Sunday, September 25, 2005

Study Guide: Test #1, Chs. 12-13, US History

STUDY GUIDE: Test #1, Chs. 12-13, Fall 2005 US History, Dr. Smith


Terms & Names
1. Andrew Johnson was:
a) governor of Ohio; b) impeached President; c) a Southern Civil War hero; d) Vice-President under Grant.

2. Radical Republicans were composed of:
a) scalawags, scallops, and carpetbaggers; b) scalawags, African-Americans, cowboys, and the military; c) scalawags, carpetbaggers, and African-Americans; d) scalawags, Native Americans, and prairie women.

3. The Freedman's Bureau was a:
a) local initiative; b) state initiative; c) county initiative; d) federal initiative.

4. The Fifteenth Amendment that no one could be barred from voting because of:
a) European descent; b) former status; c) the Freedman's Bureau; d) immigration and position.

5. Hiram Revels was the:
a) first American hero; b) first American villian; c) first American runner; d) first African-American Senator.

6. Rutherford B. Hayes was the first:
a) African-American President; b) President whose election ended the period known as Reconstruction; c) Reconstructed “bonanaza farms,” and prairie settlement; d) settled disputes in 1866.

7. What factor played a significant role in the 1868 presidential election?
a) Rutherford B. Hayes' settlement in the dispute over Electoral College votes; b) the redemption of the South; c) newly enfranchised African-American voters; d) cowboys, scalawags, and so-called “exodusters.”

Section 2 Reconstructing Society
8. In what ways did emancipated slaves exercise their freedom?
a) in churches, schools, their families, the political process, and voting; b) in music,
art, and culture; c) as a part of the New South; d) in sports and in music.

Section 3 The Collapse of Reconstruction
9. What economic and political developments weakend the Republican party during Grant's second term?
a) Reconstruction and settling the praire; b) Economic Crisis 1873 and scandals during Grant's term; c) the Tenure of Office Act and redemption; d) the Ku Klux Klan and scalawags.

10. What significance did the victory by Rutherford B. Hayes in the 1876 presidential race have for Reconstruction?
a) this was the end of the Civil War; b) this was the end of the prairie wars; c) this was the end of the Indian wars; d) this was the end of Reconstruction.

11. In which years were there more immigrants than at any other period in American history?
a) 1776-1865; b) 1865-1877; c) 1876-1914; d) 1860-1865.
12. The government policy in regards to the cultures of Native Americans was:
a) resignation; b) redemption; c) revival; d) assimilation.
13. The causes and effects of the Battle of Wounded Knee are:
a) the end of the Civil War; b) the end of the Electoral College: c) the end of assimilation, resignation, and redemption; d) the end of the Native American wars.
Ch. 13 Section 2, The Growth of the Cattle Industry14. Which movie stars have largely formed our ideas and images of cowboys?
a) Harry Shearer and Clint Eastward; b) Lil' Kim, Clint Eastwood, Pink, and John Travolta; c) Clint Eastwood and John Wayne; c) ODB, Fifty Cent, and John Wayne; d) Abraham Lincoln and Linkin Park,
15. Who introduced horses and cattle into the Southwest?
a) Mexican vaqueros; b) native American vaqueros; c) military explorers; d) Spanish explorers.
16. Many aspects of cowboy culture--food, clothing, vocabulary-are borrowed from:
a) native American vaqueros; b) military explorers; c) Spanish explorers; d) Spanish ranchers in Mexico.
17. A cowboy's hat could be used for:
a) one thing only, as a hat; b) as a metaphor; c) as a bucket, a fan, to direct cattle, as a hat, and other creative uses; d) as an indication that a cowboy was a good guy or a bad guy or crook.
18. Cattle herds were rounded up:
a) in the spring; b) in the summer: c) in the fall; d) in the winter.
19. The invention of:
a) the steel plow transforms the open plains into fenced-in ranches and farms; b) barbed plows transform the open plains into fenced-in ranches and farms; c) barbed reapers transform the open plains into fenced-in ranches and farms; d) barbed wire transforms the open plains into fenced-in ranches and farms.
Ch. 13, Daily Life 1849-1900, Mining/Section 3, Settling On the Great Plains
20. The phrase "strike it rich" originated during:
a) the settlement of the American Great Plains; b) the American gold rush of 1849; c) the American land rush of 1849; d) the American Oklahoma rush of 1849.
21. What natural resources other than gold figure in modern American dreams of striking it rich?
a) oil, precious stones, such as diamonds; b) water, barbed wire, and the reaper; c) water, barbed wire, and the steel plow; d) oil, water, barbed wire, and the steel plow.
22. The word placer comes not from the English word place, but from the
a) native American word placer; b) immigrant word placer; c) Spanish word placer; d) "exoduster" word placer.
23. Placer deposits are created when gold-bearing rock is eroded and the particles are:
a) cleaned downstream; b) washed downstream; c) sluiced and rocked; d) rocked and rolled.
24. In the second half of the 19th century, the possibilities of finding gold draws many people to the American West. Which statement is true?
a) Many succeed in this peaceful pursuit of wealth; b) Few succeed in this dangerous pursuit of wealth; c) Few succeed in this peaceful pursuit of wealth; d) Many succeed in this dangerous pursuit of wealth.
25. How does a pan work in gold mining?
a) a pan is moshed and jumps in the pit; b) a pan is jumped and a claim is sloshed; c) a pan is spammed and phishing is the result; d) a pan is sloshed and the heavy diamonds are found in the bottom.
26. In very deep mines, the pressure within the rock built to such levels that the rock itself exploded, killing miners with flying debris. Miners were also notoriously careless with the copper blasting caps they used to set off dynamite. When children found the caps, their attempts to explore the inside could set off an explosion. In some mining camps, an average of:
a) five fingers lost two boys a week in such mishaps; b) one boy a week lost fingers in such mishaps; c) mishaps lost one a week in such buoyant mishaps; d) boys lost track of time in such mishaps.
Section 3, Settling On the Great Plains
27. Which of the following statements is true?
a) Transcontinental buffalo close up the West for settlement; b) Transcontinental natives open up the East for settlement; c) Transcontinental military close up the West for settlement; d) Transcontinental railroads open up the West for settlement.
28. Which of the following statements is true?
a) The government encourages settlement by offering free land; b) Native Americans encourage settlement by offering free buffalo; c) The government encourages teflon by offering free gold and silver bi-metal policies; d) "Exodusters" encourage settlement by offering free buffalo.
29. Which of the following statements is true?
On the Central Pacific line, over:
a) 90% of the union force, about 120,000, were Chinese; b) 90% of the native American fighting force, about 12,000, were Chinese; c) 90% of the labor force, about 12,000, were Chinese; d) 90% of the buffalo force, about 12,000, were Chinese
30. They labored under extremely difficult conditions—including avalanches and 40-foot snowdrifts—for as little as:
a) $350 a month; b) $50 a month; c) $35 a month; d) $53 a month.
White workers often received $40 to $60 a month—plus board and lodging.
31. Fueled by General Washburn’s enthusiasm for the natural wonders near the Yellowstone River, Congress created the country’s first national park there in:
a) 1972; b) 1873; c) 1875; d) 1872.
32. Four more national parks were created in the 1890s—Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant (now King’s Canyon) in California, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The Army controlled Yellowstone National Park from 1886 until:
a) 1961; b) 1916; c) 1876; d) 1896,
when the National Park service was established.
33. The settlers’ first task is to provide shelter for themselves on the treeless prairies. According to the textbook:
34. Which is true?
a) Pioneer natives do much of the work of feeding, clothing, and sustaining their families; b) Pioneer women do much of the work of feeding, clothing, and sustaining their families; c) Pioneer military do much of the work of feeding, clothing, and sustaining their families; d) Pioneer "exodusters" do much of the work of feeding, clothing, and sustaining their families
35. Who invented the steel plow?
a) Jethro Tull; b) Harry Caterpillar; c) John Deere; d) Joey Mazda.
Section 4, Farmers and the Populist Movement

36. How does a typical political cartoon during the era of populism illustrate the plight of the farmers? (e.g., p. 402) It depicts how they are at the mercy of the:
a) politicians and natives; b) immigrants and the army; c) railroads and businessmen; d) aristocracy and nobles.

37. How would farmers benefit from inflation?
a) they would receive more land; b) they would get more money for their
crops; c) they would get more money from the government; d) they would
get more equipment for “bonanza” farms.

38. Why did farmers think that an increased money supply would help solve
their economic problems?
a) It would increase prices for their products; b) It would increase
their ability to grow crops; c) It would increase land they got from the government; d) It would increase land received at the hands of Native Americans.

39. Fill in.
In a discussion of the problems farmers faced, fill in a flow chart describing the development of those problems. Sample phrases to chart are enclosed:
What phrase is missing first in this chart (see chart below)?
a) prices rise; b) immigrants arrive; c) emigrants leave; d) crops prices fall.

>Farmers mortage farms to buy more land.>Banks take over mortgages and farmers lose land.>

40. Farmers go into debt because of:
a) deflation and high shipping costs and demand monetary reform; b) inflation, high prices, and organize into granges; c) “cheap money,” the gold standard, and unions; d) taxes, government interference, and fights on the Great Plains.

41. Fill in the blank for The _______ Farmers’ National Alliance:
1. African-American; b) NAACP; c) Black; d) Colored.

42. Why were landowners and suppliers more hostile to black farmers than to
white farmers?
1. because of racial prejudice; b) because of where they lived; c) because of the “exodusters;” d) because of the cowboys.

43. The Populist Party provides a political power base for the farmers'
alliances. Which of the following is true?

1. The Populist Party proposes a union of the Party, Natives, the Army, and African-Americans; b) The Populist Party proposes financial and governmental reforms; c) The Populist Party is led by Rutherford B. Hayes; d) The Populist Party is led by Samuel Tilden.

44. Farmers suffer increasingly as a general business collapse deepens
1. an economic deflation; b) an economic bonanza farm; c) an economic recreation; d) an economic depression.

45. The metal backing paper currency becomes a major issue in the:
1. 1892 presidential campaign; b) Johnson-Grant presidential campaign; c) 1896 presidential campaign; d) 1900 presidential campaign.

46. The Populist Party and the Democrats both back:
1. William Jennings Bryan, who favors a bi-metal policy; b) Tilden who favors a bi-metal policy; c) McKinley who favors a bi-metal policy; d) Hayes who favors a heavy metal policy.

47. Which of the following is a true statement?
1. Johnson is defeated and the Populist Party collapses; b) Custer is defeated and the Populist Party collapses; c) Jefferson Davis is defeated and the Populist Party collapses; d) Bryan is defeated and the Populist Party collapses.

48. Fill in the phrase for the following diagram (see below) during the boom and bust cycle.
1. Wages fall; b) Crops fall; c) Debts fall; d) Wages rise>

prices rise>Demand falls>Profits decrease>Business activity
falls>Incomes fall>Prices fall>Demand increases>Companies begin to
recover>Production increases>back to . . . .?

49. The U.S. monetary system was established by the Coinage Act of:
1. 1992; b) 1792; c) 1892; d) 1893.

50. The government began issuing paper currency during the:
1. Revolutionary War; b) War of 1812; c) Civil War; d) Reconstruction War; but, it printed so much that the money became almost worthless.

51. It was not until the: a) 1960s; b) Civil War; c) 1860s; d) 1870s; that the government again issued paper money, "greenbacks," that could not be exchanged for gold or silver.
52. The Gold Bug and Silverite positions may lead respectively to:
a) decreation and transubstantiation; b) deflation and inflation; c) recreation and stimulation; d) “greenbacks,” and “easy money.

53. A typical cartoon of the period might use the central symbols of:
a) the flag, stars, and bars; b) a June bug and a Lady bug; c) the crown of thorns and the cross of gold; d) cross stitch of thorns, and the circle of the cross.

54. The Populist Party collapsed with a) McKinley's election; B) Hayes’ election; c) Grant’s election; d) Lincoln’s assassination.