary Quiz Assessment Page.


If you did not put your name on the Quiz it will not be returned.

For review (1st, 8th Periods):

Birth of the American Republic


For review (5th Period):

Enlightenment Ideas Spread


Chapter 10 Section 4 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution

In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to control Brazil, while Spain established an empire in the Western Hemisphere that included parts of North America and most of Latin America. Portugal and Spain held onto their Latin American colonies for over 300 years. During that time, they profited richly by exporting Latin American gold, silver, and other natural resources and farm products. Spanish and Portuguese officials and Christian missionaries played important roles in Latin American societies. In North America, British control over its colonies began to unravel over issues of taxation. Multiple crises led the Americans to declare their independence in 1776 and to fight Britain until its defeat in 1783. The Articles of Confederation that formed the United States were soon replaced with a Constitution, which created a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights added important freedoms derived from the natural rights expressed by the philosophes.

Colonial Empires in Latin America

British and British North America

The American Revolution

Paine’s Common Sense

The War Begins

Declaration of Independence

stands as one of the most important documents in all of history. It still serves as inspiration for people around the world. Where did some of the ideas of the Declaration originate?

John Adams' speech before the Continental Congress on Freedom and the reading of The Declaration Of Independence, 7:00

Primary Source

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”

—Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776

The Declaration included another of Locke’s ideas: people had the right “to alter or to abolish” unjust governments—a right to revolt. The principle of popular sovereignty, which states that all government power comes from the people, is also an important point in the Declaration. Jefferson carefully detailed the colonists’ grievances against Britain. Because the king had trampled colonists’ natural rights, he argued, the colonists had the right to rebel and set up a new government that would protect them. Aware of the risks involved, on July 4, 1776, American leaders adopted the Declaration, pledging “our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor” to creating and protecting the new United States of America.

At first, the American cause looked bleak. The British had a large number of trained soldiers, a huge fleet, and greater resources. About one third of the American colonists were Loyalists, or those who supported Britain. Many others refused to fight for either side. The Americans lacked military resources, had little money to pay soldiers, and did not have a strategic plan.

Still, colonists had some advantages. One was the geography of the diverse continent. Since colonists were fighting on their own soil, they were familiar with its thick woods and inadequate roads. Other advantages were their strong leader, George Washington, and their fierce determination to fight for their ideals of liberty.

To counteract these advantages, the British worked to create alliances within the colonies. A number of Native American groups sided with the British, while others saw potential advantages in supporting the colonists’ cause. Additionally, the British offered freedom to any enslaved people who were willing to fight the colonists.

Foreign Support and British Defeat

The first turning point in the war came in 1777, when the Americans triumphed over the British at the Battle of Saratoga. This victory persuaded France to join the Americans against its old rival, Britain. The alliance brought the Americans desperately needed supplies, trained soldiers, and French warships. Spurred by the French example, the Netherlands and Spain added their support.

Hard times continued, however. In the brutal winter of 1777–1778, Continental troops at Valley Forge suffered from cold, hunger, and disease. Throughout this crisis and others, Washington was patient, courageous, and determined. He held the ragged army together.

In 1781, the French fleet blockaded the Chesapeake Bay, which enabled Washington to force the surrender of a British army at Yorktown, Virginia. With that defeat, the British war effort crumbled. Two years later, American, British, and French diplomats signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the war. In that treaty, Britain recognized the independence of the United States of America. The Americans’ victory can be attributed to their resilient dedication to attaining independence.

Reading Check


Why did foreign countries support the American cause?

The Birth of a New Nation

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) was a philosopher, scientist, publisher, legislator, and diplomat. Sent by Congress to France in 1776 to seek financial and military support for the war, he soon became popular in France because of his intellect and wit. Those who admired America’s goal of attaining freedom also admired Franklin. When Franklin returned to America after nine years, he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention as the eldest of the delegates.

"A Republic Madame, if you can keep it," 10:36


George Washington

When George Washington (1732–1799) was chosen to lead the American army, the British thought he would be a failure. Washington indeed faced many challenges, including an army that did not have weapons, uniforms, or bedding. He struggled to incorporate order and discipline and to instill pride and loyalty in his soldiers. Washington persevered to American victory. His success as a leader continued when he became the nation’s first President. How did Washington hold the army together through difficult times?

James Madison

James Madison (1751–1836) arrived at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in May 1787 with his thick notebooks on history and government. Madison chose a seat in front of the president’s chair and kept detailed notes of the debates. Madison was greatly respected and quickly became the Convention’s floor leader. His notebooks remained unpublished for more than 50 years, but they are now our main source of information about the birth of the Constitution. What did the Framers of the Constitution have in common?

The Constitution

The Articles of Confederation was the nation’s first constitution. It proved to be too weak to rule the new United States effectively. To address this problem, the nation’s leaders gathered once more in Philadelphia. Among them were George Washington, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. During the hot summer of 1787, they met in secret to redraft the articles of the new constitution. The result was a document that established a government run by the people, for the people.

The Bill of Rights

The Framers of the Constitution had studied history and absorbed the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. They saw government in terms of a social contract into which “We the People of the United States” entered. They provided not only for an elective legislature but also for an elected president rather than a hereditary monarch. For the first President, voters would choose George Washington.

The Constitution created a federal republic, with power divided between the federal, or national, government and the states. A central feature of the new federal government was the separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, an idea borrowed directly from Montesquieu. Within that structure, each branch of government was provided with checks and balances on the other branches.

The Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, was important to the passage of the Constitution. It recognized the idea that people had basic rights that the government must protect, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press. The Bill of Rights, like the Constitution, put the philosophes’ Enlightenment ideas into practice. In 1789, the Constitution became the supreme law of the land, which means it became the nation’s fundamental law. This remarkable document has endured for more than 200 years.

The Constitution of the United States created the most freest government of its day, and most likely for all time. From the start, the new republic was a symbol of freedom to European countries and reformers in Latin America. Its constitution would be copied or adapted by many lands throughout the world. The Enlightenment ideals that had inspired American colonists brought changes in Europe too. In 1789, a revolution in France toppled the monarchy in the name of liberty and equality. Before long, other Europeans would take up the cry for freedom as well.

Reading Check


What was the main difference between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution?

Eyewitness to History

The Mission

Pearson Success Net has an interesting note on a "Witness History" feature.

Cf. References and exercises on Sec. 4.

As an exercise, we can play the part of an American spy as a Patriot working to free America from England's rule.

We can view an online exhibit about the Revolutionary War.

Also, we can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz.

We might also explore an interactive portrait of George Washington.

I had asked you to consider other references and exercises on Sec. 4.

Of the three I had you to take a look at, which was the class favorite?

1. We can view an online exhibit about the Revolutionary War.

2. Also, we can view newspaper accounts of the American Revolution with a time line and quiz.

3. We might also explore an interactive portrait of George Washington.

And now we can consider the situation of the 13 colonies.

For access at home:


Web Code: nap-1731

Map Skills

1. Locate
a) Philadelphia
b) Massachusetts
c) Boston

2) Which colony had two pieces of land?

3) What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map?

Colonists Express Discontent (audio)

Primary Source


What we did on our summer vacation, Summer 2009

USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world. It was first launched in 1797. Constitution is one of six ships ordered for construction by George Washington to protect America's growing maritime interests. The ships greatest glory came during the war of 1812 when she defeated four British frigates which earned her the nickname "Old Ironsides," because cannon balls glanced off her thick hull. The ship was restored in 1927 with contributions from the nation's school children.

The Charlestown Navy Yard was built on what was once Mouton's or Morton's Point, the landing place of the British army prior to the Battle of Bunker Hill. It was one of the first shipyards built in the United States. During its 174 year history, hundreds of ships were built, repaired and modernized, including the World War II destroyer USS Cassin Young. Today, thirty acres of the Navy Yard are preserved by the National Park Service as part of Boston National Historical Park.


Do research on the U.S.S. Constitution. What can you find out about this remarkable ship, nicknamed "Old Ironsides?"

Map Skills

Be sure to detail where the cities are located, e.g., state whether they are in the North, South, Mid-Atlantic, etc.

1. Locate
a) Philadelphia
b) Massachusetts
c) Boston

2) Which colony had two pieces of land?

3) What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map?



Abuses inherited as a result of a controlling aristocracy may be seen clearly in this work.

Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act by E.P. Thompson

Events That Changed the World

For: Interactive map, audio, and more
Web Code: nap-1733

For review:

The Enlightenment and the American Revolution (1700–1800)


The Enlightenment and the American Revolution (1700–1800)
Philosophy in the Age of Reason

Results of the quiz.
1. Who were the physiocrats?

* CORRECT: French thinkers who focused on economics
EXPLANATION: The physiocrats claimed that their ideas about economic reforms were based on the natural laws of economics.

2. According to laissez-faire economist Adam Smith, a government should

* CORRECT: let free market forces drive the economy.
EXPLANATION: In The Wealth of Nations, Smith tried to show how manufacturing, trade, wages, profits, and economic growth were all linked to the market forces of supply and demand.

3. Physiocrats rejected mercantilism in favor of a policy of

* CORRECT: laissez faire.
EXPLANATION: Physiocrats urged a policy of laissez faire, allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

4. How did Jean-Jacques Rousseau's beliefs differ from many Enlightenment thinkers?

* CORRECT: Rousseau believed the good of the community as a whole was most important.
EXPLANATION: Rousseau believed in the "general will" or best conscience of the people, and that community should be placed above individual interests.

5. Which phrase best describes the concept of natural law?

* CORRECT: rules discoverable by reason
EXPLANATION: Natural law, or rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism.

6. Which term describes the love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge?

* CORRECT: philosophy
EXPLANATION: Philosophy, is the love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge.

7. What event revolutionized thinking and led to the Enlightenment?

* CORRECT: the Scientific Revolution
EXPLANATION: The scientific discoveries of the 1500s and 1600s led Europeans to believe in the power of reason. Science was transforming how people looked at the world.

8. Who is the author of Leviathan?

* CORRECT: Thomas Hobbes
EXPLANATION: Thomas Hobbes outlined his ideas in a work titled Leviathan.

9. "My trade is to say what I think." Who said this?

* CORRECT: Voltaire
EXPLANATION: Voltaire, probably the most famous of the philosophes, used biting wit to expose the abuses of his day.

10. Who described the era of the 1700s as "enlightened"?

* CORRECT: Immanuel Kant
EXPLANATION: The German philosopher Immanuel Kant, author of Critique of Pure Reason, was one of the first to describe his times as "enlightened."

Clip of Tea Parties, 3:18

HW: email (or hard copy) me at

1. Monday HW

p. 324, Reviewing Key Facts, #17-20

Email only if you answer (i.e., you voluntarily choose to participate):

Last week what I liked least about the class was . . .
Last week what I enjoyed most about the class was . . .

Get a Voki now!

Honors Business Economics Chapter 2 Section 1, 11 October 2010


Current Events:Dynamics Inc. has its main office in Pittsburgh (Corporate Headquarters): they also have offices in New York and the Silicon Valley.:

The People's Choice Award winner for $1 million Prize funding is Dynamics.

No direct competitors. No secondary competitors.
Product Description
Dynamics produces a paper-thin, flexible computer platform that can be utilized in a variety of applications such as next-generation payment cards. Dynamics has invented the world’s first fully card-programmable magnetic stripe that can be read at any existing magnetic stripe reader. The card can change any information on this programmable magnetic stripe at any time. The technology requires no change to the acceptance infrastructure or merchant re-education.
Market Opportunity
The U.S. market has approximately 500 million credit cards, 450 million debit cards,and over 1 billion gift cards. Payment cards are issued in almost every country in the world. Additional markets include identification cards, security cards and medical cards.

What do you think are the chances Card 2.0 will be a commercial success?

Debates in Economics

Should the Minimum Wage Be Increased?

Chapter 2 Economic Systems and Decision Making

Section 1 Economic Systems

Chapter Overviews

Section 1: Economic Systems

Economic systems help societies provide for the wants and needs of their people. Three major economic systems have evolved over the years: traditional, command, and market economies. In the traditional economy, the WHAT, HOW, and FOR WHOM questions are answered by tradition, customs, and even habits handed down from generation to generation. In a command economy, a central authority answers the three basic questions. In a market economy, decision making is decentralized with consumers and entrepreneurs playing a central role. Most economies in the world today feature some mix of traditional, command, and market economies.

Pursuit! On the Trail of Economic Growth

Four hundred years of New England history tell us much about how economic growth occurs. pursuit! puts you hot on the trail of this phenomenon by helping you discover the key ingredients of growth. Travel our Timeline with one of our special guides on a fun hunt for the many things that enable us to have a rising living standard. There's a lot to learn from New England's bumpy but amazing growth path. So, pack your bag, pick a trail, and get in pursuit!

How to Play

Pick a "Trail." Each trail explores a different time period with 8 questions based on New England history. Pick a "Guide." Your guide keeps you energized and on track! Answer the questions by searching the Timeline. Click the left/right arrows and century tabs to navigate. To find some answers, you'll have to click on the events for more information. Bonus: ONLY if you get at least 7 of the 8 questions right, your guide performs a "special trick" to celebrate!

1. We will divide the class into three teams for each of the three trails. There are three historical periods surveying four hundred years of historic economic growth. Each group may pick one historical period.

2. There are six guides. You may "meet" as many guides as you wish before making your selection.


Systems Explained for (Farmers) Dummies Using Two Cows, 3:57

In-class assignment: pick your favorite "cow" and explain its characteristics, provide examples, and describe its advantages and disadvantages.

The fundamental principles of the different types of economic, political, and social systems explained via a simple example using two cows. You heard right, COWS. If you know what a cow is and are aware of the fact that they produce more than just steaks for your dinner, or products such as milk, you are good to go and should have no problem understanding the concepts: think a traditional, a command, and or market economies.

FEUDALISM: You have two cows. Your lord takes some of the milk.

PURE SOCIALISM: You have two cows. The government takes them and puts them in a barn with everyone else's cows. You have to take care of all of the cows. The government gives you as much milk as you need.

BUREAUCRATIC SOCIALISM: You have two cows. The government takes them and put them in a barn with everyone else's cows. They are cared for by ex-chicken farmers. You have to take care of the chickens the government took from the chicken farmers. The government gives you as much milk and eggs as the regulations say you need.

FASCISM: You have two cows. The government takes both, hires you to take care of them and sells you the milk.

PURE COMMUNISM: You have two cows. Your neighbors help you take care of them, and you all share the milk.

RUSSIAN COMMUNISM: You have two cows. You have to take care of them, but the government takes all the milk.

CAMBODIAN COMMUNISM: You have two cows. The government takes both of them and shoots you.

DICTATORSHIP: You have two cows. The government takes both and drafts you.

PURE DEMOCRACY: You have two cows. Your neighbors decide who gets the milk.

REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: You have two cows. Your neighbors pick someone to tell you who gets the milk.

LIBERTARIAN/ANARCHO-CAPITALISM: You have two cows. You sell one and buy a bull.

BUREAUCRACY: You have two cows. At first the government regulates what you can feed them and when you can milk them. Then it pays you not to milk them. Then it takes both, shoots one, milks the other and pours the milk down the drain. Then it requires you to fill out forms accounting for the missing cows.

PURE ANARCHY: You have two cows. Either you sell the milk at a fair price or your neighbors try to take the cows and kill you.

SURREALISM: You have two giraffes. The government requires you to take harmonica lessons.

Why It Matters, p. 32

The BIG Idea

Guide to Reading, p. 33

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary

economic system

traditional economy

command economy

market economy



mixed economy

The Spectrum of Mixed Economies




Academic Vocabulary




Reading Strategy

Comparing and Contrasting

Companies in the News

McDonald's and Hindu Culture

Traditional Economies, p. 34





Reading Check


What are the advantages and disadvantages of a traditional economy?

The Global Economy and You, p. 35

Command Economies


Examples, p. 36


Disadvantages, p. 37

Reading Check


What are the major problems with a command economy?

Market Economies


Examples, p. 38


Disadvantages, p. 39

Reading Check


What are the main characteristics of a market economy?

Mixed Economies


Examples, p. 40


Disadvantages, p. 41

Reading Check


How can you explain the range of mixed economies in the world?

Section 1 Review

Case Study

The Home Depot

In-class assignment: p. 42 How did the Home Depot market its stores toward women?

Women's Conference: Home Depot, 7:16


Section 2 Evaluating Economics Performance

Guide to Reading, p. 43

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary

minimum wage

Social Security


fixed income

Academic Vocabulary



Reading Strategy

Companies in the News

Economic and Social Goals, p. 44

Economic Freedom

Economic Efficiency

Economic Equity

Economic Security, p. 45

Full Employment

Price Stability

Did You Know?

Economic Growth

Future Goals

Reading Check


What major themes can you identify in the list of seven economic goals?

Resolving Trade-Offs Among Goals, p. 46

Reading Check


Why do trade-offs among goals exist?

Section 3 American Free Enterprise


Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom' in Five Minutes, 5:01

In the 1940s, Look Magazine made a comic strip of Hayek's classic book 'The Road to Serfdom'. Hayek went on to win the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1974.
Hayek's central thesis is that all forms of collectivism lead logically and inevitably to tyranny, and he used the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany as examples of countries which had gone down "the road to serfdom" and reached tyranny. Hayek argued that within a centrally planned economic system, the distribution and allocation of all resources and goods would devolve onto a small group, which would be incapable of processing all the information pertinent to the appropriate distribution of the resources and goods at the central planners' disposal. Disagreement about the practical implementation of any economic plan combined with the inadequacy of the central planners' resource management would invariably necessitate coercion in order for anything to be achieved. Hayek further argued that the failure of central planning would be perceived by the public as an absence of sufficient power by the state to implement an otherwise good idea. Such a perception would lead the public to vote more power to the state, and would assist the rise to power of a "strong man" perceived to be capable of "getting the job done". After these developments Hayek argued that a country would be ineluctably driven into outright totalitarianism. For Hayek "the road to serfdom" inadvertently set upon by central planning, with its dismantling of the free market system, ends in the destruction of all individual economic and personal freedom.

Hayek argued that countries such as the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany had already gone down the "road to serfdom", and that various democratic nations are being led down the same road. In The Road to Serfdom he wrote: "The principle that the end justifies the means is in individualist ethics regarded as the denial of all morals. In collectivist ethics it becomes necessarily the supreme rule."


Activity: Interdisciplinary Connection

Read 19th-century short stories by Russian authors such as Anton Chekhov or Nikolay Gogal. As you read, list details that describe effects of the Soviet Union's command economy--for example, details about jobs, economic and social status, property rights, individual freedoms, and the government. Write a report summarizing the economic effects that you fin din the story.



BULGARIA - From a Command to a Market Economy, 4:43


1.1 Quiz


IBM Corp. has launched CityOne, an online interactive simulation game designed to enable local government officials find innovative solutions for energy, water, traffic, banking and retail problems in their communities.

Players can explore more than 100 simulated crisis scenarios in CityOne. The solutions must balance various financial, environmental, social and budgetary goals. The solutions include technologies such as business process management, service reuse, cloud computing and collaborative technologies.


HW email to or hand in hard copy.

1. Which economic system--traditional, command, or market--do you think is best able to provide for the wants and needs of individuals, and why?

2. What are the main characteristics of a market economy?

Honors World History II: HW for Next Week, Mon. - Fri.

Honors World History II: HW for Next Week, Mon. - Fri.

1. Monday HW
p. 324, Reviewing Key Facts, #17-20

Email only if you answer (i.e., you voluntarily choose to participate):

Last week what I liked least about the class was . . .
Last week what I enjoyed most about the class was . . .

1. Tuesday HW
p. 324, Critical Thinking, #22, p. 325, Writing About History, #23

1. Wednesday HW
p. 325, Analyzing Sources, #24-25, p. 329, Preview Questions, #1-2

1. Thursday HW
p. 330, Graph Skills, #1
p. 331, Reading Skills, Identifying, What groups were part of the Third Estate?
p. 331, Picturing History, Would this market have been quieter or busier twenty years before the Revolution? Why?

1. Friday HW
p. 332, History Through Art, What caused members to fear that the National Assembly would be dissolved through force?
p. 332, Reading Check, Examining, Why did the Third Estate object to each estate's having one vote in the Estates-General?