World History, Chapter 19, Section 5 The End of an Era
1. Lesson Plan Focus
The Continental System and the spread of nationalism led to rebellions against French rule. After defeats in Russia and at Leipzig and Waterloo, Napoleon lost power. European leaders at the Congress of Vienna sought to restore stability and order based on the status quo of 1792. They redrew national boundaries, restored monarchs, established a balance of power, and created the Concert of Europe.
2. In-class Instruct
There are five generalizations in this section:
1) Other nations in Europe benefited from the reforms of the French Revolution.
2) Nationalism was a major reason for Napoleon’s downfall.
3) Geography played an important role in Napoleon’s defeat in Russia.
4) The French people supported Napoleon.
5) The Congress of Vienna in 1815 achieved its goals.
As you read this section, find evidence that supports or disputes each generalization. Then write a paragraph in response to each. Your paragraphs should agree or disagree with each statement and provide pertinent facts to support your opinion.
Ask students to bring in news stories about nationalism and its influence on world events today. These can be displayed around the classroom.
Vocabulary, p. 488
Biography, p. 488
Caption, p. 489
Geography and History, p. 490
Disaster! P. 491
Map, p. 492
Biography, p. 493
Find the answers that fit the material.
Possible answer: Moscow was such a great distance from France that Napoleon would have trouble keeping his troops supplied.
Possible answer: Napoleon needed a navy to battle Britain and to defend French commerce.
Answer to Caption. . .
Art and Literature
Possible answer: The darkness adds to the horror and sadness of the scene. The lantern creates a glow around the victims of the firing squad, emphasizing their nobility and suffering.
The Third of May, 1808 is one of the first paintings of social protest. Previously, artists portrayed war as a grand and glorious endeavor. Goya, however, emphasized the horror and inhumanity of war. His painting portrays Napoleon’s soldiers as a faceless and monstrous force shrouded in darkness. Light is used to focus attention on the victims of the war. The cruelty and horror of the mass execution are seen in the twisted and bloodied bodies of the dead. The terrible anticipation of imminent death is seen in outstretched arms and writhing, cowering bodies. In Goya’s painting, one sees the merciless nature of war.
Answer to Caption. . .
Possible Answer: The cartoonist was British. Since Britain was at war with France, he had little sympathy for the French army.
Napoleon on Napoleon
While on St. Helena, Napoleon reviewed his career in conversations with the Marquis Las Cases, who recorded them in Memorial. Napoleon believed that he had conquered Europe in self-defense. His conquests benefited those under his rule by bringing them his code of laws and other revolutionary reforms. If not for the jealousy of Britain and the hatred of the monarchs that he had overthrown, Europe under his guidance would have become a federation of free peoples, allied with enlightened France in eternal peace. Napoleon characterized Britain as a mischief-maker and pirate whose petty ambitions had destroyed a noble future for France and Europe.
Napoleon’s views can be contrasted with the view of the London Times, quoted in the following note.
Wretch and Villain
As Napoleon was departing for exile on St. Helena, the London Times reviewed his career in these words:
“This wretch has lived in the commission of every crime so long, that he has lost all sight of and knowledge of the difference that exists between good and evil, and hardly knows when he is doing wrong, except to be taught by proper chastisement. A creature who ought to be greeted by a gallows as soon as he lands. . . . It has been the constant trick of this villain, whenever he had got his companions into a scrape, to leave them in it, and seek his own safety by flight. In Egypt, in the Moscow expedition, and at Waterloo, such was his conduct.”
Which view, Napoleon’s or the Times, is closer to the truth based on your reading of the textbook?
Answers to. . .
Geography and History
the Netherlands, Piedmont, Parma-Modena, Lombardy-Venetia, Kingdom of Norway and Sweden, Denmark, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Activity Learning Styles
Analyzing a Quotation
One of the most successful diplomats at the Congress of Vienna was Prince Maurice Talleyrand. His skillful maneuvering saved defeated France from harsh retribution and won it recognition as an equal among the powers of Europe. He was at Vienna, he said, ”not to collect trophies, but to bring the world back to peaceful habits.” Concerning the balance of power and the proper treatment of France, he said, “No arrangement could be wise that carried ruin to one of the countries between which it was concluded.”
After hearing these two quotations students should answer: 1) Why do you think Talleyrand was against the collecting of ”trophies?” 2) How was a balance of power in the best interests of France? 3) How might Talleyrand have felt and spoken differently if France had been one of the victorious countries?
HW, p. 493, #1, 3-4, Extra Credit #5-6.
Concert of Europe
Napoleon’s armies spread nationalism to the lands that they defeated. People saw Napoleon’s armies as foreign oppressors and resented efforts to impose French culture on all of Europe. Revolts erupted in many areas.
a) They wanted to restore stability, order, and peace by establishing a balance of power and returning to the status quo of 1793.
b) They restored monarchs to power, ringed France with strong countries, and created the Concert of Europe as a peacekeeping organization.
Answers may vary, but students should recognize that Napoleon and his armies spread the ideas of the French Revolution to the lands that they conquered.
Student letters and diaries should reflect an ability to recognize and express a historical viewpoint.