Monday, October 15, 2007
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Just in case, resources for a Uniform Disaster Plan, Lock Down Procedure
Uniform Disaster Plan
Lock Down Procedure
Chapter 22 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800-1914)
Section 1 Building a German Nation
Identify several events that promoted German unity during the early 1800s.
Explain how Bismarck unified Germany.
Analyze the basic political organization of the new German empire.
Otto von Bismarck - came from Prussia’s Junker class, made up of conservative landowning nobles. Bismarck first served Prussia as a diplomat in Russia and France. In 1862, King William I made him prime minister. Within a decade, the new prime minister had become chancellor, or the highest official of a monarch, and had used his policy of “blood and iron” to unite the German states under Prussian rule. p. 694
chancellor- the highest official of a monarch; prime minister p.694
Realpolitik- realistic politics based on the needs of the state p. 694
annex- add a territory to an existing state or country p. 694
kaiser- emperor of Germany p. 694
Reich- German empire p. 694
In the early 1800s, people living in German-speaking states had local loyalties. By the mid-1800s, however, they were developing a national identity.
(a) Prussia (b) Silesia (c) Bavaria (d) Schleswig
What area did Prussia add to its territory in 1866? p. 694
Why do you think Austrian influence was greater among the southern German states than among the northern ones? p. 694
War and Power
In 1866, Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke analyzed the importance of Prussia’s war against Austria. Why, according to von Moltke, did Prussia go to war against Austria? p. 694
What was the German Confederation? p. 693
What techniques did Bismarck use to unify the German states? p. 694
How was the new German government, drafted by Bismarck, structured? p. 695
Section 2 Germany Strengthens
Describe how Germany became an industrial giant.
Explain why Bismarck was called the Iron Chancellor.
List the policies of Kaiser William II.
Kulturkampf- a name, given to a struggle between the the Roman Catholic Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical appointments in the interest of the political policy of centralization. p. 698
William II- the second son of William the Conqueror who succeeded him as King of England; The new emperor was supremely confident in his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany. In 1890, he shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign. “There is only one master in the Reich,” he said, “and that is I.” p. 699
social welfare- programs to help certain groups of people p. 699
What factors did Germany possess that made industrialization possible there? p. 697
Why did Bismarck try to crush the Catholic Church and the Socialists? p. 698
Why did William II ask Bismarck to resign in 1890? p. 699
A Political Game of Chess
This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.
1. How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church? p. 698
2. How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s? p. 698
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) spent his early years on his father’s country estate. He worked briefly as a civil servant, but found the work boring. At 24, Bismarck resigned his post as a bureaucrat. “My ambition strives more to command than to obey,” the independent-minded young man explained.
The resignation did not end his career in government. While he was a delegate to a United Diet that was called by Prussian King Frederick William IV, Bismarck’s conservative views and passionate speeches in defense of government policies won him the support of the king. He then served as a diplomat to the German Federation. He became chancellor of the German empire in 1871, a position he held for 19 years. What path did Bismarck take to win political power? p. 698
Section 3 Unifying Italy
List the key obstacles to Italian unity.
Understand what roles Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played in the struggle for Italy.
Describe the challenges that faced the new nation of Italy.
Camillo Cavour-was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and ruled it throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy (besides a small six-month resignation from the post). Cavour died only three months after the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome included in the kingdom. p. 702
Giuseppe Garibaldi- Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state p. 702
anarchist- someone who wants to abolish all government p. 703
emigration- migration from a place; movement away from their homeland p. 703
What forces hindered Italian unity? p. 701
What steps did Camillo Cavour take to promote Italian unity? p. 702
What problems did Italians experience after unification? p. 703
Section 4 Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
Describe how nationalism contributed to the decline of the Hapsburg empire.
List the main characteristics of the Dual Monarchy.
Understand how the growth of nationalism affected the Ottoman empire.
Francis Joseph- inherited the Hapsburg throne. He would rule until 1916, presiding over the empire during its fading days into World War I. p. 706
Ferenc Deák-a moderate Hungarian leader, helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary p. 707
Dual Monarchy- the monarchy of Austria-Hungary p. 707
What actions did Francis Joseph take to maintain power? p. 706
How did Hungarians and Slavic groups respond to the Dual Monarchy? p. 707
How did the European powers divide up Ottoman lands? p. 708
In the late 1800s, the Balkans had become a center of conflict, as various peoples and empires competed for power.
(a) Black Sea (b) Ottoman empire (c) Serbia (d) Greece (e) Austria-Hungary
Which four large seas border the Balkan Peninsula? p. 707
3. Identify Central Issues
Why do you think competing interests in the Balkans led the region to be called a powder keg? p. 707
1. (a) Is nationalism a positive force? Explain your answer. (b) What event or events in recent years brought out nationalistic feelings among Americans? Why? p. 709
2. Connections to Today
Do library research to identify an example of nationalism today. p. 709
Section 5 Russia: Reform and Reaction
Describe major obstacles to progress in Russia.
Explain why tsars followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction.
Understand why the problems of industrialization contributed to the outbreak of revolution.
colossus- giant p. 711
Alexander II- came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War. His reign represents the pattern of reform and repression used by his father and grandfather, Alexander I and Nicholas I. The Crimean War had broken out after Russia tried to seize Ottoman lands along the Danube River. Britain and France stepped in to help the Ottoman Turks, invading the Crimean peninsula that juts into the Black Sea. The war, which ended in a Russian defeat, revealed the country’s backwardness. Russia had only a few miles of railroads, and the military bureaucracy was hopelessly inefficient. Many felt that dramatic changes were needed pg. 712
Crimean War- war fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Turks from 1853–1856 p. 712
emancipation- granting of freedom to serfs or slaves p. 712
zemstvo- local elected assembly set up in Russia under Alexander II p. 712
pogrom- violent attack on a Jewish community p. 712
refugees- a person who flees from home or country to seek refuge elsewhere, often because of political upheaval or famine p. 712
Duma- elected national legislature in Russia p. 714
Peter Stolypin-Stolypin soon realized that Russia needed reform, not just repression. To regain peasant support, he introduced moderate land reforms. He strengthened the zemstvos and improved education. Unfortunately, these reforms were too limited to meet the broad needs of most Russians, and dissatisfaction still simmered. Stolypin was assassinated in 1911. Several more Dumas met during this period, but new voting laws made sure they were conservative. By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy, but one simmering with unrest.
Describe the social structure that existed in Russia during the 1800s. p. 711
How did Alexander III respond to the murder of his father? p. 712
How did Russia industrialize? p. 713
Why was Bloody Sunday a turning point for the Russians? p. 714