Tuesday, February 21, 2017

HUM 111 Week 8 Winter 2017

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Two breaks: 7:30 and 9:00 pm, Discussion, 9:45, Dismiss, 10:15.

Week 8 Checklist
  • Complete and submit Week 8 Quiz 7: Chapters 13 and 14
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 15: The High Renaissance in Rome and Venice
    • Chapter 16: The Renaissance in the North – Central and Northern Europe
  • View the Week 8 Would You Like to Know More? videos
  • Explore the Week 8 Music
  • Do the Week 8 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 8 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options)
  • Complete and submit Week 8 Assignment 2

Pre-Built Course Content

Click the image below to learn more about Machiavelli's "The Prince".

When the end justifies the means! Exploring Machiavelli's ideas and influence.

Pre-Built Course Content

Click the image below to learn more about symbolism during the Northern Renaissance.

Jan van Eyck's use of symbols, as new ways of looking at art develop in the Renaissance.

Music Folder

Pre-Built Course Content

HUM111 Music for Week 8

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In this week's readings (chaps.  15 and 16), there are three musical compositions mentioned.  These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.   Watch and give them a listen.   Here below are some background descriptions of each--and the links to the YouTubes (and sometimes other helps).
  1. Pange Lingua  (Josquin des Prez) (chap. 15, p. 519)  3:09
    Saint Clement's Choir, Philadelphia http://www.saintclementsphiladelphia....
    Maundy Thursday - March 20, 2008
    Josquin des Prez- Missa Pange Lingua, Kyrie Eleison

    Saint Clements Church
    2013 Appletree St.
    Philadelphia, PA 19103

Read carefully p. 519 (in chap. 15).  This was sung as part of a Catholic mass.  Pange Lingua means "Sing, My Tongue"; it was composed between 1513 and 1521 AD.  Josquin des Prez wrote about 18 masses and many other works.  His works have been widely performed for many years after his death. 
  1. Morir non puo il mio cuore (by Madalena Casulana) (chap. 15, pp. 532-3)
1. Pange lingua gloriosi Corporis mysterium, Sanguinisque pretiosi, Quem in mundi pretium Fructus ventris generosi, Rex effudit gentium.
2. Nobis datus, nobis natus Ex intacta Virgine Et in mundo conversatus, Sparso verbi semine, Sui moras incolatus Miro clausit ordine.
3. In supremae nocte coenae Recumbens cum fratribus, Observata lege plene Cibis in legalibus, Cibum turbae duodenae Se dat suis manibus
4. Verbum caro, panem verum Verbo carnem efficit: Fitque sanguis Christi merum, Et si sensus deficit, Ad firmandum cor sincerum Sola fides sufficit.
5. Tantum ergo Sacramentum Veneremur cernui: Et antiquum documentum Novo cedat ritui: Praestet fides supplementum Sensuum defectui.
6. Genitori, Genitoque Laus et iubilatio, Salus, honor, virtus quoque Sit et benedictio: Procedenti ab utroque Compar sit laudatio. Amen.
V. Panem de caelo praestitisti eis. R. Omne delectamentum in se habentem.
Oremus: Deus, qui nobis sub sacramento mirabili, passionis tuae memoriam reliquisti: tribue, quaesumus, ita nos corporis et sanguinis tui sacra mysteria venerari, ut redemptionis tuae fructum in nobis iugiter sentiamus. Qui vivis et regnas in saecula saeculorum. R. Amen.
Of the glorious Body telling, O my tongue, its mysteries sing, And the Blood, all price excelling, Which the world's eternal King, In a noble womb once dwelling Shed for the world's ransoming.
Given for us, descending, Of a Virgin to proceed, Man with man in converse blending, Scattered he the Gospel seed, Till his sojourn drew to ending, Which he closed in wondrous deed.
At the last great Supper lying Circled by his brethren's band, Meekly with the law complying, First he finished its command Then, immortal Food supplying, Gave himself with his own hand.
Word made Flesh, by word he maketh Very bread his Flesh to be; Man in wine Christ's Blood partaketh: And if senses fail to see, Faith alone the true heart waketh To behold the mystery.
Therefore we, before him bending, This great Sacrament revere; Types and shadows have their ending, For the newer rite is here; Faith, our outward sense befriending, Makes the inward vision clear.
Glory let us give, and blessing To the Father and the Son; Honour, might, and praise addressing, While eternal ages run; Ever too his love confessing, Who, from both, with both is one. Amen.
R. Thou hast given them bread from heaven. V. Having within it all sweetness.
Let us pray: O God, who in this wonderful Sacrament left us a memorial of Thy Passion: grant, we implore Thee, that we may so venerate the sacred mysteries of Thy Body and Blood, as always to be conscious of the fruit of Thy Redemption. Thou who livest and reignest forever and ever. R. Amen.

Madalena Casulana (also spelled Maddalena Casulano) was a professional composer, probably the first female composer to see her compositions printed and distributed by publishing houses. She specialized in madrigals, secular songs with three or more voices. Morir non puo il mio cuore means “My Heart Cannot Die”.  Read carefully pp. 532-3 (in Chap. 15) about Casulana and the advantages of the madrigal form.


  1. Matona mia cara (Roland de Lassus)  (chap. 16, p. 559)
Read carefully p. 559 in chap. 16.  Then give this a listen.  Matona, mia cara means "My Lady, My Beloved". Lassus wrote this around 1550 AD at age 18.  It is a secular, light-hearted madrigal  (even a bit lusty) and was often part of a dance or dance performance.

Matona, Mia Cara" - de Lassus, The Stairwell Carollers, Ottawa, 3:08
Orlando di Lasso
Matona mia cara, mi follere canzon
cantar sotto finestra, Lanze bon compagnon.
Don don don diri diri don don don don
Ti prego m'ascoltare che mi cantar de bon
e mi ti foller bene come greco e capon.
Don don don diri diri don don don don
Com'andar alle cazze, cazzar con le falcon,
mi ti portar beccazze,
grasse come rognon
Don don don diri diri don don don don
Se mi non saper dire tante belle rason
Petrarca mi non saper, ne fonte d'Helicon.
Don don don diridiridon don don don
Se ti mi foller bene mi non esser poltron;
mi ficcar tutta notte, urtar come monton
Don don don diri diri don don don don.

English Translation:

My dear Lady, I'd love to sing a song below your window.

I'm a lancer, and a good lad. Please listen to me, for I sing well, and I love you greatly, as a Greek does his capon.

[ A capon (from Latin caponem) is a cockerel or rooster that has been castrated to improve the quality of its flesh for food and, in some countries like Spain, fattened by forced feeding.]

When I go hunting, hunting with a falcon, I'll bring you woodcocks as fat as a kidney.

Though I do not know so many elegant phases, and know nothing of Petrarch, or the fountain of Helicon, if you'll have me, I'm no laggard, I'll make love to you all night long, thrusting like a ram.

Ottawa choir, The Stairwell Carollers, perform "Matona, Mia Cara", a Renaissance madrigal by Roland de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Orlande de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530) -- 14 June 1594). The text is in Italian, but the "singer" is a German soldier and includes other other words in French and possibly Latin. Ours is an "adjusted" version according to ChoralWiki -- to make it less... naughty. http://www3.cpdl.org/wiki/index.php/M...) The Stairwell Carollers, an a cappella group, formed in 1977 by director Pierre Massie, has earned the distinction of being ranked amongst the best of Ontario choirs. The group took first place in both the 2010 and 2013 Ontario Music Festival Association provincial competition. This non-profit organization raises funds for local charities through concert, CD and cookbook sales. All our CDs are available on our website in both CD form and as MP3 downloads. http://www.stairwellcarollers.com/Pur... Visit our blog or our website http://www.stairwellcarollers.com/ for updates. St-Charles Church, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, June 8th, 2001.


Week 8 Explore

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Michelangelo and Raphael: The Classical Tradition Reborn
  • Chapter 15 (pp. 494-5, 505-513), Stylistic features and imagery from ancient classical art and myth; review Week 8 Music Folder
  • Sistine Chapel tour at http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/sistine-chapel-ceiling.html
  • 6:46

  • Sistine Chapel information at http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/m/michelan/3sistina/index.html
  • Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II della Rovere in 1508 to repaint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel frescoed earlier by Piero Matteo d'Amelia with a star-spangled sky. The work was completed between 1508 and 1512. He painted the Last Judgement over the altar, between 1535 and 1541, being commissioned by Pope Paul III Farnese. This monumental fresco covers the entire end wall of the chapel which led the obliteration of the frescoes painted at the time of Sixtus IV: the first figures of the popes, the first two scenes of the life of Christ and life of Moses, the image of the Virgin of Assumption (by Perugino), together with the first two lunettes, representing the Ancestors of Christ frescoed earlier by Michelangelo himself. The two large windows set into the altar wall were closed up.

  • Sistine Chapel theory at http://karlzipser.com/michelangelo.html


We began with a search for traces of Michelangelo's lost 3-dimensional sketches. We found what could be careful depictions of some of them in the red chalk drawings for the Sistine Chapel ceiling.

During the difficult years of creating the ceiling frescoes, the artist signed his letters to his family with the title, "Michelangelo, Sculptor in Rome." During this time he was not able to create the marble sculpture that was his passion, and it is easy to regard this title "Sculptor" as more wishful thinking than as directly connected to his activities from 1509 to 1513.

And yet, as we have seen in this essay, the designation "Sculptor in Rome" could have been literally true during the fresco project.

Michelangelo may have formed clay models of his figures, and used them to transform his ideas onto wet plaster.

If we take Michelangelo at his word and consider this possibility, we are able to reinterpret the entire process of creation of the ceiling frescoes of the Sistine Chapel.

Jan Van Eyck’s Arnolfini Double Portrait

 For this week's discussion question, you will be discussing:
  • Interpretations of classical Greek and / or Roman works or the analysis of Northern Renaissance art work 
Week 8 Discussion Option A
"The Classical Tradition reborn" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Identify two (2) classical Greek and / or Roman figures or qualities in any work by Michelangelo or by Raphael. Discuss the primary reasons why popes and other patrons might allow such trappings of ancient pagan culture within a Christian society, even in sacred contexts. Provide a rationale for your response. Describe any modern structure or sculpture or work of art where you can identify either ancient pagan images or features, or a mix of elements from different cultures and periods.
Michelangelo and Raphael: The Classical Tradition Reborn
Week 8 Discussion Option B

"Van Eyck and Analyzing Art in the Northern Renaissance" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Explain whether you agree with the interpretation of either Sayre or Koster of Van Eyck’s Arnolfini double portrait, identifying the most persuasive part of that interpretation. Describe two (2) symbolic elements of the painting and any other features that stand out to you. Pretend you are having a portrait done of you and a significant other; describe at least four (4) symbolic elements that you might include in the painting, and explain why.
Jan Van Eyck’s Arnolfini Double Portrait

  • Chapter 15: The High Renaissance in Rome and Venice

  • Chapter 16: The Renaissance in the North – Central and Northern Europe
15 The High Renaissance in Rome and Venice




15.1 Describe the impact of papal patronage on the art of the High Renaissance in Rome.

15.2 Compare the social fabric and artistic style of Renaissance Venice to that of both Florence and Rome.

15.3 Outline the place of women in Renaissance Italy.

15.4 Discuss the new literary attitudes, musical forms, and architectural innovations of the Venetian High Renaissance.

The Art of the Papal Court in Rome 502



How did papal patronage impact the arts in Rome?

Of all the fifteenth-century popes, Sixtus IV was the most successful in fulfilling the Church’s mission to rebuild Rome. He rebuilt the city’s port, repaved its streets, and built a new, functional bridge across the Tiber. He restored and refreshed the city’s water supply, once the pride of the Roman emperors. All around the city, he rebuilt old churches and constructed new ones. He founded the Vatican Library, where a fresco showed Sixtus, his nephews, and the humanist scholar Platina (Fig. 15.2). At the bottom, an inscription commends Sixtus for these accomplishments: “Rome, once full of squalor, owes to you, Sixtus, its temples, foundling hospital, street squares, walks, bridges, the restoration of the Acqua Vergine at the Trevi fountain, the port for sailors, the fortifications on the Vatican Hill, and now this celebrated library.”

The Patronage of the Cardinals 503


The papal court of Sixtus IV—especially its cardinals—commissioned as many or more works than the pope himself. Sixtus VI’s nephew, Cardinal Raffaele Riario, built a huge palace for himself and also managed to lure the youthful Michelangelo to Rome, commissioning him to sculpt a nearly 7-foot-tall Bacchus. This staggering, drunken depiction of the god of wine eventually ended up in the collection of Michelangelo’s friend, the Roman banker Jacopo Galli, perhaps because it seemed unsuitable for the collection of a cardinal. Galli, in turn, seems to have arranged for Michelangelo’s second commission in Rome, a contract with another cardinal that boldly promised to provide the cardinal with the most beautiful statue in the city. Michelangelo was not yet 25, yet he succeeded in creating a sculpture of enormous emotional intensity, the Pietà, a word meaning both “pity” and “piety” in Italian, and generally used to describe Mary grieving over her dead son lying in her arms (Fig. 15.3). In this Pietà, Michelangelo has enlarged Mary’s body, though not her face, and thus diminished Christ in relation to her. As a result, Christ’s supple body, unaffected by rigor mortis, veins bulging as if blood still coursed through them, fits neatly into the soft folds of his mother’s dress and draperies, the carving of which demonstrated the sculptor’s mastery of his material. Christ seems almost alive—at least more asleep than dead—probably a metaphor of his spiritual rebirth. Likewise, though Mary would have been middle-aged at Christ’s death, Michelangelo portrays her as still young and beautiful because she is more a timeless image of purity and chastity than a real person. Nevertheless, though the scene is idealized, the emotions it evokes in the viewer are very real indeed.

Bramante and the New Saint Peter’s Basilica 504


Shortly after he was elected pope in 1503, Julius II made what may have been the most important commission of the day. He asked the architect Donato Bramante (1444–1514) to renovate the Vatican Palace and serve as chief architect of a plan to replace Saint Peter’s Basilica with a new church. The pope took the name Julius to emphasize his own imperial authority. He grew a beard, emulating Julius Caesar, who in 54 bce had let his beard grow after the Gauls had slaughtered his troops. (Caesar swore to let his beard and hair go uncut until he had taken his vengeance.) Like Caesar, Julius II was intent on defeating the hated French and driving them out of northern Italy, a triumph the papal forces accomplished in 1512 with the help of a Spanish army. His decision to demolish the Old Saint Peter’s Basilica, which had been built by the emperor Constantine in about 330, and erect a magnificent new one in its place, was the ultimate expression of his majesty and power.

Wonders of the World - Saint Peter's Basilica, 2:14

St. Peter's Basilica is a Late Renaissance church located within Vatican City.Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and remains one of the largest churches in the world.


The Sistine Chapel 506


Just as the construction of the New Saint Peter’s was about to get under way, Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to design his tomb. It would be a three-storied monument, over 23 feet wide and 35 feet high, and it represents Michelangelo’s first foray into architecture. For the next 40 years, Michelangelo would work sporadically on the tomb, but from the beginning, he was continually interrupted, most notably in 1506 when Julius himself commanded the artist to paint the 45 by 128-foot ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, named after Sixtus IV, Julius’s uncle, who had commissioned its construction in 1473. Ever since its completion, the chapel has served as the meeting place of the conclave of cardinals during the election of new popes. Michelangelo at first refused Julius’s commission, but by 1508, he reconsidered, signed the contract, and began the task.

Virtual Tour of the Sistine Chapel, 3:02

"Palestrina: Missa Papae Marcelli - Benedictus - Hosanna" by The Choir Of Westminster Abbey


Raphael and the Stanza della Segnatura 510

Meanwhile, in about 1505, a young painter named Raphael (Raffaello Santi or Sanzio) arrived in Florence from Urbino and began to receive a great deal of attention as a painter of portraits of wealthy Florentine citizens. He also produced a series of small, beautifully executed paintings of the Virgin and Child. The latter, of course, embraced a theme that stretched back to the Byzantine icon, down through the work of the Sienese painters, Duccio and Martini, and the Florentines, Cimabue and Giotto (see Chapter 13). However, the naturalism that these earlier painters had striven to achieve reached new heights in Raphael’s work. His paintings were immediately approachable—linearly precise, coloristically rich, and compositionally simple.

Raffaello, The School of Athens in the Stanza della Segnatura (Vatican) (manortiz), 6:06

The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1510 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens the second painting to be finished there, after La Disputa, on the opposite wall. The picture has long been seen as "Raphael's masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the High Renaissance.


The Medici Popes 511

Pope Julius II died in 1513, not long after Michelangelo had completed the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Raphael the Stanza della Segnatura. He was succeeded by Leo X, born Giovanni de’ Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent.

The Sistine Chapel Choir 519

The inventiveness that marks the patronage of the Medici popes and cardinals as well as the work of Raphael, Leonardo, and Michelangelo was a quality shared by Renaissance musicians, especially in the virtuosity of their performances. Such originality was the hallmark of the Sistine Chapel Choir, founded in 1473 by Sixtus IV. It performed only on occasions when the pope was present and typically consisted of between 16 and 24 male singers. The choir’s repertory was limited to the polyphonic forms common to the liturgy: motets, masses, and psalm settings. These were arranged in four parts (voices), for boy sopranos, male altos, tenors, and basses. The choir usually sang without instrumental accompaniment, a cappella, “in the manner of the chapel,” an unusual practice at the time, since most chapel choirs relied on at least organ accompaniment.

Sistine Chapel Choir - Palestrina: Sicut cervus, 2:45

For the first time ever, the Vatican has opened the doors of the iconic Sistine Chapel for a studio recording with the Sistine Chapel Choir – the world’s oldest choir. The landmark new album, Cantate Domino, captures the sounds of this extraordinary acoustic, with music performed by the Pope’s own choir. The album, which was made by special permission of the Vatican, includes music written for the Sistine Chapel Choir by Palestrina, Lassus and Victoria during the Renaissance. Sicut Cervus by Palestrina is the first music video from the Sistine Chapel Choir. Pre-Order the album: http://DG.lnk.to/SistineChapel_Cantat...


Josquin des Prez 519

Composers from all over Europe were attracted to the Sistine Chapel Choir. Between 1489 and 1495, one of the principal members of the choir was the Franco-Flemish composer Josquin des Prez (ca. 1450–1521). Afterward, beginning in about 1503, he served as musical director of the chapel at the court of Ferrara. During his lifetime, he wrote some 18 masses, almost 100 motets (see Chapter 12 and the discussion of Guillaume Dufay in Chapter 14), and some 70 songs, including three Italian frottole.

Josquin Desprez - "Ave Maria", 4:50


The High Renaissance in Venice 520

Meet the masters of Renaissance Venice, 3:21

With In the Age of Giorgione currently at the RA, our curator heads to Venice to introduce three major figures in the golden age of Renaissance painting: Bellini, Giorgione and Titian. In the Age of Giorgione Until 5 June 2016 Book now: https://www.royalacademy.org.uk/exhib...


What distinguishes Venetian culture from that of Florence and Rome?

In a mid-fifteenth-century painting by Vittore Carpaccio (1450–1525) of Saint Mark’s lion (Fig. 15.21), symbol of the Venetian republic, the lion stands with its front paws on land and its rear paws on the sea, symbolizing the importance of both elements to the city. In the sixth or seventh century, invading Lombards from the north had forced the local populations of the Po River delta to flee to the swampy lagoon islands that would later become the city of Venice. Ever since, trade had been the lifeblood of Venice.

2014 Italy Trip - Rome, Florence, Venice, 4:31

For our 2-year anniversary we took a trip to Italy. We visited Rome, Florence and Venice. This is just a peek at what we saw and experienced... It was the trip of a lifetime. Read more about our experience: http://www.antifoodie.com See more pictures on instagram: http://www.instagram.com/treding Song: Twenty One Pilots - "Holding On To You"


Venetian Architecture 521

During the Renaissance, an elaborate, sensuous style of architecture would develop in Venice, influenced by the elaborate Gothic style of facades of buildings such as the Doge’s Palace, which was begun in 1340 (Fig. 15.22). There is no hint in this building of any need to create a defensible space to protect the state. Two stories of open arcades, rising in pointed arches and topped by open quatrefoils, provide covered walkways around the outside, as if to invite the citizenry into its halls. The diamond pattern of the stonework in the upper stories creates a sense of lightness to what might otherwise seem a massive facade. And the color of the ornament and stone—white and pink—seem calculated to reflect light itself, so that the building might shine like a gemstone set in the public square, literally a reflection of the city’s wealth and well-being. The building’s emphasis on texture and the play of light and shadow across richly elaborated surfaces would become one of the hallmarks of Venetian art and architecture.

Experience Venice’s Spectacular Beauty in Under 4 Minutes | Short Film Showcase, 3:41

The Venetian life resides within the city's hundreds of canals and diverse architecture. This short documentary by directors Olvier Astrologo and Nils Astrologo immerses us in the historical and hidden places of Venice, Italy, to reveal ancient folk traditions. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe ➡ Get More Short Film Showcase: http://bit.ly/Shortfilmshowcase About Short Film Showcase: The Short Film Showcase spotlights exceptional short videos created by filmmakers from around the web and selected by National Geographic editors. We look for work that affirms National Geographic's belief in the power of science, exploration, and storytelling to change the world. The filmmakers created the content presented, and the opinions expressed are their own, not those of National Geographic Partners. Know of a great short film that should be part of our Showcase? Email SFS@ngs.org to submit a video for consideration. See more from National Geographic's Short Film Showcase at http://documentary.com Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/oliver.astro... Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/oliverhl/ Vimeo: https://vimeo.com/oliverastrologo Twitter: https://twitter.com/oliverastrologo Directed by Oliver Astrologo and Nils Astrologo (fb.com/oliver.astrologo) Filmed by Tommaso Cassinis, Nils Astrologo, and Oliver Astrologo Production assistant: Valeria D’Ovidio Music produced by ZerOKilled Music Inc. (zerokilledmusic.com) Track: ”Dream Journey" by Moon Device Sound design by Peter Breaker Experience Venice’s Spectacular Beauty in Under 4 Minutes | Short Film Showcase https://youtu.be/JphHw6iU4m8 National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo


The Scuole, Painting, and the Venetian Style 522

At the end of the thirteenth century, Venice’s Grand Council divided the city’s population into three social classes. The nobility were the patrician families, from whose members the doge was elected. Beneath this small, upperechelon group were male citizens, essentially a bourgeois mercantile class of people who rotated through the elective offices of the government. To enter their ranks, one had to prove that no one in the family had ever performed manual labor. The rest of the population made up roughly 90 percent of the city’s inhabitants. They were artisans, craftspeople, shipbuilders, shopkeepers, and all foreigners, no matter how wealthy.

Tintoretto at San Giorgio Maggiore and Scuola Grande di San Rocco, 2:52

This videoclip shows two paintings by the Venetian Baroque painter Tintoretto hanging in San Giorgio Maggiore, the Church built by the Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio. One of the two works shown is the masterpiece "L'ultima Cena" (The Last Supper), a painting that with its great piercing diagonal is widely viewed as representing the essence of the baroque. The painting opposite La Cena is "Manna from Heaven". The famous floor of polychrome marble in the "cube sans fond" style is one of the best known examples of architectural trompe l'oeil illusion. Next is shown Tintoretto's overwhelming series of New and Old Testament paintings commissioned for the Scuola Grande di San Rocco. The clip ends with a view of the extraordinary "Crucifixion". Filmed by Suzanne Fredericq in June 2010 with an iphone 3GS.


Masters of the Venetian High Renaissance: Giorgione and Titian 525

The two great masters of painting in the Venetian High Renaissance were Giorgione da Castelfranco, known simply as Giorgione (ca. 1478–1510), and Titian (ca. 1488–1576). Both painters were students of Giovanni Bellini, and Giorgione had been especially inspired by Leonardo’s visit in 1500. In the first decade of the sixteenth century, they worked sometimes side by side with Bellini, gaining increased control of their surfaces, building up color by means of glazing, as Leonardo did in his soft, luminous landscapes. Their paintings, like the great palaces of Venice whose reflections shimmered on the Grand Canal, demonstrate an exquisite sensitivity to the play of light and shadow, to the luxurious display of detail and design, and to an opulent variety of pattern and texture.

Pastoral Concert by Giorgione or Titian, 2:31

Pastoral Concert Painted by Giorgione in 1508 From "One Hundred Masterpieces of Painting" by John La Farge From the LearnOutLoud.com Audiobook "Art Masterpieces": http://www.learnoutloud.com/Free-Audi... For a high quality PDF of this image, please go here: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/ArtHis...


Women in Italian Humanist Society 527

How did women fare in the Italian Renaissance?

The paintings of both Giorgione and Titian raise the issue of the place of women in Italian humanist society. It remained commonplace, especially in Venice, to paint portraits of women whose identity was unknown but who represented ideal beauty. Titian’s La Bella (Fig. 15.30) seems to be the same person depicted in the Venus of Urbino (and she appears in at least two other Titian portraits), but her identity is a mystery, if in fact she was ever a “real” woman and not simply the embodiment of Titian’s idea of “true” beauty. Something of a canon of female beauty had been codified by Petrarch, in his sonnets, and Poliziano in his poems (see Reading 14.1 in Chapter 14). In her book Women in Italian Renaissance Art: Gender, Representation, Identity, Paola Tinagli sums up the canon: “Writers praised [painters for] the attractions of wavy hair gleaming like gold; of white skin similar to snow, to marble, to alabaster or to milk; they admired cheeks which looked like lilies and roses, and eyes that shone like the sun or the stars. Lips are compared to rubies, teeth to pearls, breasts to snow or apples.” Portraits of Venetian women who embodied such traits are emblems of the beautiful more than representations of real beings.

The Humanist Education of Women 528

In the Italian humanist courts, the wives of rulers and their daughters—who were, after all, prospective wives of other rulers—received a humanist education. Like the medieval author of the Book of the City of Ladies, Christine de Pizan (see Chapter 13), they possessed knowledge of French and Latin, the ability to write in their native language with grace and ease, a close acquaintance with both Classical and vernacular Italian literature, and at least a passing knowledge of mathematics and rhetoric. They were expected to be good musicians and dancers. In addition, the rise of the merchant class to a position of wealth and social responsibility necessitated at least some degree of education for the women whose husbands were members of the guilds and confraternities of the city.

Women and Family Life 529

Still, for most women the husband’s role was one of active, public life, and the wife’s was to manage domestic affairs. In On the Family, a book published in 1443 by the same Leon Battista Alberti whose On Painting had outlined the principles of perspective, the author approvingly quotes a young groom introducing his bride to his household:

After my wife had been settled in my house a few days, and after her first pangs of longing for her mother and family had begun to fade, I took her by the hand and showed her around the whole house. … At the end there were no household goods of which my wife had not learned both the place and purpose. Then we returned to my room and having locked the door, I showed her my treasures, silver, tapestry, garments, jewels, and where each thing had its place.

Infamous Women of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 3:53

The Middle Ages and Renaissance had its share of powerful and interesting women. It included rulers, intellectuals, military commanders and even some saints. But here are three women who were mostly known for their infamy! When Lucrezia was born into the Borgia family in 1480, she was destined for a life of intrigue and innuendo. She was the illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia, a churchmen who schemed his way into becoming Pope Alexander the Sixth in 1492. Known for exquisite beauty, Lucrezia was married off three times by her father for political alliances. She also had numerous affairs, and was even able to divorce her first husband on the grounds that they never had consumated their marriage - although she was pregnant at time. Her second husband was murdered by Lucrezia's brother, Cesare, who had a close relationship with his sister. The enemies of the Borgia family even accused them of having an incestuous affair. Lucrezia was perhaps one of the more innocent members of the Borgia family, but she will be forever be linked to one of the most notorious bloodlines in history. Mary the first, queen of England, gained the nickname "Bloody Mary" for the wave of executions and terror she inflicted during her reign in the years 1553 to 1558. The daughter of King Henry the Eighth, she was deeply opposed to Henry's break with the Catholic church. After the death of her brother Edward the Sixth, Mary was able to overcome a challenge to the throne and become the Queen of England. She soon found a husband - King Philip of Spain, although her marriage was deeply unpopular with her subjects. Her reputation went down further when she tried to reimpose Catholicism in England - hundreds of men and women who remained Protestant were executed - often by being burned at the stake, while hundreds more fled the country. Even those who repented, like the Archbishop of Canterbury, were executed anyways. She failed to have a child before illness struck her down at the age of 42. Her sister Elizabeth then came to the throne, and undid the repression against Protestants and going on to become one of England's best known rulers. Born 7 August 1560, Countess Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Bathory was one of history's first known serial killers. She was rumoured to be a product of upper class inbreeding; something that was prevalent in tumultuous sixteenth century Hungary. She was accused of having numerous affairs, of engaging in lesbian encounters and dabbling in witchcraft and the occult. She was also accused of unspeakable acts of cruelty and murder. Elizabeth engaged in horrific acts of brutality on her hapless victims; biting, exposure, branding, the severing of body parts and the use of an Iron Maiden were but a few of her preferred modes of torture. Elizabeth was perhaps best known for her infamous "blood baths" where she gained pleasure by smearing and bathing herself in the blood of her victims in an effort to retain her youth and beauty. She was eventually arrested on December 30, 1610. It has been speculated that between 1585 and 1610, Elizabeth and her four accomplices murdered approximately 650 women. She was sentenced to death but instead lived out the remainder of her life walled up in Csejte (Čachtický) Castle. She died on August 21st, 1614.


Laura Cereta and Lucretia Marinella: Renaissance Feminists 529

Many fifteenth-century women strove for a level of education beyond the mere “knowledge of letters, music, painting” called for by Castiglione. One of the most interesting is Laura Cereta (1469–99). She was the eldest child of a prominent family from the city of Brescia in the Venetian Terraferma. Until she was 11, she was educated by nuns at a convent school. There, she studied reading, writing, embroidery, and Latin until her father called her home to help raise her siblings. But he encouraged her to continue her studies, and in his library, she read deeply in Latin, Greek, and mathematics. At 15, however, Cereta chose motherhood over the pursuit of her studies and married a local merchant. When he died, two years later, she returned to her studies. In 1488, at just 19 years of age, she published Family Letters, a Latin manuscript containing 82 letters addressed to friends and family, an unusually large number of them women, as well as a mock funeral oration in the Classical style.

Veronica Franco: Literary Courtesan 530

Among Venice’s most educated citizens were its so-called “honest courtesans” who, unlike common prostitutes, who sold only their sexual favors, were highly sophisticated intellectuals who gained access to the city’s aristocratic circles. “Thou wilt find the Venetian Courtezan a good Rhetorician and an elegant discourser,” wrote one early seventeenth-century visitor to the city. Although subject to the usual public ridicule—and often blamed, together with the city’s Jews, for any troubles that might befall the republic—they were understood by writers such as Lucretia Marinella to be more products of men’s own shortcomings and desires than willful sinners in their own right. This group of courtesans, in fact, dominated the Venetian literary scene. Many of their poems transform the clichés of courtly love poetry into frankly erotic metaphors, undermining the superior position of men in Italian society in ways comparable to the proto-feminist writings of the likes of Cereta and Marinella.

Confession of Veronica Franco (1998), 2:40

Herskovitz, M. (Director). (1998). Dangerous Beauty [Motion Picture]


New Trends in Venetian Literature, Music, and Architecture 531

What new literary attitudes, musical forms, and architectural innovations distinguish the Venetian High Renaissance?

As the remarkable intellectual inventiveness of its women citizens suggests, Venice prided itself on its spirit of innovation. Ludovico Ariosto’s epic poem, Orlando Furioso, so enthralled audiences with its combination of parodic wit and wildly exciting narrative that it quickly became one of the very first examples of a truly popular literature. In music, the city hosted two of the most important composers of a new secular musical form, the madrigal. And the country homes of Andrea Palladio on the Venetian mainland would establish a new Classical standard in domestic architecture.

Ludovico Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso 531


The satiric approach to chivalry and courtly love also appears in the romantic epic Orlando Furioso (“The Madness of Orlando”) by Ludovico Ariosto (1474–1533), a writer working in the nearby Ferrara court. Published in Venice in 1515 under the authority of the doge, Orlando Furioso would become the most popular book of the day, constantly revised and expanded to reflect events in contemporary Italian history artfully disguised in the conventions of medieval romance. The heroism and intellectual superiority of its many female characters served to inspire Lucretia Marinella. It also inspired artists to depict scenes from its narrative, such as the maiolica plate illustrated here (Fig. 15.32), made by a native of the town of Rovigo in the Venetian Terraferma, Francesco Xanto Avelli, known as Xanto. Maiolica is made with a tin-glazing technique first used by the Babylonians in the ancient Middle East. Tin glaze creates a brilliant white, opaque surface, which is then painted over with underglazes that absorb the pigment like fresco, resulting in brilliant colors.

Music of the Venetian High Renaissance 532


Almost without exception, women of literary accomplishment in the Renaissance were musically accomplished as well. As we have seen, Isabella d’Este played both the lute and the lira da braccio, the precursor to the modern violin. Through her patronage, she and her sister-in-law Lucrezia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara, competed for musicians and encouraged the cultivation of the frottola. Courtesans such as Veronica Franco could both sing and play. And both Isabella and Elisabetta Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, were well known for their ability to improvise songs. By the last decades of the sixteenth century, we know that women were composing music as well. The most famous of these was the Venetian Madalena Casulana.

Andrea Palladio and the New Rural Architecture 533


The setting of Titian’s Sacred and Profane Love (see Fig. 15.28) represents an escapist tendency that we first saw in Boccaccio’s Decameron (Chapter 13). In Boccaccio’s stories, a group of young men and women flee the onset of the plague in Florence, escape to the country, and for ten days entertain each other with a series of tales, many of which are alternately ribald and erotic, moral and exemplary. Renaissance humanists considered retreats to the country to be an honored ancient Roman tradition, the pleasures of which were richly documented by such Roman poets as Horace in his Odes (Chapter 6):

ARCHITECTURE - Andrea Palladio, 5:24

Andrea Palladio was one of the world's greatest architects - who launched the Classical style which influenced how we build to this day. If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): http://www.theschooloflife.com/shop/all/ Brought to you by http://www.theschooloflife.com Produced in collaboration with Khyan Mansley http://www.youtube.com/khyan




15.1 Sonnet to John of Pistoia on the Sistine Ceiling (ca. 1510) 509


15.2 from Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, Chapters 15–18 (1513) 538


15.2a–b from Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, Chapters 14 and 5 (1513) 517


15.3 from Baldassare Castiglione, The Courtier, Book 3 (1513–18; published 1528) 529


15.4 from Laura Cereta, Defense of Liberal Instruction for Women (1488) 529


15.5 from Lucretia Marinella, The Nobility and Excellence of Women and the Defects and Vices of Men (ca. 1600) 540


15.5a from Lucretia Marinella, The Nobility and Excellence of Women (ca. 1600) 530


15.6 from Veronica Franco, Terze Rime, Capitolo 13 530


15.7a–b from Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, Canto I, XI 532


15.8a–b from Andrea Palladio, Four Books on Architecture (1570) 533–534




CLOSER LOOK Raphael’s School of Athens 512


CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Self-Portrait 535


15.1 Describe the impact of papal patronage on the art of the High Renaissance in Rome.

In the fifteenth century, the grandeur that had once distinguished the city of Rome had almost entirely vanished. But beginning with the ascension of Sixtus IV to the papacy in 1471, and lasting until 1527, when German mercenaries in the employ of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked the city, the patronage of the popes and their cardinals transformed Rome. This period is known as the High Renaissance. Many of the greatest works of the period, including Michelangelo’s frescoes for the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Bramante’s Tempietto and his new basilica for Saint Peter’s, and Raphael’s frescoes for the Stanza della Segnatura, were commissioned by Pope Julius II. How would you describe Julius II’s personality?

Julius II was followed in 1513 by Leo X, born Giovanni de’ Medici. Leo particularly favored Raphael as an artist. In 1523, Giulio de’ Medici became pope as Clement VII. The Sack of Rome in 1527 caused many artists to leave the city and substantially diminished Clement’s ability to sustain the same scale of patronage as his predecessors. Niccolò Machiavelli’s treatise The Prince reflects the turmoil surrounding papal politics in this era. What does he suggest is the prince’s primary duty? Do you think Machiavelli’s outlook is applicable today?

Renaissance musicians shared with other artists of the age its spirit of inventiveness. The Sistine Chapel Choir, founded in 1473 by Sixtus IV, usually sang a cappella (without instrumental accompaniment). Between 1489 and 1495, one of the principal members of the Sistine Chapel Choir was the Franco-Flemish composer Josquin des Prez. His compositions include 18 masses. What is a mass?

15.2 Compare the social fabric and artistic style of Renaissance Venice to that of both Florence and Rome.

Fifteenth-century Venice defined itself as both the most cosmopolitan and the most democratic city in the world. Its religious and political centers—Saint Mark’s Cathedral and the Doge’s Palace—stood side by side, symbolizing peace, prosperity, and, above all, unity of purpose. How does this compare to cities like Florence and Siena? How does it compare to Rome?

The city’s scuole (“schools”), religious confraternities which engaged in charity, sponsored social functions, and marched in sometimes elaborate processions associated with civic and religious festivals, reflected its democratic values. The wealth and general well-being of Venice was displayed along the Grand Canal, where its most important families built their homes. These magnificent homes were Gothic in character. How can we account for the city’s taste for this medieval style? Two of the most important Venetian painters of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Gentile Bellini and Vittore Carpaccio, received commissions from the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista (Saint John the Evangelist). Why were Venetian painters like Giorgione and Titian attracted to oil painting as a medium? In what ways does their painting style differ from other High Renaissance painters such as Michelangelo and Raphael?

15.3 Outline the place of women in Renaissance Italy.

In many ways the paintings of both Giorgione and Titian reflect Venetian attitudes toward women. What does Titian’s La Bella reveal about these attitudes? In the Italian humanist courts, the wives of rulers and their daughters received a humanist education. Much of what we know about customary behavior of ladies at court derives from Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier. Several notable women strove for a level of education beyond the mere “knowledge of letters, music, painting” called for by Castiglione. Among these were Isabella d’Este, the duchess of Mantua and wife to Francesco Gonzaga, who owned an important collection of art and antiques, and two women who frankly rebelled against male attitudes toward them, Laura Cereta and Lucretia Marinella. What is the relation between Cereta’s Defense of Liberal Instruction for Women and Pico della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man? How would you describe Marinella’s sense of women’s place?

The Venetian literary scene was dominated by a group of so-called “honest courtesans” whose reputations were built upon the ability to combine sexual and intellectual pursuits. The poetry of one of these courtesans, Veronica Franco, exemplifies their literary production.

15.4 Discuss the new literary attitudes, musical forms, and architectural innovations of the Venetian High Renaissance.

Ludovico Ariosto’s romantic epic Orlando Furioso is a landmark in Venetian literature. What aspects of its style and subject matter helped to make it so popular?

By the last decades of the sixteenth century, women began to compose music as well. The most famous of these was the Venetian Madalena Casulana, the first professional woman composer to see her own compositions in print. How do her madrigals compare to the frottola, the genre of musical song so popular in Florence? Without question, the figure most responsible for the popularity of the madrigal form in sixteenth-century Venice was Adrian Willaert, choirmaster of Saint Mark’s. His chief interest was polyphonic music such as the motet and the madrigal. What radical new ideas did Willaert bring to his music?

By the High Renaissance, wealthy Venetian families, following Classical precedent, routinely escaped the heat and humidity of the city to private villas in the countryside. Architect Andrea Palladio’s Villa La Rotonda set the standard for the country villa. How does it reflect Classical architectural values?

16 The Renaissance in the North BETWEEN WEALTH AND WANT 543



16.1 Explain the effect of commerce and mercantile wealth on the development of both religious and secular painting in Northern Europe.

16.2 Describe the tension between financial wealth and ethical behavior as reflected in literature, music, and dance.

16.3 Compare and contrast the mysticism of Germans such as Grünewald and the new style of art introduced by Dürer.

Art, Commerce, and Merchant Patronage 544


How did commerce and mercantile wealth influence the development of both religious and secular painting in Northern Europe?

In Bruges, painting was a major commodity, second only to cloth. The Corporation of Imagemakers produced for sale many small devotional panels, private prayer books, portraits, and town views. Each May, the city of Bruges sponsored a great fair, where painters, goldsmiths, booksellers, and jewelers displayed their wares in over 180 rented stalls on the grounds of a Franciscan cloister. Especially popular, because they were relatively inexpensive, were oil paintings. The medium of oil painting had been known for several centuries, and medieval painters had used oils to decorate stone, metal, and occasionally plaster walls. As we will see, oil painting enabled artists such as Jan van Eyck to add the kind of detail and subtle color and value gradations to their paintings that resulted in a remarkable realism. For many art historians, this detailed naturalism is the most distinctive feature of Northern European art. By the sixteenth century, at any rate, Bruges printmaker Johannes Stradanus popularized the idea of van Eyck’s mastery of the medium with the publication of his print, Jan van Eyck’s Studio (Fig. 16.2). This print shows van Eyck’s Bruges studio as a factory where paintings are made as goods for consumption by a rising middle class.

Jan van Eyck and Naturalism: AP Euro Bit by Bit #8, 6:29

This video is about Jan van Eyck and Naturalism during the Renaissance. I emphasize the role of patronage in the development of art and the subject matter of art.


Robert Campin in Tournai 545

The growing influence of the merchant class pervades the Mérode Altarpiece (Fig. 16.3), painted by the so-called Master of Flémalle. His real name, say many scholars, was Robert Campin (ca. 1375–1444). Campin was a member of the painters’ guild and the city council in Tournai. Since the Middle Ages, this city near the southern border of Flanders was known for metalwork, jewelry, and architectural sculpture. We know little about Campin’s life, but we do know that the Tournai city fathers condemned him for leading a dissolute life with his mistress. His punishment was reduced, but the story shows the moral seriousness of Northern European culture in the fifteenth century, a seriousness that would grow even greater during the later Protestant Reformation.

Robert Campin, Christ and the Virgin, c. 1430-35, 3:02

Robert Campin (also called the Master of Flémalle), Christ and the Virgin, c. 1430-35, oil and gold on panel, 11-1/4 x 17-15/16 inches / 28.6 x 45.6 cm (Philadelphia Museum of Art) More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Ax... View this work up close on the Google Art Project: http://www.googleartproject.com/colle...


Jan van Eyck in Ghent and Bruges 548


Even a painting so monumental in size and so important to an entire community as the Ghent Altarpiece, by Hubert and Jan van Eyck (ca. 1395–1441), originated in its merchant-class patrons’ hope for personal salvation. The city of Ghent was a major port and flourishing center of the cloth industry. There, a prosperous couple, Jodocus Vijd and his wife, Isabel Borluut, sponsored a private chapel for the Cathedral of Saint Bavo, and commissioned this altarpiece for its interior. The artist depicted both patrons life-size, at the bottom of the closed doors of the altarpiece flanking painted sculptures of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist (Fig. 16.5). An inscription below them reads: “Hubert van Eyck, the most famous painter ever known, started this work of art at the request of Jodocus Vijd; his brother Jan, who was the second in art, finished the monumental commission. With this verse the donor consigns the work to your charge on May 6, 1432.” Very little is known about Hubert, who died before September 18, 1426, not long after he started the painting. He probably painted some of the panels, though his younger brother Jan probably finished most or all of them. It is not really possible to distinguish their work since other artists in Jan’s workshop also had a hand in painting the altarpiece. Most recent scholarship attributes the design and execution to Jan and his workshop.

Jan van Eyck A Flemish Master Painter - The Ghent Altarpiece, 6:35

Jan van Eyck A Flemish Painter - The Ghent Altarpiece Authentic Hand Painted Canvas Art (Famous Masterpieces) Free Shipping and Free Returns.... http://www.FamousArtistsofHistory.com...
http://www.GodistheCreator.com Jan van Eyck (or Johaes de Eyck) (1390 -- 1441) was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. The few surviving records indicate that he was born around 1390, most likely in Maaseik. Outside of works completed with his brother Hubert van Eyck and those ascribed to Hand G —believed to be Jan— of the Turin-Milan Hours illuminated manuscript, only about 23 surviving works are confidently attributed to him, of which ten, including the Ghent altarpiece, are signed and dated. Little is known of his early life, but his emergence as a collectable painter generally follows his appointment to the court of Philip the Good c. 1425, and from this point his activity in the court is comparatively well documented. Van Eyck had previously served John of Bavaria-Straubing, then ruler of Holland, Hainault and Zeeland. By this time van Eyck had assembled a workshop and was involved in redecorating the Binnenhof palace in The Hague. After John's death in 1425 he moved to Bruges and came to the attention of Philip the Good. He served as both court artist and diplomat and became a senior member of the Tournai painters' guild, where he enjoyed the company of similarly esteemed artists such as Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden. Over the following decade van Eyck's reputation and technical ability grew, mostly from his innovative approaches towards the handling and manipulating of oil paint. His revolutionary approach to oil was such that a myth, perpetuated by Giorgio Vasari, arose that he had invented oil painting. In the earliest significant source on van Eyck, a 1454 biography in Genoese humanist Bartolomeo Facio's De viris illustribus, Jan van Eyck is named "the leading painter" of his day. Facio places him among the best artists of the early 15th century, along with Rogier van der Weyden, Gentile da Fabriano, and Pisanello. It is particularly interesting that Facio shows as much enthusiasm for Netherlandish painters as he does for Italian painters. This text sheds light on aspects of Jan van Eyck's production now lost, citing a bathing scene owned by a prominent Italian, but mistakenly attributing to van Eyck a world map painted by another. Facio records that van Eyck was a learned man, and that he was versed in the classics, particularly Pliny the Elder's work on painting. This is supported by records of an inscription from Ovid's Ars Amatoria, which was on the now-lost original frame of the Arnolfini Portrait, and by the many Latin inscriptions in van Eyck paintings, using the Roman alphabet, then reserved for educated men. Jan van Eyck likely had some knowledge of Latin for his many missions abroad on behalf of the Duke. Jan van Eyck died in Bruges in 1441 and was buried in the Church of St Donatian, which was later destroyed during the French Revolution. Jan van Eyck Paintings Portraits; Portrait of a Man with a Blue Chaperon (c. 1430 ), Léal Souvenir (1432 ), Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati (1432 ), Portrait of a Man (Self Portrait? ), (1433 ), Arnolfini Portrait (1434 ), Portrait of Baudouin de Lannoy (c. 1435 ), Portrait of a Man with Carnation (1435 ), Portrait of Jan de Leeuw (1436 ), Portrait of Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini (c. 1438 ), Portrait of Margaret van Eyck (1439) Single religious works; Annunciation (c. 1434--36 ), Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (1435 ), Lucca Madonna (1436 ), Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele (1436 ), Madonna in the Church (c. 1438--40 ), Madonna at the Fountain (1439 ), Annunciation (c. 1440 ), Portrait of Christ (Vera Icon) (1440) Polyptychs; Ghent Altarpiece (with Hubert van Eyck, completed 1432 ), Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych (c. 1430--40 ), Dresden Triptych (c 1437) Drawings; Saint Barbara (1437 ), Study for Cardinal Niccolò Albergati (c. 1432). Lost or contested; Turin-Milan Hours ('Hand G', c. 1420 ), Portrait of Isabella of Portugal (c. 1428--29 ), Woman at Her Toilet (c. 1434 ), Madonna and Child with a Donor (after 1440). Workshop; Ince Hall Madonna (after 1434 ), St. Francis Receiving the Stygmata (c. 1440 ), Saint Jerome in His Study (1442 ), Crucifixion (c. 1445 ), The Fountain of Life (c. 1445).


Rogier van der Weyden of Brussels 551

The tension between material well-being and spiritual narrative that we see in the Arnolfini portrait appears in all Northern painting. The religious narratives painted by Rogier van der Weyden (ca. 1399–1464), who studied with Robert Campin in Tournai, are a good example.

0:02 / 5:24 The Renaissance Unchained - Rogier van der Weyden's Descent from the Cross
The Prado Museum in Madrid houses one of Waldemar's favourite paintings of all time. Van der Weyden's use of colour and realism in The Descent from the Cross gives it an emotional power that was revolutionary for its time, and is a must-see for all art lovers.


Hieronymus Bosch in ‘s-Hertogenbosch 554

Hieronymus Bosch (1450–1516) was born, lived, and worked in the town of ’s-Hertogenbosch (now in southern Holland). The town owed its prosperity to wool and cloth. Bosch was a contemporary of the painters in southern Europe who worked in the so-called High Renaissance. Such a distinction seems inappropriate in the North, where there was greater continuity between fifteenth- and sixteenth-century art. (Only Albrecht Dürer, a German, discussed later in the chapter, fits comfortably into the High Renaissance cult of the individual creative genius.) Bosch’s paintings are at once minutely detailed and brutally imaginative, casting a dark, satiric shadow over the materialistic concerns of his Northern predecessors. In Carrying of the Cross (Fig. 16.10), Bosch presents Christ in the middle of the painting, the crown of thorns on his head, bent under the weight of the cross, his eyes closed, and several days’ growth of beard on his face. It is difficult to say whether he closes his eyes from exhaustion or from sorrow and pity for the grotesque menagerie of humanity that surrounds him. From their faces, these participants in Christ’s pain and humiliation seem morally bankrupt, hideously evil, almost sublimely stupid, if not criminally insane.

Hieronymus Bosch: Touched by the Devil Official Trailer 1 (2016) - Documentary, 2:16

Directed By: Pieter van Huystee Hieronymus Bosch: Touched by the Devil Official Trailer 1 (2016) - Documentary In 2016, the Noordbrabants Museum in the Dutch city of Den Bosch held a special exhibition devoted to the work of Hieronymus Bosch, who died 500 years ago. This late-medieval artist lived his entire life in the city, causing uproar with his fantastical and utterly unique paintings in which hell and the devil always played a prominent role. In preparation for the exhibition, a team of Dutch art historians crisscrosses the globe to unravel the secrets of his art. They use special infrared cameras to examine the sketches beneath the paint, in the hope of discovering more about the artist's intentions. They also attempt to establish which of the paintings can be attributed with certainty to Bosch himself, and which to his pupils or followers. The experts shuttle between Den Bosch, Madrid and Venice, cutting their way through the art world's tangle of red tape, in a battle against the obstacle of countless egos and conflicting interests. Not every museum is prepared to allow access to their precious art works. Subscribe to INDIE & FILM FESTIVALS: http://bit.ly/1wbkfYg Subscribe to TRAILERS: http://bit.ly/sxaw6h Subscribe to COMING SOON: http://bit.ly/H2vZUn Like us on FACEBOOK: http://bit.ly/1QyRMsE Follow us on TWITTER: http://bit.ly/1ghOWmt You're quite the artsy one, aren't you? Fandango MOVIECLIPS FILM FESTIVALS & INDIE TRAILERS is the destination for...well, all things related to Film Festivals & Indie Films. If you want to keep up with the latest festival news, art house openings, indie movie content, film reviews, and so much more, then you have found the right channel.


Literature, Tapestry, Dance, and Music in Northern Europe 554


What tensions existed between the financial wealth of the North and its ethical and moral climate?

The pessimism and moral ambiguity of Bosch’s paintings ran through the Northern intellectual climate as a whole: The human body was widely regarded as the vehicle and instrument of sin. This is in stark contrast to the Southern humanist approach to the body as an object of beauty that reflects the beauty of God. (See, for example, Donatello’s David, Fig. 14.14 in Chapter 14.) And, rather than offering hope, the Church seemed to many to be morally bankrupt and intent on bankrupting the faithful as it rebuilt Rome. Toward the end of the fifteenth century, the French poet Jean Meschinot (1420–91) summed up the sense of physical and spiritual melancholy that pervaded the North with these words: “O miserable and very sad life!… We suffer from warfare, death and famine; Cold and heat, day and night, sap our strength; Fleas, scabmites and so much other vermine make war upon us. In short, have mercy, Lord, upon our wicked persons, whose life is very short.” As Johan Huizinga noted in the passage from his Autumn of the Middle Ages quoted on page 543, in the North: “Sickness contrasted more strongly with health. The cutting cold and the dreaded darkness of winter were more concrete evils. Honor and wealth were enjoyed more fervently and greedily because they contrasted still more than now with lamentable poverty.” Thus, in a painting like van Eyck’s Arnolfini portrait, Giovanna’s robe, in all its bright color and fur-lined warmth, would also have evoked in the Northern imagination its opposite—dismal darkness, poverty, and cold.

The Literature of Ambiguity 555


By the first half of the sixteenth century, pessimism and doubt still pervaded Northern thought. Skepticism, about the Church in particular, reached even the highest ranks of the Northern European aristocracy. They regarded it with ambiguous feelings worthy of Bosch. This skepticism was poignantly expressed in the writings of Marguerite de Navarre (1492–1549), sister of the French king Francis I (1494–1547). She governed France herself when her brother was imprisoned in 1524 by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She invested large sums of money and energy in order to reform monasteries and convents and establish hospitals across France. As a writer, Marguerite expressed the nuances of human relationships with a subtlety rare in her own day. Clearly a person of high moral and ethical character, she could nevertheless sympathize with sensibilities far less refined than her own, as the 72 stories that make up the Heptameron indicate time and again.

Divine Feminine Art - Marguerite de Navarre, 2:45

Divine Feminine Art by Deborah McLernon, honouring Marguerite de Navarre... Website: www.scottishgraillegacy.com Follow Deborah on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/The-Scottish... Follow Deborah on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/deborahmcle... Blogs:

http://sacredscotland.blogspot.co.uk/ To purchase prints: https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/Scottish...


Tapestry 555


In this atmosphere, the great fairs of both Bruges and Antwerp still overflowed with luxury goods. Goldsmiths and jewelers rented stalls, featuring elaborately decorated ornaments, wine canisters, goblets, punch bowls, and drinking cups. Picture frames were a specialty, and the joiners (specialized carpenters) who crafted these also sold pulpits, church benches, altars, organ cases, and furniture. The textile merchants conducted a brisk trade in very costly luxury broadcloth, usually woven from British wool. The most luxurious of these rivaled Italian silks in their fine, soft, and close weaves. The stalls of the tapestry merchants were among the busiest. These luxury goods supplemented the fine art market, and along with the popular art forms in dance and music, constituted a rich cultural heritage.

Belgium - Tapestries - Travel - Jim Rogers World Adventure, 1:54

Leading economic expert Jim Rogers traveled to 150 countries over 150,000 miles in three years - follow his adventures here on FentonReport. In this video Jim and Paige browse tapestries in Belgium. Copyright Jim Rogers - provided as a special contribution to The Fenton Report. http://www.fentonreport.com


Dance and Music 559

Elaborate decorative programs were not limited to palaces and churches. Many town halls across Northern Europe were richly decorated as well, and the great halls in these buildings often played host to important civic social gatherings, including dances. In 1477, the Munich town council commissioned for the city’s new feast room sculptures of 16 Morris dancers by Erasmus Grasser (ca. 1445/50–1518) (Fig. 16.12). Over 2 feet tall, each of the sculptures depicts a dancer leaping or twisting around to what, in real life, would be flute and drum music. Morris dancing is thought to have originated in Moorish Spain, Morris being a corruption of Moorish. The dances were popular not only among the common people—Morris dance troupes often wandered from town to town performing at carnivals and festivals—but as interludes at more formal dance occasions. The garments of most of the Morris dancers were adorned with bells, which made an agreeable tinkle as the dancers moved. The dances were often frankly slapstick, a source of great amusement to their audience.

Morris Dancing in Oxford, 2:31

I did a cycling tour of Medieval England after attending the Summer Research Institute at Harris Manchester. Somewhere up the Thames towpath in Oxford I cam across this motley crew of Morris Dancers. Not only can they dance, but they also choose bars with the best bitter!


The German Tradition 559

How does Albrecht Dürer’s work compare to that of Matthias Grünewald?

By 1500, cities in the German-speaking regions to the southeast of Flanders and in the Netherlands to the northeast had begun to grow rapidly. Many of the larger cities had doubled in size in the century after 1400. The population of Cologne, the largest city in Germany, was about 40,000, and Nuremberg, Strasbourg, Vienna, Prague, and Lübeck could all claim between 20,000 and 30,000 residents, which made them substantial centers of culture, though smaller than Florence, Paris, and London at about 100,000 inhabitants. In all these cities, an increasingly wealthy, self-made mercantile class supported the production of art. Caught between North and South, between the richly detailed and luminous oil painting of a van Eyck and the more linear, scientific, and Classically idealized style of a Raphael, German painters at the dawn of the sixteenth century exhibited instances of each.

matthias grunewald.Isham.mov, 4:23


Emotion and Christian Miracle: The Art of Matthias Grünewald 560

The intensity of feeling and seriousness that we saw in the painting of van der Weyden and Bosch also appear in the work of Matthias Grünewald (ca. 1470–1528). Multitalented Grünewald served as architect, engineer, and painter to the court of the archbishops of Mainz. His most famous work is the so-called Isenheim Altarpiece, a monumentally large polyptych painted around 1510 to 1515 for the hospital of the Abbey of Saint Anthony, a facility in Isenheim, near Strasbourg, dedicated to the treatment of people with skin diseases. These included syphilis, leprosy, and ergotism, a gangrenous condition caused by eating grain contaminated with the ergot fungus. Physical illness was viewed as a function of spiritual illness, and so Grünewald’s altarpiece, like Pope Innocent III’s sermon On the Misery of the Human Condition of nearly 300 years earlier, was designed to move these sinners to repentance. But it also reminded the patients at the Abbey that they were not alone in their suffering, that Christ had suffered like them.

Bishop Barron at the Isenheim Crucifixion by Grünewald, :59

Bishop Barron comments on the Grünewald Altarpiece in Colmar, France while filming for The Catholicism Project - 4/27/09


Women and Witchcraft 561

Grünewald’s altarpiece captures the miracle of the Christian story as powerfully as any work of its age. Yet since the Middle Ages, other apparent miracles had occurred more routinely in secular society, and the Church could not tolerate them. Local legends had it that practicing miracle workers caused impotence, droughts, multiple births, and miraculous recovery from disease—anything that seemed unnatural. From 1400 to 1700, across Europe and especially in Germany, the threat of witchcraft seemed very real. In this time period, somewhere between 70,000 and 100,000 people were sentenced to death for the practice of “harmful magic,” and 80 percent of the witchcraft trials over the three centuries were conducted against women. In village culture, people with apparently special gifts—the “cunning folk”—had traditionally been called upon during times of crisis: plague, drought, or personal problems, such as disability and the inability to conceive. These “cunning folk” were often single women and widows who also functioned as midwives and were almost totally estranged from the community financially. Through the practice of their putative magical powers, they achieved, on the other hand, a certain real status in the community.

Witchcraft in the late Italian renaissance, 4:45


Northern Detail Meets Southern Humanism: The Art of Albrecht Dürer 563

Born in 1471 in the city of Nuremberg, Albrecht Dürer represents a trend in German culture distinct from the emotionalism and mysticism of Grünewald or the superstition and misogyny of Krämer, one based on humanism. By his death in 1528, he had become one of the leading painters of the Renaissance, successfully wedding his German-Netherlandish Gothic heritage with the Renaissance interest in perspective, empirical observation, and rules of ideal beauty for representing the human figure. 

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500, 3:23

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Zo... Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris



16.1 Explain the effect of commerce and mercantile wealth on the development of both religious and secular painting in Northern Europe.

The center of commercial activity in Flanders by the beginning of the fifteenth century was Bruges. Each year, it sponsored a great fair where luxury art goods, especially tapestries and paintings, were sold to a rising merchant class, for both local consumption and export. Flemish painters took oil painting to new heights. Often, the objects depicted in these paintings seem so real that the viewer might actually touch them. What effects does oil painting make possible in altarpieces? How do these effects contribute to the presentation of the Christian story, and in more secular works, such as van Eyck’s portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife, to the symbolic complexity of the work? How do these effects contribute, less optimistically, to Bosch’s work, especially the conversation piece, the Garden of Earthly Delights?

16.2 Describe the tension between financial wealth and ethical behavior, as reflected in literature, music, and dance.

The sister of the French king, Marguerite de Navarre, governed France while her brother was a prisoner of the Holy Roman Emperor. A woman of refined sensibilities, she also wrote a collection of insightful stories modeled after Boccaccio’s Decameron. What does Marguerite de Navarre’s Heptameron share with the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch? What does the work reveal about the moral and ethical climate of the period? Tapestries were an especially important Flemish art form that often imitated the realism of Flemish painting. What accounts for the popularity of tapestries? Also extremely popular were Morris dances, which were performed to flute and drum music at carnivals and festivals and as interludes at more formal affairs. How are the Morris dance’s sensibilities reflected in Northern European madrigals, especially in the subgenre of the villanella?

16.3 Compare and contrast the mysticism of Germans such as Grünewald and the new style of art introduced by Dürer.

Matthias Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece is grimly realistic in its portrayal of death, and yet transcendently emotional. How does his work compare to that of the Flemish painters? How does mysticism inform German art and literature? Perhaps the most interesting development in Germany is Nuremburg artist Albrecht Dürer’s attempt to synthesize the Northern interest in detailed representation with the traditions of Italian humanism he had assimilated on his visit there in 1505 to 1506. How does this synthesis manifest itself in his art?



16.1 from Marguerite de Navarre, Heptameron, Story 55 (1558) 566


16.2 from Heinrich Krämer, Malleus Maleficarum (1486) 562
Hammer of the witch: Malleus Maleficarum, 6:26






Oil Painting 547


Tapestry 558


CONTEXT Altars and Altarpieces 553


CLOSER LOOK Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights 556


CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Modern Devotion and a New Austerity in Art 565
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct In The Nobility and Excellence of Women and the Defects and Vices of Men, what does Lucretia Marinella claim motivated men who denigrate women? Given Answer: Correct Anger and envy Correct Answer: Anger and envy out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Incorrect What was Michelangelo's first commission in Rome? Given Answer: Incorrect A statue of Moses Correct Answer: A statue of Bacchus out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Venetians consider themselves blessed by Saint Mark? Given Answer: Correct Saint Mark's relics resided in Venice's cathedral Correct Answer: Saint Mark's relics resided in Venice's cathedral out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why in the School of Athens does Plato point toward the heavens? Given Answer: Correct It's the realm of ideal forms Correct Answer: It's the realm of ideal forms out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct What musical interval corresponds with Vitruvius's theory of proportion? Given Answer: Correct Octave Correct Answer: Octave out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What trend in German culture did artist Albrecht Dürer represent? Given Answer: Correct Humanism Correct Answer: Humanism out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece underscores what northern European preoccupation? Given Answer: Correct Death Correct Answer: Death out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Hieronymus Bosch's famous triptych, the Garden of Earthly Delights, seems intended for what purpose? Given Answer: Correct To be a conversation piece Correct Answer: To be a conversation piece out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Where is Morris dancing believed to have originated? Given Answer: Correct Moorish Spain Correct Answer: Moorish Spain out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct As discussed in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what was the irony of monk and humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus? Given Answer: Correct He opposed the Church's excesses yet loved beauty and art Correct Answer: He opposed the Church's excesses yet loved beauty and art