Friday, December 10, 2010

Honors World History II: 10 December 2010

Current Events:

Noah's Park: Kentucky 'Ark Encounter' Plans Full Scale Replica of Noah's Ark

Taxpayer supported (how much has not been made public yet) Pacifica Radio to add audio news feed from Al Jazeera English network.

Al Jazeera has struggled to gain distribution in the United States, in part because of the association with broadcasting, the first in fact, from Osama bin Laden after 9/11.

"We see it as a bridge between cultures," said Arlene Engelhardt, Pacifica's executive director. "It will give our listeners a little different perspective than an American network. We have a tradition of looking for alternative points of view."

Pacifica's stations have suffered from management turnover and funding problems in recent years.


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;

The First Amendment

The Chapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon Make-Up Quiz is today.


#19. should have listed: "d) Anne Louise Germaine de Staël"

#20. do not answer, skip the question entirely, go on to #21.

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ABCya! Cf.


Who Wants to Be a Cotton Millionaire?


ABCya! Cf.

vozMe: Cf.

The Spinning Mill Animation


Railroads, p. 365

Stephenson's Rocket Animation

Early Socialism, p. 370

Are Utopians Dreamers?

Owen’s Utopia

For: Interactive Village
Web Code: nap-1941

Owen Establishes a Utopia


What did early socialists believe?

Reading Check


What type of working conditions did the industrial workers face?

References and Resources

Rise of the Working Class by Jurgen Kuczynski

Making of the English Working Class by E.P. Thompson

Cultural Foundations of Industrial Civilization by John U. Nef

In-class assignment:

Economic Systems



Market Economy

Centrally Planned Economy


Mixed Economy


Thinking Critically

1. (a) What legitimate role might government have in what is otherwise a market economy? (b) Why might a centrally planned economy begin encouraging some free enterprise?

Helpful graphics:

In-class assignment: in four groups we will summarize the ideas of the four following individuals and group. In four groups outline the major ideas of the assigned thinker.

1) Malthus, 2) Ricardo, 3) Utilitarians, Bentham, and 4) Mill

1. Thomas Robert Malthus


Everywhere in Britain, British economist Thomas Malthus saw the effects of the population explosion—crowded slums, hungry families, unemployment, and widespread misery. After careful study, in 1798 he published An Essay on the Principle of Population. He concluded that poverty was unavoidable because the population was increasing faster than the food supply. Malthus wrote: “The power of population is [far] greater than the power of the Earth to produce subsistence for man.”

Malthus was one of many thinkers who tried to understand the staggering changes taking place in the early Industrial Age. As heirs to the Enlightenment, these thinkers looked for natural laws that governed the world of business and economics.

Also a laissez-faire economist, Thomas Malthus predicted that population would outpace the food supply. The only checks on population growth, he said, were nature’s “natural” methods of war, disease, and famine. As long as population kept increasing, he went on, the poor would suffer. He thus urged families to have fewer children and discouraged charitable handouts and vaccinations.

During the early 1800s, many people accepted Malthus’s bleak view as the factory system changed people’s lifestyles for the worse. His view was proved wrong, however. Although the population boom did continue, the food supply grew even faster. As the century progressed, living conditions for the Western world slowly improved—and then people began having fewer children. By the 1900s, population growth was no longer a problem in the West, but it did continue to afflict many nations elsewhere.

2. Ricardo


Another influential British laissez-faire economist, David Ricardo, dedicated himself to economic studies after reading Smith’s The Wealth of Nations. Like Malthus, Ricardo did not hold out hope for the working class to escape poverty. Because of such gloomy predictions, economics became known as the “dismal science.” In his “Iron Law of Wages,” Ricardo pointed out that wage increases were futile because increases would only cover the cost of necessities. This was because when wages were high, families often had more children instead of raising the family’s current standard of living.

Both Malthus and Ricardo opposed any government help for the poor. In their view, the best cure for poverty was not government relief but the unrestricted “laws of the free market.” They felt that individuals should be left to improve their lot through thrift, hard work, and limiting the size of their families.

3. Utilitarians For Limited Government


Other thinkers sought to modify laissez-faire doctrines to justify some government intervention. By 1800, British philosopher and economist Jeremy Bentham was advocating utilitarianism, or the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens. To Bentham, all laws or actions should be judged by their “utility.” In other words, did they provide more pleasure or happiness than pain? Bentham strongly supported individual freedom, which he believed guaranteed happiness. Still, he saw the need for government to become involved under certain circumstances.

4. Mill


Bentham’s ideas influenced the British philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill. Although he believed strongly in individual freedom, Mill wanted the government to step in to improve the hard lives of the working class. “The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will,” Mill wrote, “is to prevent harm to others.” Therefore, while middle-class business and factory owners were entitled to increase their own happiness, the government should prevent them from doing so in a manner that would harm workers.

Mill further called for giving the vote to workers and women. These groups could then use their political power to win reforms. Most middle-class people rejected Mill’s ideas. Only in the later 1800s were his views slowly accepted. Today’s democratic governments, however, have absorbed many ideas from Mill and the other utilitarians.

Compare these ideas with each other. Which thinker seems to solve best the problems of the 19th Century? Why?

Critical Thinking

In-class assignment (for the entire class):

Industrial Revolution Review

Terms, People, and Places

Complete each sentence by choosing the correct answer from the list of terms below. You will not use all of the terms.

*Thomas Malthus
*James Watt

1. predicted that population would outpace the food supply.

2. A member of the ___________ most likely lived in a small, crowded building called a ______________________.

3. Investors in Britain were ready to risk their capital to invest in ________________________.

4. Those who advocated ______________ believed that the goal of society was to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number.

5. To ______________________ involves separating iron from its ore.

6. _________________ improved the efficiency and design of Newcomen’s steam engine.

In-class assignment (for the entire class):

Interpreting Primary Texts:

New Economic and Social Theories

Various thinkers of the day attempted to understand and interpret the dramatic changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution. They responded with a wide range of explanations and solutions, as the documents below illustrate.

Document A


“As every individual, therefore, endeavours as much as he can both to employ his capital in the support of domestic industry, and so to direct that industry that its produce may be of the greatest value; every individual necessarily labours to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can. . . . By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. . . . every individual it is evident, can, in his local situation, judge much better than any statesman or lawgiver can do for him.”

—From The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, 1776

Document B


“In those characters which now exhibit crime, the fault is obviously not in the individual, but the defects proceed from the system in which the individual was trained. Withdraw those circumstances which tend to create crime in the human character, and crime will not be created. Replace them with such as are calculated to form habits of order, regularity, temperance, industry; and these qualities will be formed. . . . Proceed systematically on principles of undeviating persevering kindness, yet retaining and using, with the least possible severity, the means of restraining crime from immediately injuring society, and by degrees even the crimes now existing in adults will also gradually disappear. . . .”

—From A New View of Society by Robert Owen, 1816

Document C

New Lanark Mills, Scotland

Document D


“. . . the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man. Population, when unchecked, increased in a geometrical ratio. Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio. A slight acquaintance with numbers will show the immensity of the first power in comparison of the second. . . . No fancied equality, no agrarian regulations in their utmost extent, could remove the pressure of it even for a single century. And it appears, therefore, to be decisive against the possible existence of a society, all the members of which should live in ease, happiness, and comparative leisure; and feel no anxiety about providing the means of subsistence for themselves and families. Consequently, if the premises are just, the argument is conclusive against the perfectibility of the mass of mankind.”

—From An Essay on the Principle of Population 1798 by Thomas Malthus

Analyzing Documents

Use your knowledge of the new economic and social theories and the Documents to answer the questions.

1. According to Adam Smith in Document A, individuals promote the good of society because of

1. high ideals.
2. self-interest.
3. government pressure.
4. religion.

2. How did Robert Owen explain the fact that some people become criminals?

1. the invisible hand of fate
2. struggles between the ruling class and the oppressed
3. the influence of problems in society
4. the power of population over production

3. Thomas Malthus argued that a society where all individuals enjoy happiness, comfort, and pleasure is

1. only possible with increased agricultural output.
2. impossible because of the base nature of human greed.
3. impossible because of the pressures of population.
4. possible when people are treated decently and fairly.

Section 2 Reaction and Revolution.

After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the Congress of Vienna. They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war. The Congress met for 10 months, from September 1814 to June 1815. It was a brilliant gathering of European leaders. Diplomats and royalty dined and danced, attended concerts and ballets, and enjoyed parties arranged by their host, Emperor Francis I of Austria. The work fell to Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Lord Robert Castlereagh of Britain. Defeated France was represented by Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.

Congress Strives For Peace

Congress Fails to See Traps Ahead

Reading Check


What was the "principle of legitimacy?"

The Conservative Order

Reading Check


What were the views of the conservative movement?

Forces of Change



Balkan Nationalism


Focus Question

How did the desire for national independence among ethnic groups weaken and ultimately destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires?

Napoleon had dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, which the Hapsburgs had led for nearly 400 years. Austria’s center of power had shifted to Central Europe. Additional wars resulted in continued loss of territory to Germany and Italy. Why did nationalism bring new strength to some countries and weaken others?

In Eastern and Central Europe, the Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Turks ruled lands that included diverse ethnic groups. Nationalist feelings among these subject peoples contributed to tensions building across Europe.

Revolutionary Outbursts

Greek soldiers

Reading Check


How did liberalism and nationalism begin to break through the conservative domination of Europe?

The Revolutions of 1848
Revolutionary France: Les Miserables


The backdrop for Victor Hugo's novel Les Miserables is revolutionary France in the 1800s. Les Miserables expresses Hugo's passionate belief in the spiritual possibilities of society, despite the presence of evil. Les Miserables also expresses Hugo's fight for justice, democratic ideals, and basic rights for all people.

What was the main theme of Hugo's novel Les Miserables?

What were Hugo's political beliefs?

Writing Practice

How do the choices made by Jean Valjean reflect his sense of justice and compassion for others?

Another French Revolution

Trouble in the German States


Note Taking

Recognize Sequence: keep track of the sequence of events that led to German unification by completing a chart like the one below. Add more boxes as needed.

Taking Initial Steps Toward Unity

In the early 1800s, German-speaking people lived in a number of small and medium-sized states as well as in Prussia and the Austrian Hapsburg empire. Napoleon’s invasions unleashed new forces in these territories.

Napoleon Raids German Lands

Between 1806 and 1812, Napoleon made important territorial changes in German-speaking lands. He annexed lands along the Rhine River for France. He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire by forcing the emperor of Austria to agree to the lesser title of king. He also organized a number of German states into the Rhine Confederation.

At first, some Germans welcomed the French emperor as a hero with enlightened, modern policies. He encouraged freeing the serfs, made trade easier, and abolished laws against Jews. However, not all Germans appreciated Napoleon and his changes. As people fought to free their lands from French rule, they began to demand a unified German state.

Napoleon’s defeat did not resolve the issue. At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich pointed out that a united Germany would require dismantling the government of each German state. Instead, the peacemakers created the German Confederation, a weak alliance headed by Austria.

Economic Changes Promote Unity

In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union called the Zollverein (tsawl fur yn). It dismantled tariff barriers between many German states. Still, Germany remained politically fragmented.

In 1848, liberals meeting in the Frankfurt Assembly again demanded German political unity. They offered the throne of a united German state to Frederick William IV of Prussia. The Prussian ruler, however, rejected the notion of a throne offered by “the people.”


What was the German Confederation?

Revolutions in Central Europe
The Hungarian Parliament Passes Legislation Funding an Army Against the Hapsburg Empire, 1848

The mixed symbols on the flag of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

A Multinational Empire

Equally disturbing to the old order were the urgent demands of nationalists. The Hapsburgs presided over a multinational empire. Of its 50 million people at mid-century, fewer than a quarter were German-speaking Austrians. Almost half belonged to different Slavic groups, including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Often, rival groups shared the same region. The empire also included large numbers of Hungarians and Italians. The Hapsburgs ignored nationalist demands as long as they could. When nationalist revolts broke out in 1848, the government crushed them.

Revolts in the Italian States
Italy Before 1861

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence

As you read and hear a lecture on the Italian revolt, create a time line showing the sequence of events from 1831 to 1871 that led to Italian unification (the time line continues in the next section of the Chapter).

After a failed revolution against Austrian rule in northern Italy, many rebels, fearing retribution, begged for funds to pay for safe passage to Spain. Giuseppe Mazzini (mat see nee), still a boy, described his reaction to the situation:

“He (a rebel) held out a white handkerchief, merely saying, ‘For the refugees of Italy.’ My mother . . . dropped some money into the handkerchief. . . . That day was the first in which a confused idea presented itself to my mind . . . an idea that we Italians could and therefore ought to struggle for the liberty of our country. . . .”

—Giuseppe Mazzini, Life and Writings


Focus Question

How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?

Reading Check


What countries experienced revolutions in 1848?

Eyewitness to History

Revolutionary Excitement

Analyzing Primary Sources, p. 377
And, to anticipate further revolutionary developments, we will consider Karl Marx.



The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848 by Eric Hobsbawm

The Church in an Age of Revolution by Alec R. Vidler

Congress of Vienna lecture/video
In-class assignment: answer the following questions about the Congress.

What was the Congress meant to accomplish?

The Congress attempted to tie the Continental nations together and set up a balance of power between the competing interests of the various countries.

Who was the leading figure of the Congress?

Prince Metternich

Where was he from?


What was his view of democracy?

Democracy is dangerous and unpredictable.

Who ultimately came to power through this form of government?

Dictators rise to power.

In what country was the first major problems they had to face?


What was Germany composed of?

Several small, feudal-like states and kingdoms. The Congress formed the German Confederation.

What country was the second major problem?


What was the name of the alliance that was formed?

Quadruple Alliance

What countries formed the four parts of the Alliance?

G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The main purpose was to counter any ambition on the part of France.

What other important--three country alliance--was formed?

Holy Alliance: Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The main purpose was to stop revolution and support the monarchies in power.

1) Early Socialism, p. 370
2) The Conservative Order, p. 372
3) Liberalism, p. 373
4) Nationalism, p. 373-74

Students will be assigned to one of four groups to examine the ideas of these four groups. Then, students will advocate the relative merits of their assigned group.

Define the important points associated with your assigned thought system: socialism, conservatism, liberalism, or nationalism. Points to include are their ideas on the economy and the government's role in the economy and society. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each system in terms of balancing individual freedom and public good?

One of the most important points to note is that the terms, liberalism and conservatism, still used today in American politics, are not used in the same way that the terms were used in the 19th Century. They mean different things today.

Can you name leading figures of socialism? Conservatism? Liberalism? Nationalism?

What do you think the Church thought of these various movements? Would they be in favor or oppose aspects of their thought? Why?

The Congress of Vienna, between Sept. 1814 - 9 June 1815, after that France had surrender in May 1814 (Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo 18 June 1815).

It was a conference with ambassadors from many European states, chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. It was the five "great" nations - UK, Prussia, Austria, France and Russia that decide almost everything. Norway was transferred from Denmark to Sweden and Swedish Pomerania was ceded to Prussia.

The first pictures are the Duke of Wellington who is the man who rarely lost a battle. At Waterloo he and combined British/German forces - with help of Blüchers Prussians - defeated Napoleon for the last time. Later he became Prime Minister of Great Britain and in his youth he led battles in India. Then came a pic on Metternich, and then on Talleyrand. After him come a pic on Tsar Alexander I - the most powerful man in Europe at that time. The two last pics are on Austrian castles...first "Schönbrunn" and then "Belvedere".

Congress of Vienna 1815


UK = Duke of Wellington

Prussia = Prince Karl von Hardenberg

Austria = Prince Klemmens von Metternich

Russia = Tsar Alexander I

France = Charles de Talleyrand

Sweden = Count Carl Löwenhielm

Music: Russian folk-song.

One video features just the Congress of Vienna music with period pictures supplementing the sound.

The Fezzibomb occurred on Friday November 20, 2009. A bunch of Fezziwiggers (dancers from Fezziwig's Tea Emporium at the Dickens Christmas Fair) met in Embarcadero Bart in San Francisco to dance to music provided by Bangers and Mash.

The Congress of Vienna is a choreographed waltz.

Congress of Vienna dance at Gaskell's held in Oakland October 2005

Ye Gaskell Occasional Dance Society sponsors Victorian ballroom dances several times a year. There are afternoon dance lessons and refresher lessons before the dance. Formal dress.

Brassworks is a live brass band led by Frank Beau Davis. They sound much better in person than in this clip.

Scottish Rite Center in Oakland has a beautiful ballroom for this event.

Creative sock puppet show as a dramatization of the Congress of Vienna of 1815.


Twilight of the Hapsburgs: The collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by Z. A. B. Zeman.


The Industrial Revolution Begins (1750–1850)

1. How were Thomas Malthus's views proved wrong?

* a war checked the population growth by the end of the century
* the poor needed the works of Karl Marx in order to escape poverty
* the poor needed to have more children in case many of them died
* the food supply did not diminish as the population rose

2. Malthus and Ricardo agreed that the best cure for poverty was the limitation of family size and

* government intervention.
* thrift and hard work.
* social reform.
* a return to farming.

3. How did the Methodists help the working poor?

* they took food to the poor in the factories
* they taught reading and writing in Sunday school
* they turned against the factory workers and preached change
* they smashed textile machines to protest the workers' injuries

4. Abraham Darby III built the

* steam engine.
* world's first iron bridge.
* world's first steam locomotive.
* world's first major rail line.

5. Why did John Stuart Mill want the government to step in and help the working class?

* John Stuart Mill did not believe in individual freedom.
* Only a revolution would keep the factory owner from destroying his workers.
* Competition in the free market often favored the strong over the weak.
* John Stuart Mill believed that women should not be part of the workforce.

6. How did the agricultural revolution affect small farmers?

* It gave them an opportunity to expand their farms.
* It made them focus solely on raising cattle
* It helped elevate them to the middle class.
* It forced many farmers out of business.

7. The worst abuses and dangerous working conditions happened in the early industrial age because

* nobody cared about living conditions when they first entered the city.
* no laws or reforms were in place to monitor or improve conditions.
* people were used to living and working in unsafe, unsanitary conditions in rural areas.
* a sense of community kept people from worrying about working conditions.

8. The Industrial Revolution brought about

* a high employment rate.
* material benefits.
* improved living conditions.
* high pay rates.

9. Which of the following groups preached that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"?

* utilitarians
* capitalists
* socialists
* communists

10. How were middle-class families different from working class families?

* they had maidservants to look after their children
* they lived in tenements
* they wore fancy clothing and ate well
* their children worked in the factories

11. Why might a factory be interested in hiring children?

* parents were more productive if the children worked as well
* they are stronger than many adults
* they could perform certain jobs better than adults
* they were often better educated than the adults who worked all the time

12. Why didn't cottage industry continue in Britain?

* Peasants refused to take on work from British merchants.
* People wanted a place to work outside of the home.
* New machines were too large and expensive to operate at home.
* Transportation of goods demanded the use of the factory.

13. Why were many canals often NOT as successful as the opening of the Bridgewater canal?

* they didn't all have enough traffic to support them
* when laborers were scarce, they weren't all as well built
* people didn't trust transporting goods over water
* merchants often went into debt before the canal was built

14. Who founded the Methodist movement in the mid-1700s?

* Jeremy Bentham
* John Wesley
* Karl Marx
* John Stuart Mill

15. Which group led the way in the agricultural revolution?

* the French
* the Spanish
* the Dutch
* the English

16. What did British farmers introduce during the second agricultural revolution?

* fertilizer from livestock
* domestication of animals
* the seed drill
* improved breeding of livestock

17. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, what was Britain's largest industry?

* automobiles
* textiles
* paper
* meat packing

18. What was NOT a reason for the success of the Industrial Revolution in Britain?

* a population explosion
* a skilled workforce
* the rise of new religious movements
* plentiful natural resources

19. How was farm work different from factory work?

* on the farm, work was hard
* on the farm, work was always the same
* on the farm, workers set their own pace
* on the farm, women were not allowed to work

20. Why was iron important during the early Industrial Revolution?

* Iron was used in the production of machines and steam engines.
* Iron was used for fuel.
* Iron was used to build ships.
* Iron replaced coal.


Chapter 12 Section 3 National Unification and the National State
Unification occurred at different times and in different forms throughout Europe and in North America. The Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe. A defeated Russia retreated from European affairs, and Austria was isolated. Italian and German nationalists exploited Austria's isolation. Both gained important territory in the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War, and a unified Germany and Italy emerged. Growing prosperity and expanded voting rights helped Great Britain avoid revolution in 1848. In 1852, the French voted to restore their empire. Louis-Napoleon became the authoritarian Napoleon III and ruled until France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Austria granted Hungarians the right to govern their own domestic affairs. In Russia, Czar Alexander II freed the serfs and instituted other reforms. When a radical assassinated him, his son, Alexander III, reverted to repressive rule. The United States endured a costly civil war to settle the conflict over slavery between the Northern and Southern states. After two short rebellions, Canada won its independence from Great Britain.

Main Ideas

The rise of nationalism contributed to the unification of Italy and Germany.

While nationalism had great appeal, not all people achieved the goal of establishing their own national states.

Key Terms







Otto von Bismarck
Quotes from Bismarck





Industrial Europe ca. 1850

Breakdown of the Concert of Europe
War and Civilization, Crimea, War, technology, and Industry, Blood & Iron

Reading Check


How did the Crimean War destroy the Concert of Europe?

Italian Unification
Interactive Map Unifying Italy

For: Interactive timeline
Web Code: nap-2232

Reading Check


How did Giuseppe Garibaldi contribute to Italian unification?

German Unification

Bismarck pictured greeting representatives at the Congress of Berlin.

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence

Keep track of the sequence of events described in this section by completing a chart like the one below. List the causes that led to a strong German nation.

The Price of Nationalism Audio: Germany

The last half of the 1800s can be called the Age of Nationalism. By harnessing national feeling, European leaders fought ruthlessly to create strong, unified nations. Under Otto von Bismarck, Germany emerged as Europe’s most powerful empire—but at a considerable cost. In his 1870 diary, Crown Prince Friedrich wrote:

“[Germany had once been admired as a] nation of thinkers and philosophers, poets and artists, idealists and enthusiasts . . . [but now the world saw Germany as] a nation of conquerors and destroyers, to which no pledged word, no treaty, is sacred. . . . We are neither loved nor respected, but only feared.”
Bismarck: Germany From Blood and Iron (clip)

Blood and Iron: Audio

Otto von Bismarck succeeded where others had failed. Bismarck came from Prussia’s Junker (yoong kur) class, made up of conservative landowning nobles. Bismarck first served Prussia as a diplomat in Russia and France. In 1862, King William I made him prime minister. Within a decade, the new prime minister had become chancellor, or the highest official of a monarch, and had used his policy of “blood and iron” to unite the German states under Prussian rule.

Bismarck Unites Germany: Audio
Prussian legislators waited restlessly for Otto von Bismarck to speak. He wanted them to vote for more money to build up the army. Liberal members opposed the move. Bismarck rose and dismissed their concerns:

“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power. . . . The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions—that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron!”

—Otto von Bismarck, 1862


Unification of Germany, 1865–1871

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2211

1. Locate

To the East? West? Near what countries? Bodies of water, etc.

a) Prussia; b) Silesia; c) Bavaria; d) Schleswig

2. Region

What are did Prussia add to its territory in 1866?

3. Analyzing Information

Why do you think Austrian influence was greater among the southern German states than among the northern ones?

This map is titled “Unification of Germany, 1865 to 1871.” A circular image below the title to the right gives a global view of the map area.

The map extends north-south from Denmark and Sweden to the Mediterranean Sea. The map extends east-west from Russia to central France. A Key at the right shows the following shading and symbols: yellow shading; Prussia, 1865; light green shading, Added to Prussia, 1866; dark green shading, Added to form North German Confederation, 1867; orange shading, Added to form German empire, 1871; red line, Boundary of German empire, 1871;

red explosion symbol, Battle sites; orange arrow, Route of Prussian armies in Austro-Prussian War; and green arrow, Route of German armies in Franco-Prussian War.

The boundary of the German empire in 1871, indicated by a red line, borders the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea in the north, Russia and Austria-Hungary in the east, Switzerland in the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands in the west. Prussia in 1865, shaded in yellow, includes the western province of Westphalia. Another large yellow-shaded area appears in the north and east. Brandenburg, including the city of Berlin, is in the center. The provinces of Pomerania, West Prussia, and East Prussia are in the northeast. Posen is in the East, and Silesia is in the southeast. Two other small yellow areas appear in the center. Another small yellow area, labeled Hohenzollern, appears in the south. The area added to Prussia in 1866, shaded in light green, includes the northwest area bordering the Netherlands and Denmark.

The province of Schleswig is in today’s southern Denmark. Holstein is south of Schleswig. The city of Hamburg and the province of Hanover are south of Holstein. Another light green area appears in the center. The cities of Ems, east of the Rhine River, and Frankfurt to the southeast are in this area. The area added to form the North German Confederation in 1867, shaded in dark green, appears in the north between the light green and yellow areas. It is labeled Mecklenburg. Another dark green area appears in the center on the Austria-Hungary border. The provinces of Thuringia and Saxony are in this area. Other green areas are scattered throughout the center. The area added to form the German empire in 1871, shaded in orange, includes southern Germany. Lorraine, including the city of Metz, and Alsace are in the west, bordering France. Württemberg is in the center, Baden is in the south, and Bavaria, including the city of Munich, is in the east. Orange arrows extend from the Saxony and Silesia regions across the Austria-Hungary border to Sadowa. A red battle symbol appears here. Green arrows extend from Lorraine, through Metz, across the French border to Sedan. A battle symbol appears here. The arrows extend westward toward Paris.


Focus Question

How did Otto von Bismarck, the Chancellor of Prussia, lead the drive for German unity?

Master of Realpolitik

Bismarck’s success was due in part to his strong will. He was a master of Realpolitik (ray ahl poh lee teek), or realistic politics based on the needs of the state. In the case of Realpolitik, power was more important than principles.

Although Bismarck was the architect of German unity, he was not really a German nationalist. His primary loyalty was to the Hohenzollerns (hoh un tsawl urnz), the ruling dynasty of Prussia, who represented a powerful, traditional monarchy. Through unification, he hoped to bring more power to the Hohenzollerns.

Royal house medal of the Hohenzollerns

Strengthening the Army

As Prussia’s prime minister, Bismarck first moved to build up the Prussian army. Despite his “blood and iron” speech, the liberal legislature refused to vote for funds for the military. In response, Bismarck strengthened the army with money that had been collected for other purposes. With a powerful, well-equipped military, he was then ready to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. Over the next decade, Bismarck led Prussia into three wars. Each war increased Prussian prestige and power and paved the way for German unity.

Prussia Declares War With Denmark and Austria

Bismarck’s first maneuver was to form an alliance in 1864 with Austria. Prussia and Austria then seized the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark. After a brief war, Prussia and Austria “liberated” the two provinces and divided up the spoils. Austria was to administer Holstein and Prussia was to administer Schleswig.

In 1866, Bismarck invented an excuse to attack Austria. The Austro-Prussian War lasted just seven weeks and ended in a decisive Prussian victory. Prussia then annexed, or took control of, several other north German states.

Bismarck dissolved the Austrian-led German Confederation and created a new confederation dominated by Prussia. He allowed Austria and four other southern German states to remain independent. Bismarck’s motives, as always, were strictly practical. “We had to avoid leaving behind any desire for revenge,” he later wrote.

Primary Source

War and Power

In 1866, Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke analyzed the importance of Prussia’s war against Austria. Why, according to von Moltke, did Prussia go to war against Austria?

Primary Source

“The war of 1866 was entered on not because the existence of Prussia was threatened, nor was it caused by public opinion and the voice of the people; it was a struggle, long foreseen and calmly prepared for, recognized as a necessity by the Cabinet, not for territorial expansion, for an extension of our domain, or for material advantage, but for an ideal end—the establishment of power. Not a foot of land was exacted from Austria. . . . Its center of gravity lay out of Germany; Prussia’s lay within it. Prussia felt itself called upon and strong enough to assume the leadership of the German races.”

France Declares War on Prussia

In France, the Prussian victory over Austria angered Napoleon III. A growing rivalry between the two nations led to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
Franco-Prussian War (1870)

The causes of the Franco-Prussian War are rooted in the shifting balance of power in Europe after the Napoleonic wars. France and Prussia had fought against each other, with France beating Prussia in 1806, then losing in 1813-1815. In the following decades, Prussia was generally considered by the French as a modern, enlightened country. Republicans particularly favoured the prospect of seeing the German nation unite under Prussian leadership, displacing the old, catholic Austrian empire. Prussia hold similar views, but cultivated an image of France as the hereditary enemy: Prussia was to replace Austria as the head of Germany, and to replace France as the leader in continental Europe.

Napoleon III became emperor in France thanks to a coup in 1851. He initially supported the German unification policy of Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of Prussia under king Wilhelm I. It was only after the Austro-Prussian war of 1866 that France began to worry about the fast-rising Prussian power. To be able to face the Prussian conscription-based army, military reform was debated in the French parliament, but refused by the Left which considered there was no danger of war.

In July 1870, a diplomatic crisis broke, Bismarck managed to provoke the French into declaring war to Prussia — and French diplomacy fell in the trap.

Germans recalled only too well the invasions of Napoleon I some 60 years earlier. Bismarck played up the image of the French menace to spur German nationalism. For his part, Napoleon III did little to avoid war, hoping to mask problems at home with military glory.

Bismarck furthered the crisis by rewriting and then releasing to the press a telegram that reported on a meeting between King William I and the French ambassador. Bismarck’s editing of the “Ems dispatch” made it seem that William I had insulted the Frenchman. Furious, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia, as Bismarck had hoped.

Vocabulary Builder

edit—(ed it) v. to make additions, deletions, or other changes to a piece of writing

A superior Prussian force, supported by troops from other German states, smashed the badly organized and poorly supplied French soldiers. Napoleon III, old and ill, surrendered within a few weeks. France had to accept a humiliating peace.

France had a good professional army, which was indeed able to face the Prussians. But a decisive strategic surprise came when all German states took side with Prussia: The French were overwhelmed, outmaneuvered and, in spite of ferocious combats, finally beaten. After Sept. 4th, the new Republic refused to sign an armistice, managed to hastily improvise "armies" out of civilian volunteers, but these were no match for the well-trained Prussians. The war ended when Parisians, besieged, bombarded and starved, surrendered.

The Prussian Army held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February, 1871, and Bismarck honoured the armistice by sending trainloads of food into Paris and moving Prussian forces to the east of the city. Prussian armies would occupy parts of France until the French completed the payment of a five-billion francs war indemnity. Then, they would withdraw to Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, left the city for the countryside. Paris was quickly re-supplied with free food and fuel by the United Kingdom and several accounts recall life in the city settling back to normal.

The war ended up with a complete triumph for Prussia, whose king was proclaimed emperor of Germany in the palace of Versailles — a supreme humiliation of the French and a Prussian revenge on Napoleon's victorious march in Berlin.
The Treaty of Frankfurt gave Germany Alsace and the northern portion of Lorraine (Moselle), where Germanic dialects were spoken by parts of the population. Most importantly, Germany now possessed Metz, a key fortified stronghold between the two countries. Part of the Alsacians refused to live under German rule and emigrated to "inner France".

The loss of this territory was a source of resentment in France for years to come, and revanchism even inspired an attempted coup in Paris in the 1880s. Yet, by 1900, new generations tended to consider it old history, while Alsacians adapted more or less reluctantly to German rule [see Barrès "Au service de l'Allemagne"]. No French political party put forward a reconquest of Alsace-Lorraine in its program. Compensations were found in colonization abroad. When World War I broke out, the French mobilized with the idea to defend their territory as it was, not to take back Alsace-Lorraine, as soldiers' diaries and letters indicate.

Had Germany not taken the option of war in 1914, its successful path paved by the 1870 triumph would have led it to become peacefully the uncontested leader in Europe.


What techniques did Bismarck use to unify the German states?

Birth of the German Empire: Audio

Delighted by the victory over France, princes from the southern German states and the North German Confederation persuaded William I of Prussia to take the title kaiser (ky zur), or emperor. In January 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich, or empire. They called it that because they considered it heir to the Holy Roman Empire.

A constitution drafted by Bismarck set up a two-house legislature. The Bundesrat (boon dus raht), or upper house, was appointed by the rulers of the German states. The Reichstag (ryks tahg), or lower house, was elected by universal male suffrage. Because the Bundesrat could veto any decisions of the Reichstag, real power remained in the hands of the emperor and his chancellor.


How was the new German government, drafted by Bismarck, structured?

The New German Empire


In 1870, German historian Heinrich von Treitschke (vawn trych kuh) wrote a newspaper article demanding the annexation of Alsace and Lorraine from France. A year later, annexation became a condition of the peace settlement in the Franco-­Prussian War:

“The sense of justice to Germany demands the lessening of France. . . . These territories are ours by the right of the sword, and . . . [by] virtue of a higher right—the right of the German nation, which will not permit its lost children to remain strangers to the German Empire.”


Focus Question

How did Germany increase its power after unifying in 1871?

In January 1871, German princes gathered in the glittering Hall of Mirrors at the French palace of Versailles. They had just defeated Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War. Once home to French kings, the palace seemed the perfect place to proclaim the new German empire. To the winners as well as to the losers, the symbolism was clear: French domination of Europe had ended. Germany was now the dominant power in Europe.

Reading Check


What events led to German unification?

A Political Game of Chess

This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.

1. How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church?

2. How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s?

On the domestic front, Bismarck applied the same ruthless methods he had used to achieve unification. The Iron Chancellor, as he was called, sought to erase local loyalties and crush all opposition to the imperial state. He targeted two groups—the Catholic Church and the Socialists. In his view, both posed a threat to the new German state.

Crankshaw, one of Bismarck's biographers, describes the tragedy of Bismarck. It is not that he "subordinated morality to the supposed needs of the state," many politicians do that; it is that "his countrymen surrendered to the principle (pp. 413-414)."

The German people saw it happening and lacked the will to stop it. Bismarck and the people each corrupted the other. To say that Bismarck was a direct precursor of Hitler is evidently untrue; but it is not untrue, I think, to say that those aspects of the German character which made it possible for Bismarck to rule for just on thirty years were those same aspects which made it too easy for a Hitler to take power and keep it (p. 414).

Nationalism and Reform in Europe

Great Britain


The Austrian Empire

Although serfdom had almost disappeared in Western Europe by the 1700s, it survived in Russia. Masters exercised almost total power over their serfs. A noble turned revolutionary described the treatment of the serfs:

“I heard . . . stories of men and women torn from their families and their villages, and sold, or lost in gambling, or exchanged for a couple of hunting dogs, and then transported to some remote part of Russia to create a [master’s] new estate; of children taken from their parents and sold to cruel . . . masters.”

—Peter Kropotkin, Memoirs of a Revolutionist


Focus Question

Why did industrialization and reform come more slowly to Russia than to Western Europe?
Reading Check


How was Great Britain able to avoid a revolution in 1848?

Nationalism in the United States

Graphic Notes: "Downfall of Mother Bank," depicting President Andrew Jackson holding up an "Order of the Removal of the Public Money" during the fight over the Bank of the United States, 1833. E.W. Clay lithograph.

Citation: American Antiquarian Society, 185 Salisbury St, Worcester, MA 01609-1634 and the Library of Congress.

Nicholas Biddle was the president of the Bank of the United States during the Bank War of 1832. Biddle held a great deal of unwarranted power over the nation’s finances, which President Jackson resented. When Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Bank’s charter, Biddle agreed with Senator Henry Clay that this would hurt him in the upcoming presidential election of 1832, but both of them were proven wrong. When Jackson tried to end the bank by withdrawing deposits, Biddle caused a financial panic to try and prevent Jackson from attaining the presidency which failed when Jackson was re-elected.
The Bank War began with Senators Noah Webster and Clay with their Recharter Bill: Clay and Webster presented Congress with a Recharter Bill for the Bank of the United States in 1832. Although four years before the charter would expire, Clay hoped to make the Bank an issue in the upcoming presidential election, which he hoped to win. Clay hoped to quickly pass the Bill in Congress, then send it to the White House to be signed by Jackson. Clay knew Jackson would most likely veto the bill, alienating the elite in the upcoming election, therefore favoring Clay. Jackson did veto the bill, but contrary to Clay’s expectation, gained popular public support for his statement.

The “Pet” banks where surplus federal funds were placed after the closing of the Bank of the United States. The banks were chosen for their support of president Jackson and soon flooded the country with paper money as there was no longer a central, federal finance institution. As a result of the massive amounts of paper money, inflation skyrocketed, and Jackson was forced to try to slow inflation with his Specie Circular.

The Specie Circular (1836) was decreed by Jackson which stated that all public lands had to be purchased with “hard” money, gold or silver. Jackson took this measure to slow the runaway inflation caused by his closure of the Bank of the United States.

Reading Check


How did the election of Andrew Jackson influence American politics?
The divisions between Americans eventually led to fighting in the Civil War.

You can learn more about music from the period by listening to:
"When Johnny Comes Marching Home." In this exercise you can 1) view the exhibit; 2) read the lyrics; 3) learn more; and, 4) rewrite the song.

The Emergence of a Canadian Nation

Reading Check


How did the British North American Act change the government of Canada?

Map: The Dominion of Canada in the Nineteenth Century

A novel about the Crimean War:

Master George by Beryl Bainbridge

Visit an interactive exhibit about the gold rush.

The American Civil War.

Everyday life of a Civil War soldier

Civil War diary accounts

The Civil War: A Film by Ken Burns

Short animated movie about the American Civil War

New holiday feature: keep Christ in Christmas

Unification of Germany, 1865–1871

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2211

1. Locate

To the East? West? Near what countries? Bodies of water, etc.

a) Prussia; b) Silesia; c) Bavaria; d) Schleswig

2. Region

What are did Prussia add to its territory in 1866?

3. Analyzing Information

Why do you think Austrian influence was greater among the southern German states than among the northern ones?

A Political Game of Chess

This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.

1. How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church?

2. How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s?

3. Why did industrialization and reform come more slowly to Russia than to Western Europe?

4. How was Great Britain able to avoid a revolution in 1848?

5. How did the election of Andrew Jackson influence American politics?

6. How did the British North American Act change the government of Canada?

New holiday feature: keep Christ in Christmas

HW email to

Silent Monks Sing Hallelujah, 3:00

Brother Ray performing at the Monastery Of Ettal in Germany 1979

I´ll be home for Christmas-Fats Domino, 4:02

HW: email (or hard copy) me at

Friday HW

1. p. 376, #4