Tuesday, November 02, 2010

Honors World History II: 3 November 2010

Current Events:

John Fund: Will Hillary Run?

Cf. http://online.wsj.com/video/opinion-journal-will-hillary-run-in-2012/11AA5F68-32CD-46C5-978B-CA1B10CD88A7.html

"Among Democrats, 47 percent say Obama should be challenged for the 2012 nomination."

Cf. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704141104575588283239100518.html

Obama's Next Worry: A Restive Left Flank

Every president who lost re-election in the last half-century has first been weakened by a primary fight.

Howard Dean, Dennis Kucinich, and Russ Feingold (who lost his re-election bid), in addition to mentioning Hillary, are possibilities: these are all leftist challengers. Ford, Carter, and George H.W. Bush (King George I), had primary challenges and eventually lost. Truman and LBJ withdrew on their own.

Hillary stays away from mid-term elections: some are interpreting as a deliberate way of literally distancing herself from the result.

In a victory of historic proportions, Republicans will win the U.S. House with a net gain of about 60 seats; the gains would exceed those made during the Republican wave of 1994, picking up 54 seats.

The TEA (Taxed Enough Already) Party plays a significant role.

Cf. http://www.foxnews.com/interactive/politics/election-map-2010/#race=racesInPlay&pres=false

HW is available below (per our usual procedure HW is also posted at the bottom of the daily blog post as well as being posted on GradeConnect):

Chapter 11 Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

During the first years of the revolution, a republic was established, Louis XVI was executed, and thousands of people were killed on suspicion of opposing the revolution. While factions fought over control within France, European states fearing the spread of revolution made plans to invade France. The National Convention responded by forming a Committee of Public Safety. The committee led a 12-month Reign of Terror, executing close to 40,000 suspected enemies and expunging signs of Catholic influence. The committee also raised the largest army in European history and repelled the invading armies. With the crisis past, the National Convention ended the Reign of Terror and executed its zealous leader, Maximilien Robespierre. Power shifted into the hands of more moderate middle-class leaders who produced a constitution in 1795. The constitution called for a two-house legislative body and an executive committee, called the Directory. The Directory faced mounting problems. In 1799 a popular General, Napoleon Bonaparte, seized power in a coup d'état.

Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm

Word Cloud for Chapter 11 Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

Paste this code into your blog or home page to link to this Wordle:

Wordle: Word Cloud for Radical French Revolution


Terms, People, and Places

The Move to Radicalism

Radicals Take Control and Execute the King

Comparing Viewpoints

Bastille Day at Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia

Marie Antoinette downfall and execution


What occurred after radicals took control of the Assembly?

Crises and Response

The Convention Creates a New Committee

Robespierre “the Incorruptible”



The Guillotine Defines the Reign of Terror


Why did Robespierre think the Terror was necessary to achieve the goals of the revolution?

Reading Check


What were the differences between the Girondins and the Mountain?

The Reign of Terror

Crushing Rebellion

The Republic of Virtue

Reading Check


Whom did the Committee of Public Safety consider to be enemies of the state?

A Nation in Arms

End of the Terror


What changes occurred after the Reign of Terror came to an end?

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Description: Louis le dernier

Louis XVI of France wearing a phrygian cap, drinking a toast to the health of the sans-culottes. Etching and mezzotint, with watercolor. Scanned from a photographic slide.

Captions, in English:

"Long live the nation" (from bottle to mouth)

Date: 1792 Source: Library of Congress Author: unknown Permission Public domain: This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Summary: Cabinet des médailles de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, France Description: Attis as a child, wearing the Phrygian cap. Parian marble, 2nd century AD, probably during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.

Nationalism Spreads

Revolutionaries Push For Social Reform

Reading Check


How did the French revolutionary army help to create modern nationalism?

The Directory

Reading Check


Describe the government that replaced the National Convention.


Chapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon

Napoleon formed a new government, the consulate, in which he held absolute power. In 1802 he was crowned emperor and signed a peace treaty with Russia, Great Britain, and Austria. At home, he made peace with the Catholic Church and created a functioning bureaucracy. His Napoleonic Code preserved many of the rights gained in the revolution. War was soon renewed. By 1807, Napoleon had created a French empire. In parts of the empire, Napoleon sought to spread the revolution. However, his invasions had contributed to the spread of nationalism as well. This, along with British sea power, would spell his defeat. After a disastrous invasion of Russia, other European nations attacked Napoleon's army and captured Paris. Napoleon was exiled from France, and the monarchy was restored. Napoleon returned to power briefly, only to face final military defeat against a combined Prussian and British force at Waterloo and to be exiled once again.

Wordle: Chapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon
The Age of Napoleon


*Understand Napoleon’s rise to power and why the French strongly supported him.
*Explain how Napoleon built an empire and what challenges the empire faced.
*Analyze the events that led to Napoleon’s downfall.
*Outline how the Congress of Vienna tried to create a lasting peace.

Terms, People, and Places



Anne Louise Germaine de Staël


Napoleonic Code


Continental System

guerrilla warfare

scorched-earth policy


Congress of Vienna

Duke of Wellington


Concert of Europe

Video clips about Napoleon

Map of Napoleon's Empire

Refight Trafalgar!

Napoleon's Empire in 1812

Napoleon's army retreating from Moscow

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

The Battle of Waterloo Game

The Rise of Napoleon

Enter "Boney"

After the execution of King Louis XVI, France entered a state of confusion and chaos without a single leader. Meanwhile, Napoleon Bonaparte, a brilliant and ambitious captain in the French army, was rapidly rising in the military ranks. Soon enough, Napoleon would come to rule almost all of Europe. One of his earliest victories in Lodi, Italy, convinced him that he was only just beginning his successful rise to power:

“From that moment, I foresaw what I might be. Already I felt the earth flee from beneath me, as if I were being carried into the sky.”

—Napoleon Bonaparte

Focus Question

Explain Napoleon’s rise to power in Europe, his subsequent defeat, and how the outcome still affects Europe today.

From 1799 to 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte would dominate France and Europe. A hero to some, an evil force to others, he gave his name to the final phase of the revolution—the Age of Napoleon.

Early Life

Napoleon was born in Corsica, a French-ruled island in the Mediterranean. At age nine, he was sent to France to be trained for a military career. When the revolution broke out, he was an ambitious 20-year-old lieutenant, eager to make a name for himself.

Napoleon favored the Jacobins and republican rule. However, he found the conflicting ideas and personalities of the French Revolution confusing. He wrote to his brother in 1793: “Since one must take sides, one might as well choose the side that is victorious, the side which devastates, loots, and burns. Considering the alternative, it is better to eat than be eaten.”

Additional references:

Napoleon and Josephine
Courtship and Marriage
The Emperor and Empress
Crisis and Divorce
A New Life

Napoleon and Josephine (screen at your leisure outside of class)

Military Successes

During the turmoil of the revolution, Napoleon rose quickly in the army. In December 1793, he drove British forces out of the French port of Toulon (too lohn). He then went on to win several dazzling victories against the Austrians, capturing most of northern Italy and forcing the Hapsburg emperor to make peace. Hoping to disrupt British trade with India, he led an expedition to Egypt in 1798. The Egyptian campaign proved to be a disaster, but Napoleon managed to hide stories of the worst losses from his admirers in France. He did so by establishing a network of spies and censoring the press.

The French military and scientific expedition in Egypt occurred 1798-1801.

Music: Maurice Ravel - "le Bolero" (screen at your leisure outside of class--set to events we are studying)

Success fueled Napoleon’s ambition. By 1799, he moved from victorious general to political leader. That year, he helped overthrow the weak Directory and set up a three-man governing board known as the Consulate. Another constitution was drawn up, but Napoleon soon took the title First Consul. In 1802, he had himself named consul for life.

Consul and Emperor

Two years later, Napoleon had acquired enough power to assume the title Emperor of the French. He invited the pope to preside over his coronation in Paris. During the ceremony, however, Napoleon took the crown from the pope’s hands and placed it on his own head. By this action, Napoleon meant to show that he owed his throne to no one but himself.

At each step on his rise to power, Napoleon had held a plebiscite (pleb uh syt), or popular vote by ballot. Each time, the French strongly supported him. As you will read, although the people theoretically had a say in government through their votes, Napoleon still held absolute power. This is sometimes called democratic despotism. To understand why people supported him, we must look at his policies.


How did Napoleon rise to power so quickly in France?

Reading Check

What personal qualities did Napoleon possess that gained him popular support?

Napoleon's Domestic Policies

Peace With the Church

He made peace with the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801. The Concordat kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics. Revolutionaries who opposed the Church denounced the agreement, but Catholics welcomed it.

Codification of the Laws

Among Napoleon’s most lasting reforms was a new code of laws, popularly called the Napoleonic Code. It embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism.

But the Napoleonic Code undid some reforms of the French Revolution. Women, for example, lost most of their newly gained rights and could not exercise the rights of citizenship. Male heads of households regained complete authority over their wives and children. Again, Napoleon valued order and authority over individual rights.


What reforms did Napoleon introduce during his rise to power?

A New Bureaucracy

During the Consulate and empire, Napoleon consolidated his power by strengthening the central government. Order, security, and efficiency replaced liberty, equality, and fraternity as the slogans of the new regime.

To restore economic prosperity, Napoleon controlled prices, encouraged new industry, and built roads and canals. He set up a system of public schools under strict government control to ensure well-trained officials and military officers

Preserver of the Revolution?

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël

The date of the beginning of what Mme de Staël's admirers call her duel with Napoleon is not easy to determine. Judging from the title of her book Dix annees d'exil, it should be put at 1804; judging from the time at which it became pretty clear that the first man in France and she who wished to be the first woman in France were not likely to get on together, it might be put several years earlier. Napoleon said about her, according to the Memoirs of Mme. de Remusat, that she "teaches people to think who never thought before, or who had forgotten how to think."

The whole question of this duel, however, requires consideration from the point of view of common sense. It displeased Napoleon no doubt that Mme de Staël should show herself recalcitrant to his influence. But it probably pleased Mme de Staël to quite an equal degree that Napoleon should apparently put forth his power to crush her and fail. Both personages had a curious touch of charlatanerie. If Mme de Staël had really desired to take up her struggle against Napoleon seriously, she need only have established herself in England at the peace of Amiens. But she lingered on at Coppet, where she was shadowed by Napoleon's spies due to her tendency to defy Napoleon's orders, firstly that she keep away from Paris, and later out of France altogether, leaving her restless and lonely in rural Switzerland and constantly yearning after her beloved Paris.

In 1802 she published the first of her really noteworthy books, the novel Delphine, in which the femme incomprise was in a manner introduced to French literature, and in which she herself and not a few of her intimates appeared in transparent disguise. In the autumn of 1803 she returned to Paris. Had she not made her anxiety about the question of exile so public, it remains a question whether Napoleon would have exiled her; but, as she began at once appealing to all sorts of persons to protect her, he seems to have thought it better that she should not be protected. She was directed not to reside within forty leagues of Paris, and after considerable delay she determined to go to Germany.

Reading Check


What was the significance of Napoleon's Code?

Napoleon's Empire

Building the Empire

From 1804 to 1812, Napoleon furthered his reputation on the battlefield. He successfully battled the combined forces of the greatest European powers. He took great risks and even suffered huge losses. “I grew up on the field of battle,” he once said, “and a man such as I am cares little for the life of a million men.” By 1812, his Grand Empire reached its greatest extent.

As a military leader, Napoleon valued rapid movements and made effective use of his large armies. He developed a new plan for each battle so opposing generals could never anticipate what he would do next. His enemies paid tribute to his leadership. Napoleon’s presence on the battlefield, said one, was “worth 40,000 troops.”

Vocabulary Builder

anticipate—(an tis uh payt) vt. to foresee or expect

The Map of Europe Is Redrawn

As Napoleon created a vast French empire, he redrew the map of Europe. He annexed, or incorporated into his empire, the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany. He also abolished the tottering Holy Roman Empire and created a 38-member Confederation of the Rhine under French protection. He cut Prussian territory in half, turning part of old Poland into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.

Napoleon controlled much of Europe through forceful diplomacy. One tactic was placing friends and relatives on the thrones of Europe. For example, after unseating the king of Spain, he placed his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the throne. He also forced alliances on European powers from Madrid to Moscow. At various times, the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia reluctantly signed treaties with the “Corsican ogre,” as the monarchs he overthrew called him.

In France, Napoleon’s successes boosted the spirit of nationalism. Great victory parades filled the streets of Paris with cheering crowds. The people celebrated the glory and grandeur that Napoleon had gained for France.

Napoleon’s Power in Europe, 1812

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-1841

Map Skills

Napoleon’s empire reached its greatest extent in 1812. Most of the countries in Europe today have different names and borders.

1. Locate:

(a) French empire, (b) Russian empire, (c) Germany

2. Region

Locate the Confederation of the Rhine. What is this area called today?

3. Make Comparisons

Compare Europe of Napoleon’s empire to Europe of today on the maps above. How has Europe changed?

Spreading the Principles of the Revolution

In the end, Napoleon’s Continental System failed to bring Britain to its knees. Although British exports declined, Britain’s powerful navy kept vital trade routes open to the Americas and India. Meanwhile, trade restrictions created a scarcity of goods in Europe, sent prices soaring, and intensified resentment against French power.

French armies under Napoleon spread ideas of the revolution across Europe. They backed liberal reforms in the lands they conquered. In some places, they helped install revolutionary governments that abolished titles of nobility, ended Church privileges, opened careers to men of talent, and ended serfdom and manorial dues. The Napoleonic Code, too, influenced countries in continental Europe and Latin America.


How did Napoleon come to dominate most of Europe by 1812?

Reading Check


What were the three parts of Napoleon's Grand Empire? (i.e., identify which areas or countries make up the following): French Empire, Dependent states, and States allied with Napoleon.

The European Response

Britain's Survival (Napoleon Strikes Britain)

Britain alone, of all the major European powers, remained outside Napoleon’s European empire. With only a small army, Britain relied on its sea power to stop Napoleon’s drive to rule the continent. In 1805, Napoleon prepared to invade England. But at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the southwest coast of Spain, British Admiral Horatio Nelson smashed the French fleet.

Nelson won a decisive at Trafalgar but he only enjoyed his victory briefly as he fell mortally wounded during the battle.
The Battle of Trafalgar - Nelson's Victory (but dies mortally wounded in battle), 1:46

Nelson's Principles of War

Animated Map: the Battle of Trafalgar

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/launch_ani_trafalgar.shtml

Battlefield Academy: Re-fight Trafalgar!

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/launch_gms_trafalgar_bfacademy.shtml

With an invasion ruled out, Napoleon struck at Britain’s lifeblood, its commerce. He waged economic warfare through the Continental System, which closed European ports to British goods. Britain responded with its own blockade of European ports. A blockade involves shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out. During their long struggle, both Britain and France seized neutral ships suspected of trading with the other side. British attacks on American ships sparked anger in the United States and eventually triggered the War of 1812.


In 1812, Napoleon continued his pursuit of world domination and invaded Russia. This campaign began a chain of events that eventually led to his downfall. Napoleon’s final defeat brought an end to the era of the French Revolution.
Nationalism Works Against Napoleon

Napoleon’s successes contained seeds of defeat. Although nationalism spurred French armies to success, it worked against them too. Many Europeans who had welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution nevertheless saw Napoleon and his armies as foreign oppressors. They resented the Continental System and Napoleon’s effort to impose French culture on them.

From Rome to Madrid to the Netherlands, nationalism unleashed revolts against France. In the German states, leaders encouraged national loyalty among German-speaking people to counter French influence.

Reading Check


Why did being a sea power help Britain survive an attack by the French?

Spain and Austria Battle the French

Resistance to foreign rule bled French-occupying forces dry in Spain. Napoleon introduced reforms that sought to undermine the Spanish Catholic Church. But many Spaniards remained loyal to their former king and devoted to the Church. When the Spanish resisted the invaders, well-armed French forces responded with brutal repression. Far from crushing resistance, however, the French response further inflamed Spanish nationalism. Efforts to drive out the French intensified.

Spanish patriots conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare, or hit-and-run raids, against the French. (In Spanish, guerrilla means “little war.”) Small bands of guerrillas ambushed French supply trains or troops before retreating into the countryside. These attacks kept large numbers of French soldiers tied down in Spain when Napoleon needed them elsewhere.

Spanish resistance encouraged Austria to resume hostilities against the French. In 1805, at the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon had won a crushing victory against an Austro-Russian army of superior numbers. Now, in 1809, the Austrians sought revenge. But once again, Napoleon triumphed—this time at the Battle of Wagram. By the peace agreement that followed, Austria surrendered lands populated by more than three million subjects.

The Fall of Napoleon

Disaster in Russia

Primary Source

As shown in this painting, the Russian winter took its toll on Napoleon’s army. Philippe Paul de Ségur, an aide to Napoleon, describes the grim scene as the remnants of the Grand Army returned home.

What were the effects of this disaster in Russia?

Primary Source

“In Napoleon’s wake [was] a mob of tattered ghosts draped in . . . odd pieces of carpet, or greatcoats burned full of holes, their feet wrapped in all sorts of rags. . . . [We] stared in horror as those skeletons of soldiers went by, their gaunt, gray faces covered with disfiguring beards, without weapons . . . with lowered heads, eyes on the ground, in absolute silence.”

—Memoirs of Philippe Paul de Ségur

Tsar Alexander I of Russia was once an ally of Napoleon; they had signed the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, a period when Napoleon was in no position to attack Russia (Glover, p. 160; Marshall-Cornwall, p. 219). The tsar and Napoleon planned to divide Europe if Alexander helped Napoleon in his Continental System.
Many countries objected to this system, and Russia became unhappy with the economic effects of the system as well (Glover, p. 161). Yet another cause for concern was that Napoleon had enlarged the Grand Duchy of Warsaw that bordered Russia on the west, all without notifying his supposed ally (Glover, p. 161; Marshall-Cornwall, p. 219). In addition, Napoleon at first proposed to marry for the second time to a Russian princess but he snubbed Russia to engage the Austrian Marie-Therese without notifying the Russians (Glover, p. 161).

In any case, perhaps the biggest but unstated reason was that Europe could not accommodate two egos as large as Napoleon's and the Tsar's on one continent. The war could have been avoided but it was not.

The causes which brought about the rupture between the Emperor the Tsar are numerous and complex; Napoleon's main motive was that he could not tolerate a on the boundary of his Empire the existence of a Power which was not entirely subservient to his own will. Napoleon had already beaten the Russians in battle (1806-1807 leading to Tilsit, Marshall-Cornwall, pp. 177-178) and he had formed a poor opinion of their leadership. Once they were finally beaten, he could create a strong Poland as a buffer state and satellite of France. Unfortunately, Napoleon decided to conquer Russia before he had succeeded in conquering Spain (Marshall-Cornwall, p. 219).
These and other slights led the tsar to withdraw his support from the Continental System. Napoleon responded to the tsar’s action by assembling an army with soldiers from 20 nations, known as the Grand Army.

In 1812, with about 600,000 soldiers and 50,000 horses, Napoleon invaded Russia. To avoid battles with Napoleon, the Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages as they went. This scorched-earth policy left the French hungry and cold as winter came. Napoleon entered Moscow in September. He realized, though, that he would not be able to feed and supply his army through the long Russian winter. In October, he turned homeward.

The 1,000-mile retreat from Moscow turned into a desperate battle for survival. Russian attacks and the brutal Russian winter took a terrible toll. Fewer than 20,000 soldiers of the once-proud Grand Army survived. Many died. Others deserted. French general Michel Ney sadly concluded: “General Famine and General Winter, rather than Russian bullets, have conquered the Grand Army.” Napoleon rushed to Paris to raise a new force to defend France. His reputation for success had been shattered.

Discovery School Channel (Video)

Watch Napoleon’s Lost Army on the Witness History Discovery School™ video program to learn about Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812.


What challenges threatened Napoleon’s empire and what led to the disaster in Russia?

Reading Check


Why did Napoleon invade Russia?

The Final Defeat

The disaster in Russia brought a new alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia against a weakened France. In 1813, they defeated Napoleon in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig.

Battle for Leipzig courtesy of the Hawks Club on one of their custom historical maps and historical simulations, 3:29.

After the Russian campaign and Leipzig Napoleon was finished. He was forced to abdicate, and he comforted his old guard who were his veterans and those who followed him for twenty years since the Italian campaign.
He gave his famous speech to the guard, France Has Fallen. The background music is Sigfried's Funeral March by Wagner from Twilight of the Gods, 2:54.

Napoleon Abdicates Briefly

The next year, Napoleon abdicated, or stepped down from power. The victors exiled him to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean. They then recognized Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, as king of France.

The restoration of Louis XVIII did not go smoothly. He agreed to accept the Napoleonic Code and honor the land settlements made during the revolution. However, many émigrés rushed back to France bent on revenge. An economic depression and the fear of a return to the old regime helped rekindle loyalty to Napoleon.

As the victorious allies gathered in Vienna for a general peace conference, Napoleon escaped his island exile and returned to France. Soldiers flocked to his banner. As citizens cheered Napoleon’s advance, Louis XVIII fled. In March 1815, Napoleon entered Paris in triumph.
Napoleon’s triumph was short-lived. His star soared for only 100 days, while the allies reassembled their forces. On June 18, 1815, the opposing armies met near the town of Waterloo in Belgium. British forces under the Duke of Wellington and a Prussian army commanded by General Blücher crushed the French in an agonizing day-long battle. Once again, Napoleon was forced to abdicate and to go into exile on St. Helena, a lonely island in the South Atlantic. This time, he would not return.

Crushed at the Battle of Waterloo

You can learn more or prepare for the Battle of Waterloo Game by viewing the Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator.

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

If you have not prepared with the Battle Simulator the fight at Waterloo will still occur in the Game.

The Battle of Waterloo Game

Napoleon's death was not without controversy and there is evidence that he may have been poisoned (Cf. The Murder of Napoleon by Ben Weider. As a fascinating sidelight to the story of Napoleon, it appears that Count Charles-Tristan de Montholon, an aide to Napoleon and a member of the "pre-Revolutionary aristocracy" poisoned him slowly with arsenic (a poison) on St. Helena (Weider, p. 33).

Napoleon, although it was widely known that he had suffered from physical ailments his entire life (it appears to be the scratching disease, scabies, Napoleon's Glands, Arno Karlen, p. 7), had nonetheless a legendary reputation for work; yet, he succumbed at the relatively young age of 51 thus at the very least his death should raise questions.

At the time of Napoleon's death, the arsenic poisoning went unnoticed and it was not until a Swedish researcher in 1955, Sten Forshufvud, reconstructed the accounts and medical evidence of Napoleon's death that a modern, forensic connection could be established determining that Napoleon was murdered. Montholon had a motive, he was attached to the pre-Revolutionary aristocracy, and he appeared to be an agent of Count d'Artois, brother of King Louis XVIII, and later Charles X in the restored French monarchy who hated the Revolutionary Napoleon (Weider, pp. 144, 254).

Napoleon himself may have sensed something was amiss in his last days. Six days before his death he directed:

After my death, which cannot be far off. I want you to open my body. . . . I want you to remove my heart, which you will put in spirits of wine and take to Parma, to my dear Marie-Louise [Napoleon's second wife]. . . . I recommend that you examine my stomach particularly carefully; make a precise, detailed report on it, and give it to my son. . . . I charge you to overlook nothing in this examination. . . . I bequeath to all the ruling families the horror and shame of my last moments.
(Wieder, preface).

Napoleon’s Legacy

Napoleon died in 1821, but his legend lived on in France and around the world. His contemporaries as well as historians today have long debated his legacy. Was he “the revolution on horseback,” as he claimed? Or was he a traitor to the revolution?

No one, however, questions Napoleon’s impact on France and on Europe. The Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution. The France of Napoleon was a centralized state with a constitution. Elections were held with expanded, though limited, suffrage. Many more citizens had rights to property and access to education than under the old regime. Still, French citizens lost many rights promised so fervently by republicans during the Convention.

Crushed at the Battle of Waterloo

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcomb Swanston, p. 107.

The Encyclopedia of Warfare by Robin Cross, Napoleon's Tactics, p. 135; on Waterloo, pp. 141-143.

Napoleon as Military Commander by James Marshall-Cornwall, pp, 263-281.

The Napoleonic Wars: an Illustrated History, 1792-1815, by Michael Glover, pp. 215-222.

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

The Battle of Waterloo Game

Chapter 12 Preview

The Congress of Vienna

Prince Clemens von Metternich

As Austria’s foreign minister, Metternich (1773–1859) used a variety of means to achieve his goals. In 1809, when Napoleon seemed vulnerable, Metternich favored war against France. In 1810, after France had crushed Austria, he supported alliance with France. When the French army was in desperate retreat from Russia, Metternich became the “prime minister of the coalition” that defeated Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich helped create a new European order and made sure that Austria had a key role in it. He would skillfully defend that new order for more than 30 years.
A key question to consider is: why did Metternich’s policies toward France change?


Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-1842

Map Skills

At the Congress of Vienna, European leaders redrew the map of Europe in order to contain France and keep a balance of power.

1. Locate

(a) German Confederation, (b) Netherlands, (c) Vienna

2. Region

Name three states that were in the German Confederation.

3. Recognize Cause and Effect

Why did the Congress enlarge some of the countries around France?

On the world stage, Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideas of the revolution. He failed to make Europe into a French empire. Instead, he sparked nationalist feelings across Europe. The abolition of the Holy Roman Empire would eventually help in creating a new Germany. Napoleon’s impact also reached across the Atlantic. In 1803, his decision to sell France’s vast Louisiana Territory to the American government doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion.


How did Napoleon impact Europe and the rest of the world?

Leaders Meet at the Congress of Vienna

After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the Congress of Vienna. They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war. The Congress met for 10 months, from September 1814 to June 1815. It was a brilliant gathering of European leaders. Diplomats and royalty dined and danced, attended concerts and ballets, and enjoyed parties arranged by their host, Emperor Francis I of Austria. The work fell to Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Lord Robert Castlereagh of Britain. Defeated France was represented by Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.

Congress Strives For Peace

The chief goal of the Vienna decision makers was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy. Each of the leaders also pursued his own goals. Metternich, the dominant figure at the Congress, wanted to restore things the way they were in 1792. Alexander I urged a “holy alliance” of Christian monarchs to suppress future revolutions. Lord Castlereagh was determined to prevent a revival of French military power. The aged diplomat Talleyrand shrewdly played the other leaders against one another so France would be accepted as an equal partner.

The peacemakers also redrew the map of Europe. To contain French ambitions, they ringed France with strong countries. In the north, they added Belgium and Luxembourg to Holland to create the kingdom of the Netherlands. To prevent French expansion eastward, they gave Prussia lands along the Rhine River. They also allowed Austria to reassert control over northern Italy.

To turn back the clock to 1792, the architects of the peace promoted the principle of legitimacy, restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated. Even before the Congress began, they had put Louis XVIII on the French throne. Later, they restored “legitimate” monarchs in Portugal, Spain, and the Italian states.

Congress Fails to See Traps Ahead

To protect the new order, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain extended their wartime alliance into the postwar era. In the Quadruple Alliance, the four nations pledged to act together to maintain the balance of power and to suppress revolutionary uprisings, especially in France. Another result of the Congress was a system known as the Concert of Europe, in which the powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe.

The Vienna statesmen achieved their immediate goals in creating a lasting peace. Their decisions influenced European politics for the next 100 years. Europe would not see war on a Napoleonic scale until 1914. They failed, however, to foresee how powerful new forces such as nationalism would shake the foundations of Europe and Latin America in the next decades.

Portrait of Louis XVIII


Explain the chief goal and outcome of the Congress of Vienna.

Links, resources, and bibliographical references

Video clips about Napoleon

Map of Napoleon's Empire

Refight Trafalgar!

Napoleon's Empire in 1812

Napoleon's army retreating from Moscow

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

The Battle of Waterloo Game

The Napoleonic Alliance

The Napoleonic Collection

Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution at Florida State University

The Napoleon Foundation

The War Times Journal: Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Guide
Napoleon as Military Commander by James Marshall-Cornwall

The Napoleonic Wars: an Illustrated History, 1792-1815, by Michael Glover

Napoleon's Glands and Other Ventures in Biohistory by Arno Karlen

The Murder of Napoleon by Ben Weider

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcomb Swanston

Bibliographic resources for the French Revolution

Previous to or the buildup to the Revolution

Cf. The Coming of the French Revolution (Princeton Classic Editions)
by Georges Lefebvre.

The Fall of the French Monarchy 1787-1792 (The French Revolution) by Michel Vovelle.

Great Fear of 1789
by Georges Lefebvre.

General works on the Revolution

The Crowd in the French Revolution (Galaxy Books) by George Rude.

A Short History of the French Revolution, 1789-1799 by Albert Soboul.

The Abolition Of Feudalism: Peasants, Lords, And Legislators In The French Revolution, by John Markoff.

Interpreting the French Revolution by Francois Furet.

Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution by Simon Schama.

The Radical Revolution

The Sans-Culottes
by Albert Soboul.

The Vendee: A Sociological Analysis of the Counter-Revolution of 1793 by Charles Tilly.

Revolutionary Themes After the Revolution

Reflections on the Revolution in France (Oxford World's Classics) by Edmund Burke.

The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848 by Eric Hobsbawm.

Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime by William H. Sewell Jr.

The Course in German History by A.J.P. Taylor.


Chapter 10 Test Prep page

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+World+History+II+Fall+2010+Chapter+10+Test+Prep+Page

These questions may be--but there is no guarantee--on the Test. They are here as possible questions on the Test for study purposes.

The Enlightenment and the American Revolution (1700–1800)
Philosophy in the Age of Reason

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=naa&wcsuffix=1719

Enlightenment Ideas Spread Self-Test

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=naa&wcsuffix=1729

Birth of the American Republic Self-Test

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=naa&wcsuffix=1739

Chapter Self-Test

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=naa&wcsuffix=1749

Sec. 1 The French Revolution Begins

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1811

On the Eve of Revolution

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1811

And, additional questions.

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1821

Marie Antoinette downfall and execution, 3:57

Marie Antoinette was finally tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October. Unlike the king, who had been given time to prepare a defense, the queen's trial was far more of a sham, considering the time she was given (less than one day) and the Jacobin's misogynistic view of women in general.

She was accused of (most, if not all, of the accusations were untrue and probably libelous accusations, sending millions of livres, treasury money, to Austria, plotting to kill the duc d'Orléans, declaring her son to be the new king of France and orchestrating the massacre of the Swiss Guards in 1792. People were impressed with her defense and the women present in the courtroom were the market women who had stormed the palace for her in 1789 began to support her.

The outcome of the trial had already been decided by the Committee of Public Safety and she was declared guilty of treason in the early morning of 16 October, after two days of proceedings. The same day at 12:15 pm, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthday, wearing a simple white dress, she was executed Place de la Révolution (present-day Place de la Concorde). Her last words were, "Pardon me Sir, I meant not to do it", to Sanson the executioner, whose foot she accidentally stepped on before she was executed by guillotine.

Her body was thrown into an unmarked grave in the former Madeleine cemetery, rue d'Anjou, (which was closed the following year). Both her body and that of Louis XVI were exhumed on 18 January 1815, during the Bourbon Restoration, when the comte de Provence had become King Louis XVIII. Proper Christian burial of the royal remains took place three days later, on 21 January, in the necropolis of French Kings at the Basilica of St Denis.

Allan Sherman - You Went The Wrong Way Old King Louie, 3:33

Chapter: Know It? Show It

Radical Days of the Revolution

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1831

Chapter Review

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1851

Radical Days of the Revolution

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1831


The French Revolution and Napoleon

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1831

HW: email (or hard copy) me at gmsmith@shanahan.org.

Wednesday HW
1. p. 345, Preview Questions, #1-2
2. p. 346, Reading Check, What personal qualities did Napoleon possess that gained him popular support?
3. p. 346, Picturing History, How had Napoleon earleir made peace with the Catholic Church?

Honors Business Economics Chapter 3, 3 November 2010

Current Events:


Nov. 2 (Bloomberg) -- Neil Grossman, managing partner and chief investment officer for TKNG Capital Partners, talks about the potential impact of Federal Reserve quantitative easing on the U.S. economy and financial markets. Grossman speaks with Matt Miller and Carol Massar on Bloomberg Television's "Street Smart." (Source: Bloomberg)

Fed Will Probably Start $500 Billion of Bond Buys, Survey Shows (encouraging inflation)

Fed poised for biggest decision in decades

Fed Easing May Mean 20% Dollar Drop

End of dollar hegemony; the Fed risks accelerating the demise of the dollar-based currency system.

Chapter 3

Business Organizations, p. 60

Section 1 Forms of Business Organization, p. 61

Most businesses operate in search of profits. Others are organized and operate like a business, although profits are not their primary concern. There are three main forms of business organization. The first is the sole proprietorship, which is a business owned and operated by one person. The second is the partnership, which is a business jointly owned by two or more persons. The third is the corporation, which is recognized as a separate entity having all the rights of an individual. The proprietorship is the most common and most profitable form of business organization. The corporation is the largest and most visible.

One is a sole proprietorship which one individual, the sole proprietor, exercises complete control over the business. Another is a partnership in which two or more individuals combine their efforts and share the profits of the business. Under both business forms, the business is an asset owned by the owner or owner, it has no existence separate from them, and any financial or legal problems encountered by the business are their responsibility. All of the owners’ assets, even those not involved in the business, are at risk. Liability is unlimited.

Chapter Three Spotlight Video

Content Vocabulary

Some Real Examples

Some Final Basics

Why It Matters Today

Corporations and Stocks game

Cf. http://www.shmoop.com/corporations-stocks/game.html

double taxation

This is a definition of what is commonly labeled “double taxation,” corporate profits are taxed and then, if distributed in the form of dividends, these same profits are taxed again along with the rest of the shareholder’s income.

Academic Vocabulary



Reading Strategy


Companies in the News

Main types of business, 6:20

Types reviewed and advantages and disadvantages

In-class assignment: what are the types reviewed, what are their respective advantages and disadvantages?

Corporations are everywhere. You probably deal with thousands of them every day They're such a critical part of the American economy that you probably don't even notice or think about it.

But this wasn't always the case. When the United States was born, corporate charters were rarely granted. The benefits gained through incorporation were considered so great, they were offered only to businesses that served a broad public interest. A ferry company might receive a corporate charter, but an ordinary factory would not. If you proposed to build a canal that would link towns and expand trade, the state might grant you charter. But if you sought to incorporate your flour mill, you would probably be turned away.

Long story short: you could only incorporate if your business was going to do something very special to serve the public interest.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, however, these views had changed. Policymakers came to realize that the corporate form served all Americans by facilitating economic growth. For business owners, the corporation offered a way to increase both their capital and the stability of their businesses. For investors, the corporation offered a relatively risk-free way of taking part in emerging commercial opportunities.

Today, corporations bring in more than 80% of all dollars earned in America. Savvy stock investors participate in a global exchange worth more than $100 trillion. Corporations are here to stay, and they provide many of the best opportunities for individuals to get ahead in the world. Yet many people are left behind simply because they do not understand how to read a financial website. Are you one of them? Read on, and you won't be.

A trip through the local strip mall might suggest that corporations are taking over America—everywhere you look, you'll see Starbucks and Walmarts; the locally owned "mom and pop" business might start to seem like a dinosaur. But, as is often the case, the statistics tell a different story. The number of sole proprietorships and partnerships (based on the number of tax returns filed) increased by more than 53% between 1990 and 2006; the net income earned by this sector of the economy increased by almost 500%. In comparison, the number of corporations increased by 57%; their net income increased by 425%.

But corporate receipts accounted from more than 80% of all dollars earned in 2006.

Does that mean that America’s small business community is growing as fast as its corporate sector? Not exactly. Sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations are distinct forms of business organization—and size is not really the defining feature of any of them.

Why It Matters Today

Ever think about starting your old small business? Maybe even something as simple as mowing lawns or babysitting neighborhood kids? If you wanted to set yourself up legit, you'd probably start with a sole proprietorship. It's simple, it's easy, and it's cheap.

Later, if your lawn-mowing or babysitting business really takes off, you may outgrow the basic structure of the sole proprietorship. Once you have employees, or grow large enough to fall under government regulation, or begin to worry about liability issues, it's probably time to incorporate.

Sole Proprietorship, p. 62

Main Idea

Forming a Proprietorship



Reading Check, p. 64


What are the major disadvantages of a sole proprietorship?
The most basic and fundamental type of business organization is the sole proprietorship. Within these types of businesses one individual, the sole proprietor, exercises complete control over the business and is legally and financially responsible for the activities of the business. If a customer trips and breaks a leg, the proprietor is sued; when it’s time to expand, the proprietor must secure the loan under his or her name.

A slightly more complex form of business organization is a partnership. Under this arrangement, two or more individuals combine their efforts and share the profits of the business. They also share all of the risks, as well as the financial and legal responsibilities. The details are generally spelled out in a letter of agreement between the partners.

Within a partnership, one individual is not held entirely responsible for the activities of the business. But for the most part, sole proprietorships and partnerships are very similar. The business is an asset owned by the owner or owners, it has no existence separate from the owners, and any financial or legal problems encountered by the business are the legal responsibility of the owners. All of the owners’ assets, even those not involved in the business, are at risk. Liability is unlimited.

That issue of liability is the single biggest reason why many businesses choose to incorporate; a corporate structure protects the business owner from individual liability if things go wrong with the business. Sales go in the toilet while costs shoot through the roof? Somebody wipe out on your sidewalk and sue you for millions of dollars worth of "pain and suffering"? If your business is a sole proprietorship or partnership, you might end up losing everything. But if you've incorporated, the business may be toast but you, as an individual, are protected.


Main Idea

Types of Partnerships

Forming a Partnership, p. 65

Introduction to Shark Tank, 3:49

Cf. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9BGc3yxJ8Q&p=FB2A2A6F9312F01B&playnext=1&index=13

Shark Tank - Season 1 Episode 1 Part 1/5, 9:49

In-class assignment: how many "sharks" are there on the panel? We will divide the class the same number of members in a small group. You have two tasks: one, do you think the "shark" you are representing will want to partner with the presenter? Two, would you want to partner with the presenter? We will go around the room and you can offer your assessment.

1) Kevin O.
2) Barbara
3) Kevin H.
4) Damon
5) Robert


Disadvantages, p. 66

Reading Check


What are the differences between a general partnership and a limited partnership?

Corporations, p. 67

Main Idea

What is a Corporation?, 7:15

According to this video, what is a corporation? What is it composed of? What sort of characteristics are typical of a corporation?

Forming a Corporation
A corporation is a very different type of business organization. Most significantly, a corporation is a business entity legally separated from its owners. When business owners decide to incorporate they secure a charter from the state government. This charter is like a birth certificate, establishing the existence of a new and separate legal entity. Once incorporated, the corporation can buy and sell property, enter into contracts, sue, and be sued... just like a living, breathing person.

In fact, that's what a corporation is: a legal "person." (The word "incorporate" shares the same root as "corpse"; it means something like "to give it a body.") The idea is that the corporation is a fictitious person, with many of the same rights under the law as a real person.

For the sole proprietor turned corporation, there are several benefits. Most importantly, his personal assets (home, car, boat, iPod) are no longer at risk should the corporation have problems. If the corporation is sued, only its assets are at risk. If the corporation goes broke, its creditors can only go after the corporation’s assets. As there is a legal barrier separating the corporation and its owners, the owners enjoy limited liability.

There are other benefits as well. To finance expansion, corporations may sell stock. Most corporations, in fact, do not sell stock to the public; all of the stock is privately owned. But if a company decides to expand its capital base by “going public” it issues an initial public offering or IPO. People buying the stock acquire partial ownership in the corporation. And the more shares they buy, the larger percentage of the corporation they own. Of course, this also means that the original owners also have to share profits. These may be distributed to the shareholders quarterly in the form of dividends.

Corporations may also raise money by selling corporate bonds. Like governments, corporations may issue bonds that promise repayment over a specified period at a certain interest rate.

Another benefit of turning a sole proprietorship or partnership into a corporation is that the business becomes more durable—that is, it is no longer so tied to the health of the founder. If the founder dies, the corporation lives on. Similarly, a corporation is less dependent on the talents of its founders. As corporations grow, they are governed by a board of directors elected by the shareholders. This board selects a president or CEO (chief executive officer) to manage the corporation. A sole proprietorship may have a technically brilliant but, from a business point of view, inept founder. He may turn the business over to his even more incompetent children. But the governing structure of corporations allows management to be handed over to professionally trained executives.

Why It Matters Today

Are corporations people?

The common-sense answer is no. A corporation is not, to state the obvious, actually a living human being.

But in the eye of the law, the answer is essentially yes. A series of Supreme Court decisions in the 1800s expanded the rights of corporations, eventually extending to them the crucial rights to substantive due process included in the 14th Amendment. As recently as January 2010, the Court reaffirmed that corporations have most of the rights of real people, overturning a campaign finance law on the grounds that it violated corporations' (and unions') right to free speech.

Corporate Structure

In Motion Corporate Structure

Cf. http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p68.swf

Advantages, p. 68
Financially, corporations benefits from being allowed to raise capital by selling stock. In purchasing stock, stockholders become partial owners of the corporation and are entitled to a share of the profits. Corporations can also raise money by selling bonds like a government. Legally, corporations benefit from limited liability. Since the corporation is a legal entity separate from its owners, the owners’ personal assets are not placed at risk by any action taken by the corporation. Should the corporation be sued or have financial problems, only corporate assets can be seized.

Disadvantages, p. 69

Through what is commonly labeled “double taxation,” corporate profits are taxed and then, if distributed in the form of dividends, these same profits are taxed again along with the rest of the shareholder’s income.

Reading Check, p. 70


Why do many business owners prefer corporations over other forms of business organizations?

Entrepreneur, p. 71

Profiles in Economics

Andrea Jung

On Charlie Rose - Andrea Jung, 2:20

Proprietorship - owned and run by a single person.

Partnership - jointly owned by two or more persons.

Corporation - business organization recognized by law as a separate legal entity with all the rights of an individual.


Forms of Business Organizations, Tax and Insurance Issues for Small Business, 9:56

Learn: * How to Choose a Form of Business * How it can maximize your protections and future growth potential * Characteristics of a sole proprietorship, general partnership, corporation, limited liability companies and limited liability partnerships * Whether S Corporation Tax election is right for you * What tax issues are important for small business and why * What insurance coverage every small business owner should consider

Larissa Buerano, Agent, State Farm Insurance

Rajeev Kaul, CPA, PC.

Joyce Moy, Executive Director, Asian American / Asian Research Institute - CUNY

My Own Business: A course on how to start a business

Chapter 3: Business Organizations
Self-Check Quizzes

Crossword Puzzle

Vocabulary eFlashcards
Show Business is the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's learning activity on economics and the entertainment industry. The goal is to provide an additional tool for teaching and learning about basic economic concepts, with some economic history snuck in.
Cf. http://www.bos.frb.org/entertainment/index.htm
JA Titan
Test your skills running a business in this ultimate business simulation! As CEO, you will match wits in the competitive, technologically advanced industry of the Holo-Generator™.Cf. http://oldtitan.ja.org/home.php

Corporations and Stocks game

Cf. http://www.shmoop.com/corporations-stocks/game.html

A music video from School House Rock on investing and Wall Street.

Cf. http://www.shmoop.com/corporations-stocks/botw/resources?d=http://www.gamequarium.org/cgi-bin/search/linfo.cgi?id=3797


Ch. 3 Sec. 2 Business Growth and Expansion

Honors Business Economics Chapter 3 Section 2 Business Growth and Expansion
Guide to Reading

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary

Academic Vocabulary

Reading Strategy


Companies in the News

Reinvesting for Monster Growth

Growth Through Reinvestment

Main Idea

Economics and You

Estimating Cash Flows

Reinvesting Cash Flows

Reading Check


What is the benefit of reinvesting cash flow in a business?

The Global Economy and You

Know Your Manners

Growth Through Mergers

Main Idea

Economics and You

Types of Mergers

Reasons for Merging



Reading Check


How do conglomerates and multinationals differ?

Case Study



Honors Business Economics Chapter 3 Section 2 Business Growth and Expansion

Guide to Reading

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary

Academic Vocabulary

Reading Strategy


Companies in the News

Reinvesting for Monster Growth

Growth Through Reinvestment

Main Idea

Economics and You

Estimating Cash Flows

Reinvesting Cash Flows

Reading Check


What is the benefit of reinvesting cash flow in a business?

The Global Economy and You

Know Your Manners

Growth Through Mergers

Main Idea

Economics and You

Types of Mergers

Reasons for Merging



Reading Check


How do conglomerates and multinationals differ?

Case Study


Figure 3.4 Growth Through Reinvestment, p. 73

Cf. http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p73.swf

Money (That's What I Want), 2:36

Barrett Strong recorded this in 1959 for Motown records, it reached number 2 on the R&B charts and 23rd on the US Pop charts making it Motown's first hit. Barrett Strong later went on to become one of Motown's most famous song writers.


Beatles, You Never Give Me Your Money, 3:26


HW email to gmsmith@shanahan.org or hand in hard copy.

Wednesday HW
1. Reading Check, Describing, What are the major disadvantages of a sole proprietorship (p. 64)?
2. List four personal characteristics that you think are most important in forming a successful small business partnership. Why do you think each characteristic is important?
3. Write a paragraph that responds to the following questions: Who would you be interested in starting a business partnership with, and what kind of business would you start? What skills would you each bring to the business? How would you handle the disadvantages of partnerships (answers listed in the textbook)?