Monday, May 14, 2018

PHI 210 Week 7 Spring 2018

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9 pm; I will take roll early before the Discussion at 9:30 before you are dismissed at 10:00 pm.

To meet the overall objective we will cover the following topics:

  • Defining a problem
  • Identifying causes of the problem
  • Identifying solutions for the problem

To meet the overall objective we will cover the following topics:
  • Evaluation of possible solutions to a problem
  • Methods for generating the steps necessary for possibly solving a problem

What kind of Global Problem Solver Are You?

Chapter 7 Problem Solving

7.1 Defining the Problem

Step One: Define the Problem

Step Two: Analyze the Problem

Step Three: Generate Options

Step Four: Evaluate the Options

Step Five: Make Your Decision

Step Six: Implement and Reflect

Anwar's Dilemma: A Problem Solving Case Study

7.1 Practice: Define and Analyze the Problem

Atul Gawande

7.2 Generating Solutions

Step Three: Generate Options

7.2 Practice: Generate Solutions

A Systemic and Innovative Approach

Systematic Inventive Thinking (SIT)

Maccabi Health Service, Israel HMO

7.3 Make Your Choice

Step Four: Evaluate the Options

Step Five: Make a Decision

Five Ways to Make Bad Decisions

Define a problem:

Defining a Problem
Crash Course Kids #18.1">Defining a Problem: Crash Course Kids #18.1, 3:39

What is the key to defining an engineering (or any) problem?

Defining a problem in a solvable way is really the key.

Course Promo: Identifying Performance Problems and Causes, 2:03

Regardless of how effective you are in establishing practices that prevent performance problems, you will at some point run into performance problems. Performance problems will happen. The best response is to immediately take corrective action before the problem escalates. Learn about the different types of performance problems and their causes. Then you will discover the difference between conduct problems and performance problems. Because they are different in nature, the same techniques are not applied to handle conduct problems as those that are used to resolve performance problems. You’ll also explore the role that personality plays in performance problems. You’ll be able to tackle performance problems head on using the knowledge accumulated here. This is the second course in the Problem Performance Management series.

What are the two primary causes of poor performance?

What is an early sign?

What is a physical cause?

What can a manager do to prevent burnout?

What is a final cause of poor performance?

Poor morale and negativity are two causes of poor performance.

Conflict is an early sign.

Burnout is a physical cause.

Time away from the job can help to prevent burnout.

Lack of knowledge or skills to perform a job is a final cause of poor performance.

Turning Problems into Solutions, 2:38

'Turning Problems into Solutions' is a commissioned animation that looks at the Solutions Focus approach to coaching and mentoring

Why won't emotions lead to career solutions?

How do you become an expert in what is right?

What would Alex have to do differently to solve his problem of confidence?

What is Alex's new focus called?

Focusing on problems turns you into an expert about what is wrong.

You have to focus on solutions.

Alex has to be honest with his team about appraisals.

Alex needs to say what he really thinks.

Alex can speak publicly with confidence.

The new focus is the solutions focus.

Management Case Study – Supply Chain Distribution Problem: Rail or Truck?

This case study scenario is designed to help all students or chemical engineers build business problem-solving skills through engineering scenarios. While created to mimic real-life situations, this scenario is hypothetical and for educational purposes only.



The client, one of the world's largest car manufacturers in the world, is producing major cars in Wichita, Kansas (smack dab in the center of the country). The client has the choice of transporting the cars either by train or by truck.

Additional Information

Cars are currently shipped by train to central distribution points.

From there, they are shipped by truck to the various car dealerships.

The car manufacturer owns all the distribution points.

Trains require a minimum load of 100 cars.

The cost of shipping one car by train to a distribution point is $100.

Trucks have no minimum load requirement and can transport up to 10 cars at one time.

The cost of transporting one truckload of cars to any distribution point is $1500.

Trucking costs from the distribution point to the dealerships are $200 per load of up to ten cars.

The average truckload shipped to a dealer is 6 cars.?

Total demand for the cars is 1 million vehicles per year.

50% of car buyers do not take delivery from dealer stock, but wait for factory delivery.

Which Mode of Transportation will you suggest?

How do you plan on the rising fuel costs?

If oil companies are starting to use the already congested rail lines, will going 100% into rail travel be dependable?

As a class we can allow some time for discussing the answers.

Please comment with your answers. 

Lecture 1

Lecture 2

Problem solving:

Einstein does problem solving, :43

Albert Einstein's Secret and How He Solved The World's Hardest Problems, 2:13

Here is a quick video about the way Albert Einstein thought about problems. His key was to turn hard and complex problems into imagery and visions. Ones that he could easily see in his mind. It was a brilliant way to approach hard problems because it naturally reduced and simplified them into problems that read like a children's book. Read more here

Can you solve "Einstein’s Riddle"? - Dan Van der Vieren, 5:12

View full lesson: View all the clues here: Before he turned physics upside down, a young Albert Einstein supposedly showed off his genius by devising a complex riddle involving a stolen exotic fish and a long list of suspects. Can you resist tackling a brain teaser written by one of the smartest people in history? Dan Van der Vieren shows how. Lesson by Dan Van der Vieren, animation by Artrake Studio.

On a piece of scratch paper organize your thoughts in a grid. 

Draw five columns and five rows. Number the columns at the top, house 1 - 5. 

The five rows should be labeled wall color, nationality, cigar, beverage, and animal (1:28). 

The police tell us what they know:

1. The owner of each house is of a different nationality. Each owner drinks a different beverage. Each smokes a different type of cigar. 

2. The interior walls of each house is painted a different color. 

3. Each house contains a different animal one of which is the fish. 

Examine the clues and solve the riddle, 1:36. 

Einstein's riddle

The situation

  1. There are 5 houses in five different colors.
  2. In each house lives a person with a different nationality.
  3. These five owners drink a certain type of beverage, smoke a certain brand of cigar and keep a certain pet.
  4. No owners have the same pet, smoke the same brand of cigar or drink the same beverage.
The question is: Who owns the fish?


  • the Brit lives in the red house
  • the Swede keeps dogs as pets
  • the Dane drinks tea
  • the green house is on the left of the white house
  • the green house's owner drinks coffee
  • the person who smokes Pall Mall rears birds
  • the owner of the yellow house smokes Dunhill
  • the man living in the center house drinks milk
  • the Norwegian lives in the first house
  • the man who smokes blends lives next to the one who keeps cats
  • the man who keeps horses lives next to the man who smokes Dunhill
  • the owner who smokes Blue Master drinks beer
  • the German smokes Prince
  • the Norwegian lives next to the blue house
  • the man who smokes blend has a neighbor who drinks water

How to solve Einstein's Riddle, 5:07

On a piece of scratch paper draw five columns and five rows. Number the columns 1 - 5. The five rows should be labeled colour (color), nationality, smoke, drink, and pet.


Solution: house #4 in the green-walled house who is German, smokes Prince, and drinks coffee, must be the culprit with the fish.

Can you solve the bridge riddle? - Alex Gendler, 3:49

View full lesson: Taking that internship in a remote mountain lab might not have been the best idea. Pulling that lever with the skull symbol just to see what it did probably wasn’t so smart either. But now is not the time for regrets because you need to get away from these mutant Can you use math to get you and your friends over the bridge before the zombies arrive? Alex Gendler shows how. Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Artrake Studio.

Pause at 2 minutes for a potential solution.

Can you solve the prisoner hat riddle? - Alex Gendler, 4:34

View full lesson: You and nine other individuals have been captured by super-intelligent alien overlords. The aliens think humans look quite tasty, but their civilization forbids eating highly logical and cooperative beings. Unfortunately, they’re not sure whether you qualify, so they decide to give you all a test. Can you solve this hat riddle? Alex Gendler shows how. Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Artrake Studio.

Pause at 1:37 to try solving.

Can you solve the boat puzzle? 4:51

Pause at :26

You throw a rock in water from your boat. Can you figure out what happens to the water level?

Can you solve the temple riddle? - Dennis E. Shasha, 4:12

View full lesson: Your expedition finally stands at the heart of the ancient temple. But as you study the inscriptions in the darkness, two wisps of green smoke burst forth. The walls begin to shake. The giant sandglass begins flowing with less than an hour before it empties, and a rumbling tells you that you don’t want to be around when that happens. Can you use math to escape the temple? Dennis E. Shasha shows how. Lesson by Dennis E. Shasha, animation by Artrake Studio.

Pause at 2:06

The famously difficult green-eyed logic puzzle - Alex Gendler, 4:41

Pause at 1:16.

View full lesson: One hundred green-eyed logicians have been imprisoned on an island by a mad dictator. Their only hope for freedom lies in the answer to one famously difficult logic puzzle. Can you solve it? Alex Gendler walks us through this green-eyed riddle. Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Artrake Studio.

Can you solve the frog riddle? - Derek Abbott, 4:30

Pause at 1:13.

View full lesson: You’re stranded in a rainforest, and you’ve eaten a poisonous mushroom. To save your life, you need an antidote excreted by a certain species of frog. Unfortunately, only the female frog produces the antidote. The male and female look identical, but the male frog has a distinctive croak. Derek Abbott shows how to use conditional probability to make sure you lick the right frog and get out alive. Lesson by Derek Abbott, animation by Artrake Studio.


Finally: can you solve the locker riddle? - Lisa Winer, 3:49

Pause at 1:51.

View full lesson: Your rich, eccentric uncle just passed away, and you and your 99 nasty relatives have been invited to the reading of his will. He wanted to leave all of his money to you, but he knew that if he did, your relatives would pester you forever. Can you solve the riddle he left for you and get the inheritance? Lisa Winer shows how. Lesson by Lisa Winer, animation by Artrake Studio.

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, or medicine are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology.

"Problem Solving" is an English term which indicates "effort of overcoming the difficulties by trying solutions".

The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Ill-defined problems are those that do not have clear goals, solution paths, or expected solution. Well-defined problems have specific goals, clearly defined solution paths, and clear expected solutions. These problems also allow for more initial planning than ill-defined problems.[1] Being able to solve problems sometimes involves dealing with pragmatics (logic) and semantics (interpretation of the problem). The ability to understand what the goal of the problem is and what rules could be applied represent the key to solving the problem. Sometimes the problem requires some abstract thinking and coming up with a creative solution.

In North America, initiated by the work of Herbert A. Simon on "learning by doing" in semantically rich domains (e.g. Anzai & Simon, 1979; Bhaskar & Simon, 1977), researchers began to investigate problem solving separately in different natural knowledge domains – such as physics, writing, or chess playing – thus relinquishing their attempts to extract a global theory of problem solving (e.g. Sternberg & Frensch, 1991). Instead, these researchers have frequently focused on the development of problem solving within a certain domain, that is on the development of expertise (e.g. Anderson, Boyle & Reiser, 1985; Chase & Simon, 1973; Chi, Feltovich & Glaser, 1981).

Areas that have attracted rather intensive attention in North America include:

The Eightfold Path is a method of policy analysis assembled by Eugene Bardach, a professor at the Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley.[1] It is outlined in his book A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving, which is now in its fourth edition.[2] The book is commonly referenced in public policy and public administration scholarship.[3]
Bardach's procedure is as follows:
  1. Define the Problem
  2. Assemble Some Evidence
  3. Construct the Alternatives
  4. Select the Criteria
  5. Project the Outcomes
  6. Confront the Trade-offs
  7. Decide
  8. Tell Your Story
A possible ninth-step, based on Bardach's own writing, might be "Repeat Steps 1 - 8 as Necessary."
Solving Public Policy Problems: UC Berkeley’s Eightfold Path | UCBerkeleyX on edX, 2:42

Take this course for free on edX:

Why We Make Bad Decisions About Money (And What We Can Do About It), 3:56

What can you do to make better money decisions?

Ever wondered what you were thinking after making a bad decision?

Daniel Kahneman explains. To learn more visit our special series, Insider Employers' Minds:

Daniel Kahneman: People are not fully rational and they do—they make many choices that if they reflected upon them they would do differently. There is no question about that. And we have a fair understanding actually of what is happening. At least at the individual level my sense is that we have explored a lot of what is happening. I wouldn't say there is going to be no further progress, but we have explored a lot. The major tendencies, well, the major tendencies . . . people tend to frame things very narrowly. They take a narrow view of decision-making. They look at the problem at hand and they deal with it as if it were the only problem. Very frequently, it's a better idea to look at problems as they will recur throughout your life and then you look at the policy that you're to adopt for a class of problems -- difficult to do; would be a better thing.

People frame things narrowly in the sense, for example, that they will save and borrow at the same time instead of somehow treating their whole portfolio of assets as one thing. If people were able to take a broader view they would, in general, make better decisions. So that is certainly one of the weaknesses of human decision-making. We call it narrow framing. Mental accounting is a big deal. This is the way that we live, so we have—we keep our money in different mental accounts for which we have different rules, so people will—well of course they spend their spending money, but then there is a hierarchy of the accounts that they will touch. They will spend money that they have stored for vacation quite often before they will spend whatever they're thinking of as savings for their children's education. So those are mental accounts for which people have different rules.

More foolishly—this is pretty sensible because mental accounting is a tool of self control—but more foolishly, investors tend to view each stock that they buy as a mental account and they want to sell it when it is a winner. And so they tend to sell their winners and to hang onto their losers in their portfolio and that turns out to make them substantially poorer than if they had done things differently. You need to be numerate for certain kinds of decisions. So numerate people have a significant advantage over those who are not.

Understanding compound interest makes a huge difference whether you're a credit card borrower or somebody with savings. People have a very hazy idea of compound interest, and it is very detrimental. So I would say that first of all you need to be numerate, but many people aren't. Then you need to frame things broadly. It frequently goes with numeracy, but it's not quite the same thing. And then by taking the broad view, it is very important not to have overly strong emotional reactions to events. And what I mean by that is that most of us tend to respond to gains and to losses, to changes that happen in our life. Actually you're better off if you frame things broadly and you think of . . . you win a few, you lose a few... and you have very limited emotional response to small gains and to small losses. That tends to induce better decision-making.

Directed / Produced byJonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd

Some Things That Get in the Way of Making Good Decisions

Step Six: Implement and Reflect

7.3 Practice: Make Your Choice

An Automobile Incubator

NYT, Dr. Kristian Olson

Global Health Initiative, Cimit

Chapter 7 Problem Solving

What are the six critical thinking steps to solve any problem?

What is the problem? What are the symptoms? What are the assumptions? Is the evidence reliable? Is there missing information? Is there another reason? 

Where do people go wrong in trying to solve a problem?

Steps 1-2

Thought experiment: is illegal immigration a problem, or a symptom?

Step 3

Assumption: are illegal immigrants Americans, or lawbreakers?

Evidence, missing information, another reason

"bad actors," criminals, invasion, i.e., not immigration problem but a symptom of the problem.

The problem is open borders.

Critical Thinking Steps To Solve Any Problem, 6:42

Got A Problem? Use These Six Critical Thinking Steps To Solve Any Problem

Problem Solving - Thinking Outside of the Box! 3:02

Outside of the Box


1969, John Adair

9 dots, connect the dots: draw four straight consecutive lines without removing the pen/marker/pencil.

We often limit ourselves when attempting to solve problems.

The nine dots puzzle is much older than the slogan. It appears in Sam Loyd's 1914 Cyclopedia of Puzzles. In the 1951 compilation The Puzzle-Mine: Puzzles Collected from the Works of the Late Henry Ernest Dudeney, the puzzle is attributed to Dudeney himself. Sam Loyd's original formulation of the puzzle entitled it as "Christopher Columbus's egg puzzle." This was an allusion to the story of Egg of Columbus.

Examines a basic problem solving concept. Great intellectual exercise to warm up participants to critical thinking and problem solving.

Define a Problem, 1:51


What are the four steps that are the "worry buster?"

What is the antidote to worrying?

Your job is to organize your life and work so as to minimize surprises and problems. However, this is not always possible, in spite of your best efforts.

To be successful you must be able to clearly define a problem and know how to limit stress. Facing a fear can be a daunting task but in order to be successful you must know how to solve your problems and neutralize all worry situations.

7.2 Practice: Generate Solutions

A brief conceptual history of Philosophy, 6:00

Does philosophy make progress? Of course, but it does so differently from, say, science. Here is a brief conceptual history of how philosophy evolved over time, from the all-purpose approach of the ancient Greeks to the highly specialized academic discipline it is today.

Philosophy: answers follow the video

What two major areas arose from the study of philosophy?

What ancient Greek philosopher is still taught in mathematics?

What field arose out of the Scientific Revolution?

Untouched by science, what philosopher continued to write about ethics and metaphysics?

Who developed the ideas of Kant away from traditional philosophy and science?

At the beginning of the 20th Century what philosophers developed analytical philosophy interested in language and informal logic?

What happens with specialization in philosophy?


What two major areas arose from the study of philosophy? Logic and mathematics

What ancient Greek philosopher is still taught in mathematics? Pythagoras

What field arose out of the Scientific Revolution? Natural philosophy

Untouched by science, what philosopher continued to write about ethics and metaphysics? Kant

Who developed the ideas of Kant away from traditional philosophy and science?

Continental Philosophy

Nietzsche, Sartre, Heidegger, and Foucoult

At the beginning of the 20th Century what philosophers developed analytical philosophy interested in language and informal logic?

Wittgenstein, Bertrand Russell, G.E. Moore

What happens with specialization in philosophy? Philosopy "of" developed, philosophy of science, etc.

Systematic Inventive Thinking (SIT) is a thinking method developed in Israel in the mid-1990s. Derived from Genrich Altshuller’s TRIZ engineering discipline, SIT is a practical approach to creativity, innovation and problem solving, which has become a well known methodology for Innovation. At the heart of SIT’s method is one core idea adopted from Genrich Altshuller's TRIZ which is also known as Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TIPS): that inventive solutions share common patterns. Focusing not on what makes inventive solutions different - but on what they share in common - is core to SIT’s approach.

SIT - Systematic Inventive Thinking | Innovation Management Consulting, 2:33 

SIT - Systematic Inventive Thinking®, Ltd. is a privately owned company based in Tel Aviv, Israel, with offices or affiliates on 5 continents. Since 1996, we have conducted innovation programs in more than 60 countries in North and South America, Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia and the Middle East. We've worked with over 850 companies and organizations - varying in size from 10 to 300,000 employees -- helping them to think differently in a useful and effective way and achieve their objectives through innovation. Most business leaders agree that in order to grow organically, innovation and creative thinking must be encouraged. For this purpose SIT offers Organizational Innovation Programs that help companies develop a culture and practice of innovation. In these programs, we teach skills that help you think and act differently in an effective way; work with you to generate and implement ideas that are both innovative and practical; and assist in designing the structures that will help innovation become consistent, systematic, and reliable. ====== visit us ========= ===================== 

Maccabi Healthcare Services, (Hebrew: מכבי שירותי בריאות‎) is the second largest health maintenance organization in Israel. It was founded in 1941 by Jewish doctors who immigrated to Israel from Germany as an alternative to the health-care program of the Histadrut.

Maccabi operates 150 medical clinics throughout the country, as well as 20 medical diagnostic and therapeutic centers, 43 pharmacies and two hospitals - Assuta Medical Center and Ramat Marpeh.[1]

Maccabi Healthcare Services, 3:20

Maccabi members benefit from professional, reliable and high standard dental care at Maccabi's network of 45 dental clinics dispersed throughout Israel. All dental clinics hold ISO 2009 certification, which requires continuous quality assurance of the standard of treatments and laboratory work, as well as the quality of dental metals and materials used. The work in Maccabi's dental clinics is guided by a team of outside specialists and consultants, who provide supervision, medical evaluations and second opinions.


Chaos Theory, 4:49

This is a brief introduction to chaos theory. Chaos theory contends that complex and unpredictable results occur in systems that are sensitive to small changes in their initial conditions. This small changes effect is best illustrated and commonly known as the "Butterfly Effect" which states that the flapping of a butterfly's wings in the Amazon could cause tiny atmospheric changes which over a certain time period could effect weather patterns in New York. Such systems are known as chaotic systems. Although chaotic systems appear to be random, they are not. Beneath the random behavior patterns emerge, suggesting, if not always revealing, order. Such pattern is The Golden Spiral, first discovered by Phythagoras, which is derived from the golden rectangle, a unique rectangle which has the golden ratio - phi.

This pattern is observed everywhere in nature such as milk in coffee, the face of a sunflower, nautilus shell, your fingerprints, our DNA, and the shape of our galaxy the Milky Way.

Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions — a response popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions (such as those due to rounding errors in numerical computation) yield widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In other words, the deterministic nature of these systems does not make them predictable. This behavior is known as deterministic chaos, or simply chaos. The theory was summarized by Edward Lorenz as follows:

Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future. (pg 68)
Chaotic behavior can be observed in many natural systems, such as weather and climate. This behavior can be studied through analysis of a chaotic mathematical model, or through analytical techniques such as recurrence plots and Poincaré maps.

A double rod pendulum animation showing chaotic behavior. Starting the pendulum from a slightly different initial condition would result in a completely different trajectory. The double rod pendulum is one of the simplest dynamical systems that has chaotic solutions.

An early proponent of chaos theory was Henri Poincaré. In the 1880s, while studying the three-body problem, he found that there can be orbits that are nonperiodic, and yet not forever increasing nor approaching a fixed point. In 1898 Jacques Hadamard published an influential study of the chaotic motion of a free particle gliding frictionlessly on a surface of constant negative curvature, called "Hadamard's billiards".

Hadamard was able to show that all trajectories are unstable, in that all particle trajectories diverge exponentially from one another, with a positive Lyapunov exponent.


A fractal is a natural phenomenon or a mathematical set that exhibits a repeating pattern that displays at every scale. If the replication is exactly the same at every scale, it is called a self-similar pattern. Fractals can also be nearly the same at different levels. Fractals also includes the idea of a detailed pattern that repeats itself.

An example highlighting how scale is a key feature of a fractal.

Koch snowflake, a zoom out of the Koch Snowflake.

A fractal that models the surface of a mountain (animation)
artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI)is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also an academic field of study. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines".

An automated online assistant providing customer service on a web page – one of many very primitive applications of artificial intelligence.

New Robot Has Arrived: Would You Allow It In Your Home? 2:55

A.I. is no longer science fiction. The benefits will be amazing, but many people are still skeptical of robots involved in our lives. Would you allow this one in your home?


Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents",[1] in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.[2] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955,[3] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines".[4]

AI research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.[5] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.

The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[6] General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals.[7] Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are a large number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The AI field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology.

The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, human intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens sapiens—"can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."[8] This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.[9] Artificial intelligence has been the subject of tremendous optimism[10] but has also suffered stunning setbacks.[11] Today AI techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most challenging problems in computer science.[12]

Freaky AI robot, 3:11

Freaky AI robot, taken from Nova science now, here's the full episode, enjoy :D Also yay for me, 2 videos in one day :D :D


Hot Robot At SXSW Says She Wants To Destroy Humans | The Pulse | CNBC, 2:37

Robotics is finally reaching the mainstream and androids - humanlike robots - are everywhere at SXSW Experts believe humanlike robots are the key to smoothing communication between humans and computers, and realizing a dream of compassionate robots that help invent the future of life. » Subscribe to CNBC:


Amazing! Conversation Between Robots - The Hunt for AI - BBC, 4:15

Marcus Du Sautoy meets robots that learn about their own body from their reflection and begin to communicate, a step closer to artificial intelligence? Taken from The Hunt for AI. Subscribe to the BBC Worldwide channel: BBC Worldwide Channel: This is a channel from BBC Worldwide who help fund new BBC programmes.


A very human-like robot invented by Japanese engineers, 3:24

Two human look-a-like robots invented by Japanese engineers. They can talk to each other!


World's First Emotional Home Robot, 1:38 

Artificial intelligence is still a work in progress, but if you're simply looking for robotic companionship, We may have a humanoid for you. The Japanese mobile operator teamed up with Aldebaran Robotics to develop Pepper, the world's first personal robot that can read emotions. Feeling blue? Pepper can detect sadness based on your expressions and voice tones. Using built-in sensors and pre-programmed algorithms, the robot will also react appropriately. In the vein of its corporate philosophy of "happiness for everyone," SoftBank entered the cyborg business "with the aim of developing affectionate robots that make people smile," according to CEO Masayoshi Son. But Pepper does more than tell a joke or two. The device comes equipped with a 10.1-inch touch display, as well as voice-recognition technology and emotion recognition, to enable human-to-humanoid communication. It can also handle gestures, like a wave of the arm, or nod of the head. These advanced technologies make it easy for users to interact with Pepper just as they would family and friends. And, really, who needs human contact when they've got a robot that makes jokes, dances, and provides other forms of entertainment? "For the past nine years, I've believed that the most important role of robots will be as kind and emotional companions to enhance our daily lives, to bring happiness, constantly surprise us, and make people grow," Aldebaran CEO Bruno Maisonnier said in a statement. "The emotional robot will create a new dimension in our lives and new ways of interacting with technology. It's just the beginning, but already a promising reality." The friendly-looking cyborg will begin rolling into Japanese homes in February, for a base price of 198,000 yen ($1,931/£1,152). Research, learning, further reading and Sources : artificial intelligence, why artificial intelligence, the artificial intelligence, what is artificial intelligence neural networks pattern recognition, pattern recognition software household robots, Domestic Robot robot control robotics kits industrial robots robots, how to build robots pepper robot Asimo Robot


 Artificial Intelligence, 3:42 

That's a story of four guys who talk to each other in an other planet and two of them are robots, you have to discover who are the robots.

Critical Thinking, 5:19

This video will help guide you on your way to improving your critical thinking skills which is an essential process for University students. For more information, visit

Thinking Logically - Introduction to Critical Thinking for Problem Solving Training, Seattle, WA, 6:19
An overview of Loc & Learn LLC's instructor led workshop entitled, "Thinking Logically - Introduction to Critical Thinking.

Soft Skills--Critical Thinking And Problem Solving, 2:15

Common barriers to problem solving

Common barriers to problem solving are mental constructs that impede our ability to correctly solve problems. These barriers prevent people from solving problems in the most efficient manner possible. Five of the most common processes and factors that researchers have identified as barriers to problem solving are confirmation bias, mental set, functional fixedness, unnecessary constraints, and irrelevant information.

Confirmation bias

Within the field of science there exists a fundamental standard, the scientific method, which outlines the process of discovering facts or truths about the world through unbiased consideration of all pertinent information, and impartial observation of and/or experimentation with that information. According to this theory, one is able to most accurately find a solution to a perceived problem by performing the aforementioned steps. The scientific method is not a process that is limited to scientists, but rather it is one that all people can practice in their respective fields of work as well as in their personal lives. Confirmation bias can be described as one's unconscious or unintentional corruption of the scientific method. Thus when one demonstrates confirmation bias, he or she is formally or informally collecting data, and then subsequently observing and experimenting with that data in such a way that favors a preconceived notion that may or may not have motivation.[15] Interestingly, research has found that professionals within scientific fields of study also experience confirmation bias. In Andreas Hergovich, Reinhard Schott, and Christoph Burger's experiment conducted online, for instance, it was discovered that professionals within the field of psychological research are likely to view scientific studies that are congruent with their preconceived understandings more favorably than studies that are incongruent with their established beliefs.[16]

Motivation refers to one's desire to defend or find substantiation for beliefs (e.g., religious beliefs) that are important to him or her.[17] According to Raymond Nickerson, one can see the consequences of confirmation bias in real life situations, which range in severity from inefficient government policies to genocide. With respect to the latter and most severe ramification of this cognitive barrier, Nickerson argued that those involved in committing genocide of persons accused of witchcraft, an atrocity that occurred from the 15th to 17th centuries, demonstrated confirmation bias with motivation. Researcher Michael Allen found evidence for confirmation bias with motivation in school children who worked to manipulate their science experiments in such a way that would produce their hoped for results.[18] However, confirmation bias does not necessarily require motivation. In 1960, Peter Cathcart Wason conducted an experiment in which participants first viewed three numbers and then created a hypothesis that proposed a rule that could have been used to create that triplet of numbers. When testing their hypotheses, participants tended to only create additional triplets of numbers that would confirm their hypotheses, and tended not to create triplets that would negate or disprove their hypotheses. Thus research also shows that people can and do work to confirm theories or ideas that do not support or engage personally significant beliefs.[19]

Mental set

Mental set was first articulated by Abraham Luchins in the 1940s and demonstrated in his well-known water jug experiments.[20] In these experiments, participants were asked to fill one jug with a specific amount of water using only other jugs (typically three) with different maximum capacities as tools. After Luchins gave his participants a set of water jug problems that could all be solved by employing a single technique, he would then give them a problem that could either be solved using that same technique or a novel and simpler method. Luchins discovered that his participants tended to use the same technique that they had become accustomed to despite the possibility of using a simpler alternative.[21] Thus mental set describes one's inclination to attempt to solve problems in such a way that has proved successful in previous experiences. However, as Luchins' work revealed, such methods for finding a solution that have worked in the past may not be adequate or optimal for certain new but similar problems. Therefore, it is often necessary for people to move beyond their mental sets in order to find solutions. This was again demonstrated in Norman Maier's 1931 experiment, which challenged participants to solve a problem by using a household object (pliers) in an unconventional manner. Maier observed that participants were often unable to view the object in a way that strayed from its typical use, a phenomenon regarded as a particular form of mental set (more specifically known as functional fixedness, which is the topic of the following section). When people cling rigidly to their mental sets, they are said to be experiencing fixation, a seeming obsession or preoccupation with attempted strategies that are repeatedly unsuccessful.[22] In the late 1990s, researcher Jennifer Wiley worked to reveal that expertise can work to create a mental set in persons considered to be experts in certain fields, and she furthermore gained evidence that the mental set created by expertise could lead to the development of fixation.[23]

Functional fixedness

Functional fixedness is a specific form of mental set and fixation, which was alluded to earlier in the Maier experiment, and furthermore it is another way in which cognitive bias can be seen throughout daily life. Tim German and Clark Barrett describe this barrier as the fixed design of an object hindering the individual's ability to see it serving other functions. In more technical terms, these researchers explained that "[s]ubjects become "fixed" on the design function of the objects, and problem solving suffers relative to control conditions in which the object's function is not demonstrated."[24] Functional fixedness is defined as only having that primary function of the object itself hinder the ability of it serving another purpose other than its original function. In research that highlighted the primary reasons that young children are immune to functional fixedness, it was stated that "functional fixedness...[is when]subjects are hindered in reaching the solution to a problem by their knowledge of an object's conventional function."[25]

Furthermore, it is important to note that functional fixedness can be easily expressed in commonplace situations. For instance, imagine the following situation: a man sees a bug on the floor that he wants to kill, but the only thing in his hand at the moment is a can of air freshener. If the man starts looking around for something in the house to kill the bug with instead of realizing that the can of air freshener could in fact be used not only as having its main function as to freshen the air, he is said to be experiencing functional fixedness. The man's knowledge of the can being served as purely an air freshener hindered his ability to realize that it too could have been used to serve another purpose, which in this instance was as an instrument to kill the bug. Functional fixedness can happen on multiple occasions and can cause us to have certain cognitive biases. If we only see an object as serving one primary focus than we fail to realize that the object can be used in various ways other than its intended purpose. This can in turn cause many issues with regards to problem solving. Common sense seems to be a plausible answer to functional fixedness. One could make this argument because it seems rather simple to consider possible alternative uses for an object. Perhaps using common sense to solve this issue could be the most accurate answer within this context. With the previous stated example, it seems as if it would make perfect sense to use the can of air freshener to kill the bug rather than to search for something else to serve that function but, as research shows, this is often not the case.

Functional fixedness limits the ability for people to solve problems accurately by causing one to have a very narrow way of thinking. Functional fixedness can be seen in other types of learning behaviors as well. For instance, research has discovered the presence of functional fixedness in many educational instances. Researchers Furio, Calatayud, Baracenas, and Padilla stated that "... functional fixedness may be found in learning concepts as well as in solving chemistry problems."[26] There was more emphasis on this function being seen in this type of subject and others.

There are several hypotheses in regards to how functional fixedness relates to problem solving.[27] There are also many ways in which a person can run into problems while thinking of a particular object with having this function. If there is one way in which a person usually thinks of something rather than multiple ways then this can lead to a constraint in how the person thinks of that particular object. This can be seen as narrow minded thinking, which is defined as a way in which one is not able to see or accept certain ideas in a particular context. Functional fixedness is very closely related to this as previously mentioned. This can be done intentionally and or unintentionally, but for the most part it seems as if this process to problem solving is done in an unintentional way.

Functional fixedness can affect problem solvers in at least two particular ways. The first is with regards to time, as functional fixedness causes people to use more time than necessary to solve any given problem. Secondly, functional fixedness often causes solvers to make more attempts to solve a problem than they would have made if they were not experiencing this cognitive barrier. In the worst case, functional fixedness can completely prevent a person from realizing a solution to a problem. Functional fixedness is a commonplace occurrence, which affects the lives of many people.

Unnecessary constraints

Unnecessary constraints is another very common barrier that people face while attempting to problem-solve. This particular phenomenon occurs when the subject, trying to solve the problem subconsciously, places boundaries on the task at hand, which in turn forces him or her to strain to be more innovative in their thinking. The solver hits a barrier when they become fixated on only one way to solve their problem, and it becomes increasingly difficult to see anything but the method they have chosen. Typically, the solver experiences this when attempting to use a method they have already experienced success from, and they can not help but try to make it work in the present circumstances as well, even if they see that it is counterproductive.[28]

Groupthink, or taking on the mindset of the rest of the group members, can also act as an unnecessary constraint while trying to solve problems.[29] This is due to the fact that with everybody thinking the same thing, stopping on the same conclusions, and inhibiting themselves to think beyond this. This is very common, but the most well-known example of this barrier making itself present is in the famous example of the dot problem. In this example, there are nine dots lying in a square- three dots across, and three dots running up and down. The solver is then asked to draw no more than four lines, without lifting their pen or pencil from the paper. This series of lines should connect all of the dots on the paper. Then, what typically happens is the subject creates an assumption in their mind that they must connect the dots without letting his or her pen or pencil go outside of the square of dots. Standardized procedures like this can often bring mentally invented constraints of this kind,[30] and researchers have found a 0% correct solution rate in the time allotted for the task to be completed.[31] The imposed constraint inhibits the solver to think beyond the bounds of the dots. It is from this phenomenon that the expression "think outside the box" is derived.[32]

This problem can be quickly solved with a dawning of realization, or insight. A few minutes of struggling over a problem can bring these sudden insights, where the solver quickly sees the solution clearly. Problems such as this are most typically solved via insight and can be very difficult for the subject depending on either how they have structured the problem in their minds, how they draw on their past experiences, and how much they juggle this information in their working memories[32] In the case of the nine-dot example, the solver has already been structured incorrectly in their minds because of the constraint that they have placed upon the solution. In addition to this, people experience struggles when they try to compare the problem to their prior knowledge, and they think they must keep their lines within the dots and not go beyond. They do this because trying to envision the dots connected outside of the basic square puts a strain on their working memory.[32]

Luckily, the solution to the problem becomes obvious as insight occurs following incremental movements made toward the solution. These tiny movements happen without the solver knowing. Then when the insight is realized fully, the "aha" moment happens for the subject.[33] These moments of insight can take a long while to manifest or not so long at other times, but the way that the solution is arrived at after toiling over these barriers stays the same.

Irrelevant information

Irrelevant information is information presented within a problem that is unrelated or unimportant to the specific problem.[28] Within the specific context of the problem, irrelevant information would serve no purpose in helping solve that particular problem. Often irrelevant information is detrimental to the problem solving process. It is a common barrier that many people have trouble getting through, especially if they are not aware of it. Irrelevant information makes solving otherwise relatively simple problems much harder.[34]

For example:

"Fifteen percent of the people in Topeka have unlisted telephone numbers. You select 200 names at random from the Topeka phone book. How many of these people have unlisted phone numbers?"[35]

The people that are not listed in the phone book would not be among the 200 names you selected. The individuals looking at this task would have naturally wanted to use the 15% given to them in the problem. They see that there is information present and they immediately think that it needs to be used. This of course is not true. These kinds of questions are often used to test students taking aptitude tests or cognitive evaluations.[36] They aren't meant to be difficult but they are meant to require thinking that is not necessarily common. Irrelevant Information is commonly represented in math problems, word problems specifically, where numerical information is put for the purpose of challenging the individual.

One reason irrelevant information is so effective at keeping a person off topic and away from the relevant information, is in how it is represented.[36] The way information is represented can make a vast difference in how difficult the problem is to be overcome. Whether a problem is represented visually, verbally, spatially, or mathematically, irrelevant information can have a profound effect on how long a problem takes to be solved; or if it's even possible. The Buddhist monk problem is a classic example of irrelevant information and how it can be represented in different ways:
A Buddhist monk begins at dawn one day walking up a mountain, reaches the top at sunset, meditates at the top for several days until one dawn when he begins to walk back to the foot of the mountain, which he reaches at sunset. Making no assumptions about his starting or stopping or about his pace during the trips, prove that there is a place on the path which he occupies at the same hour of the day on the two separate journeys.
This problem is near impossible to solve because of how the information is represented. Because it is written out in a way that represents the information verbally, it causes us to try and create a mental image of the paragraph. This is often very difficult to do especially with all the Irrelevant Information involved in the question. This example is made much easier to understand when the paragraph is represented visually. Now if the same problem was asked, but it was also accompanied by a corresponding graph, it would be far easier to answer this question; Irrelevant Information no longer serves as a road block. By representing the problem visually, there are no difficult words to understand or scenarios to imagine. The visual representation of this problem has removed the difficulty of solving it.

These types of representations are often used to make difficult problems easier.[37] They can be used on tests as a strategy to remove Irrelevant Information, which is one of the most common forms of barriers when discussing the issues of problem solving.[28] Identifying crucial information presented in a problem and then being able to correctly identify its usefulness is essential. Being aware of Irrelevant Information is the first step in overcoming this common barrier.


Dos, Don'ts, and Sneaky Tactics

Why Facts Don't Win Arguments

Tax Supported Planned Parenthood and Advice for the Kids

Fatherhood Challenge

Wahhabi Cleric Explains Proper Way of Beheading to his Followers: Qur'an 47:4 Interpreted, You Should Enjoy Yourselves

Wealth Creation

Wages Down 23% Since 2008

NSA Spying, Balloon Over Utah

Reporters Arrested in Ferguson

Ferguson Gun Sales

Jersey Jihad Jihad
117 Winslow Place Garwood, New Jersey

7 Year Old Islamist Poses with Severed Head

Osama Bin Laden Crosses US Border with Mexico Twice


45% of voters are concerned that the government will use U.S. military training operations to impose greater control over some states, with 19% who are Very Concerned.

Just 20% of voters now consider the federal government a protector of individual liberty. Sixty percent (60%) see the government as a threat to individual liberty instead. Only19% trust the federal government to do the right thing all or most of the time.

Congressman: Pentagon Practising War on States

The Texas State Guard is a militia--think 2nd Amendment--that does not answer to a president such as the state National Guard.

White House Says Stand Down

National Guard Riot Prepared

Governor orders Texas Guard to prevent Federal takeover.

Importing Islamic fighters

The Lt. Col. did not go over well with all members of the audience.

Pointed Question and Answer session, Bastrop County, Texas

Military Spokesperson at Bastrop County meeting presents.

Troops Called into Baltimore

AARP Declares Martial Law

Marines Training for Riot Control Against the Americans

The Marines, “Conducted an operational readiness exercise, which evaluates the team’s ability to perform riot control,” according to a description which accompanies the video. “The ORE determines of the marines are ready to take their final step in pre-deployment training. After completing and meeting the requirements of the ORE evaluation the Marines will go to Quantico, Virginia for their final phase of pre-deployment training.”

However, the video, which shows Marines taking on irate demonstrators with pepper spray, batons and rifles, will only serve to heighten concerns that the U.S. Army and the federal government are preparing for more civil unrest in America in the aftermath of the Ferguson, Missouri riots.
The fact that the training exercise has been presented for the consumption of the American public also raises questions as to its intended purpose.

Knoxville, TN, military and police train for riot control.

The official spokesperson, Thomas Meade, for the related Jade Helm training states:

"We are not training for Iraq or Afghanistan, we are training for a future fight and that's why we need the help of the world community."

When asked by the City Council if U.N. or international troops have been used previously the answer was "I am not sure if that has occurred."

What does the evidence suggest about Jade Helm?

Said Councilman Bobby McDonald: "The community will be aware sometimes that they're here, and sometimes the community won't be aware. Sometimes they will be in uniform, and sometimes they will not be in uniform."

Why does the military need to train and sneak up around American civilians?

Training could not be done on a military base?

Stop Jade Helm in Arizona

Fight Like You Train

Are we being told the next fight is against the Americans?

Pico Rivera, CA Walmart

Minister Paul, Walmart, Pico Rivera

Ft. Irwin/I-15/Barstow massive military buildup

Ontario, Jade Helm

Corona, Pico Rivera, Turkish Pilots in Texas

Operation Jade Helm Secret Location; Live Fire 27th Field Artillery 3 27 HIMARS, 3:06

Operation Jade Helm Secret Loacation [sic]; 27th Field Artillery at National Training Center 3 27 HIMARS 3rd Battalion, 27th Field Artillery at National Training Center

This work, 3-27 HIMARS B-Roll at NTC - (Short Version), by CPT Devon Thomas, identified by DVIDS, is free of known copyright restrictions under U.S. copyright law.


Operation Jade Helm FEMA Region 1: Homeland Response to catastrophic Biological and Nuclear Attack, 1:00

Homeland Response Force Annual Exercise at Lakehurst, NJ Over 600 Army & Air National Guardsmen from New York and New Jersey took part in a 3-Day full scale urban search and rescue exercise at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, NJ from April 16th to April 18th, 2015. The New York and New Jersey's Homeland Response Force's mission is to respond to catastrophic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives events in FEMA Region 1.

Caroline, Operation Jade Helm; 50 US and UK Paratroopers injured in Major Airborne Operation, 2:24

Published on Apr 16, 2015

Operation Jade Helm; 50 US and UK Paratroopers injured in Major Airborne Operation About 50 paratroopers were injured Monday after a large-scale airborne operation conducted by the 82nd Airborne Division and the United Kingdom's 16 Air Assault Brigade.

About 2,100 paratroopers participated in Monday night's airborne operation. Most of the injured troops were Americans; about 10 were British paratroopers, said Lt. Col. Cathy Wilkinson, a spokeswoman for the 82nd Airborne Division.

The paratroopers were taken to Womack Army Medical Center on Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to be evaluated by medical personnel, the 82nd Airborne said in a statement

Staunton, VA

California Too

Jonestown, PA

Iowa WMD drill

Michigan Dirty Bomb

Military Trains Against Civilians

Another Texas County Concerned About Jade Helm

History of the Phoenix Program and Now Jade Helm

Washington Post says nothing to see here folks.

Americans are the enemy.



Craig's List ad for victims to be rescued.

Jade Helm starting early

Military-Police Line Blur in Exercizes

Currently, there is a less lethal weapons solicitation advertised by Homeland Security.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) intends to solicit responses to Request for Information (RFI) 20082225-JTC for Less Lethal Specialty Munitions (LLSM) for use by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). CBP is interested in incorporating commercial and industry practices that support this type of procurement. To accomplish this, CBP intends to make industry a partner in all facets of the acquisition process, specifically by considering existing market capabilities, strengths and weaknesses for the acquisition of this commodity.

The requested equipment includes:
Hand Delivered Pyrotechnic Canisters, including
  • Smoke Canister for Training (Reduced Toxicity)
  • Continuous Discharge Large Smoke Canister (Operations)
  • Continuous Discharge CS Canister
  • Orange Colored Smoke Canister
  • Green Colored Smoke Canister
  • Pocket Tactical Smoke Canister
  • Pocket Tactical CS Canister
  • Three Part Sub-Munitions CS Canister
  • Non-Burning Internal Canister OC Grenade
Non-Pyrotechnic Indoor/Outdoor Use
  • Flameless Expulsion Grenade (OC)
  • Flameless Expulsion Grenade (CS)
  • Flameless Expulsion Grenade (Inert)
Hand Delivered Rubber Ball Grenades
  • Rubber Ball Grenade
  • Rubber Ball Grenade (CS)
40mm Launched Specialty Impact Munitions
  • 40mm Direct Impact Sponge Cartridge
    40mm Direct Impact Sponge Cartridge (OC)
  • 40mm Direct Impact Sponge Cartridge (Marking)
  • 40mm Direct Impact Sponge Cartridge (Inert)
  • 40mm Sponge Training Rounds
Crowd Management Projectile Cartridges
  • 40mm Smokeless Powder Blast (OC)
  • 40mm Smokeless Powder Blast (CS)
  • 40mm Long Range Canister (CS)
  • 40mm Long Range Canister (Smoke)
  • 40mm Cartridge Four Part Sub-Munitions (CS)
  • 40mm Cartridge Four Part Sub-Munitions (Smoke)
  • 40mm Aerial Warning Munitions (100 Meters)
  • 40mm Aerial Warning Munitions (200 Meters)
  • 40mm Aerial Warning Munitions (300 Meters)
  • 40mm Aerial Warning Munitions OC (100 Meters)
  • 40mm Aerial Warning Munitions OC (200 Meters)
  • 40mm Aerial Warning Munitions OC (300 Meters)
Controlled Noise And Light Distraction Devices
  • Distraction Device Compact
  • Distraction Device
  • Distraction Device Reloadable Steel Body
  • Distraction Device Reload
  • Command Initiated Distraction Device Reload
  • Distraction Device Training Fuse
  • Distraction Device Training Body
  • Multiple Detonation Distraction Device
  • Low Profile Distraction Device
  • Command Initiator
Ferret Rounds
  • 40mm Ferret Round (OC Powder)
  • 40mm Ferret Round (OC Liquid)
  • 40mm Ferret Round (CS Powder)
  • 40mm Ferret Round (CS Liquid)
  • 40mm Ferret Round (Inert Powder)
The ferret rounds are designed to penetrate barriers and deliver debilitating or disrupting chemicals:
“The projectile shall be designed to penetrate barriers of glass, particle board, and interior walls. Upon impact of the barrier, the nose cone will rupture and instantaneously deliver the OC liquid on the other side of the barrier. “

Separate "dirty bomb" exercise brings hundreds of soldiers to Northern California.

Methane over Four Corners Investigated
Obama Speechwriters Laugh at "You can keep your plan lie."

:41 & 2:23