Wednesday, November 30, 2005

Ch. 18 Section 3 Acquiring New Lands

Ch. 18 Section 3 Acquiring New Lands

To describe U.S. involvement in Puerto Rico.
To explain how the U.S. maintained political control over Cuba.
To identify causes and effects of the Philippine-American War.
To explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China.
To summarize opposing views regarding U.S. imperialism.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
How do students convince their parents to give them more independence?
How do students think colonial populations convinced the U.S. to grant them self-government?

Objective 1 Instruct
U.S. Involvement in Puerto Rico
Discussing Key Ideas
Puerto Ricans resent U.S. control of their government.
Congress passes the Foraker Act, which denies U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans and gives control over Puerto Rico’s government.

More About. . . .
Luis Munoz Rivera
Throughout his independence crusade, Munoz Rivera was arrested many times on various agitation charges. During one trial, the judge asked him how man times he had been arrested. “Forty-two times, Senor President!” he answered. “Forty-two times I have been prosecuted for loving my country.”

Now & Then
Puerto Rico as Commonwealth
Critical Thinking: Drawing Conclusions
A chart could be drawn listing the pros and cons of statehood for Puerto Rico. Would a referendum show whether Puerto Ricans seek statehood or not? Has such a vote ever been taken?

Objective 2 Instruct
Cuba Becomes a Protectorate
Discussing Key Ideas
· The Treaty of Paris ensures Cuban independence, but the U.S. Army steps in.
· As a result of the Platt Amendment, the United States maintains control over Cuba.

Historical Spotlight
Dr. Carlos Finlay and Yellow Fever
Several members of the team of U.S. Army surgeons in Cuba actually volunteered to be infected with deadly yellow fever virus to track the course of the disease. Fortunately, they all survived.

History From Visuals
Political Cartoon
Reading the Cartoon
What territories are listed on the bill of fare?
Cuba, Puerto Rico. The Philippines, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).

Objective 3 Instruct
Filipinos Rebel
Discussing Key Ideas
The Filipinos revolt against U.S. rule, and U.S. forces brutally crush the rebellion.
Under U.S. rule, the Philippines gradually achieve independence.

More About. . .
Philippine-American War
The process of Americanization of the Philippines included making English the official language and introducing basketball. However, the Moros—Muslim Filipinos on the island of Mindanao—refused to submit to American rule. They finally surrendered in 1906 after 600 of them, including many women and children, died in the Battle of Bud Dajo.

A flowchart could illustrate the events from its annexation to its gaining independence.

Objective 4 Instruct
China and the Open Door Policy
Discussing Key Ideas
European powers and Japan establish spheres of influence in China.
John Hay proposes that European nations hare their trading rights in China with the U.S.
The U.S. and other imperialist powers put down a rebellion against foreign influences in China.

More About. . . .
The Boxers
The real name of the group known as the Boxers was the Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Westeners referred to the organization as the Boxers because its members practiced Chinese exercises that resembled boxing.

On the World Stage
The Boxer Protocol
Critical Thinking: Analyzing Motives
Why did the U.S. government want the money it returned to China to be used for educating Chinese students in China and the U.S.?
Possible Answers:
To foster good will; to introduce Chinese students to Western influences; to exercise some control over Chinese use of the money.

Objective 5 Instruct
The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains
Discussing Key Ideas
Imperialism forces Americans to expand their knowledge of the world.
Some Americans continue to oppose imperialism for economic and moral reasons.

More About. . . .
William Jennings Bryan
In one anti-imperialist speech, Bryan declared the famous words of Patrick Henry applied not only to Americans, but all peoples of the world. “When he uttered that passionate appeal, `Give me liberty or give me death,’ he expressed a sentiment which still echoes in the hearts of men.”

History From Visuals
U.S. Imperialism, 1800-1910
Reading the map. Review the date next to each flag which indicates when the U.S. gained that territory.

History From Visuals
U.S. Exports, 1880-1910
Reading the Graph
The graph shows the values of U.S. exports to each of the four countries represented by the colored lines. For example, the value of U.S. exports to the Philippines in 1895 was about $100 million.

Do U.S. trade patterns seem to justify or contradict the economic arguments in favor of imperialism?

Assess & Reteach
Section 3 Assessment
Students can work in small groups to answer Question #4, Forming Opinions.

Do you think that America was justified in its policy of overseas expansion? Why or why not?

Possible Responses: Yes—seizing control of overseas territories was essential to maintaining a favorable balance of trade and ensuring economic growth. Carnegie noted that the U.S. exported goods which strengthens the American economy.
No—keeping foreign markets open was not contingent on acquiring overseas territories; Bryan raised an important moral issue about whether the U.S. had the right to dominate people in foreign countries.

U.S. involvement in Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, and China spread American political and economic influence around the world. While many in the U.S. endorsed American imperialism, many other Americans opposed it.

Monday, November 28, 2005

Tuesday, November 22, 2005

Ch. 18 Section 2 The Spanish-American-Cuban War

Ch. 18 Section 2 The Spanish-American-Cuban War

To contrast American opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against Spain.
To identify events that escalated conflict between the United States and Spain.
To describe the course of the Spanish-American-Cuban War and its results.

Focus & Motivate
Starting with the Student
Have you ever been shocked or angered by something you read or heard?
How did it make you want to act?
Did you wonder if your opinion was being manipulated?

Objective 1 Instruct
American Interest in Cuba
Discussing Key Ideas
Investments in sugar cane plantations give Americans an economic interest in Cuba.
Some Americans support Spanish control of Cuba while others sympathize with Cuban revels.

Key Player
Jose Marti
Critical Thinking:
Analyzing Issues
Why did Marti seek U.S. intervention in Cuba, yet was wary of a U.S. presence in Cuba?
Answer: Marti felt that U.S. help was needed to overthrow the Spanish, but he was worried about the United States’ imperialistic tendencies.

Objective 2 Instruct
The Threat of War Escalates
Discussing Key Ideas
Spanish leaders employ harsh tactics in an attempt to crush the Cuban revolt.
Several incidents, along with yellow journalism, arouse American sympathy for Cuban rebels.

History From Visuals
Reading the Graphic
Who represents the U.S. in the cartoon?
Uncle Sam.
What does he appear to be doing to Cuba?
Swallowing the country.

More About. . . .
Yellow Journalism
One of Hearst’s gimmicks to boost newspaper sales was a color comic strip. The term yellow journalism comes in the form of the comic strip’s main character, “The Yellow Kid.” Hearst’s and Pulitizer’s role in sensationalizing events such as the sinking of the Maine prompted this response from the editor of the New York Evening Post: “Nothing so disgraceful . . . has been known in the history of American journalism.”

Objective 3 Instruct
War Breaks Out
Discussing Key Ideas
The Unites States defeats Spanish forces in the Philippines and in Cuba.
As a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, Cuba becomes independent and the U.S. annexes the Philippines.

History From Visuals
War in the Philippines, 1898
The map should orient students to the location of the Islands.

History From Visuals
War in the Caribbean, 1898
Reading the Map
The row of small triangles signals the extent of the U.S. naval blockade.

Alfred T. Mahan’s argument for a strong U.S. navy is in his book, “The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (p. 528). How did Mahan’s ideas play a role in the U.S. victory in the Caribbean. A list of the possible effects of a naval blockade can be developed in a chart.

Effects of a Blockade

More About. . . .
Battle of San Juan Hill
Twenty years after the battle, Roosevelt stated, “San Juan was the great day of my life.” He believed that he deserved the Congressional Meal of Honor for his part in the war, but the award was denied him.

Historical Spotlight
Rough Riders
Critical Thinking:
What are the characteristics of the Rough Riders? What would a movie about this group be like? Who would be cast in the leading roles?

The Spanish-American-Cuban War demonstrated the superiority of U.S. naval forces and added Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to America’s empire.

Chapter 18 America Claims an Empire, Section 1 Imperialism and America

Chapter 18 America Claims an Empire

America Claims an Empire
How would you react if the U.S. took over another country? Some may oppose it under any circumstances. Are there certain circumstances that it is proper for a nation to control another?

Interpreting the opening quote: According to Hay, what was the basis for American imperialism?
Economic competition.

More About . . .
John Hay
As a young lawyer in Springfield, Illinois, John Hay met Abraham Lincoln. He accompanied Lincoln to Washington and served as assistant private secretary to the President. Hay later co-authored a ten-volume biography of Lincoln. In addition to serving as secretary of state under presidents, McKinley and Roosevelt, Hay also served as a diplomat in France, Spain, Austria, and Britain.

Section 1, Imperialism and America

To summarize the causes and effects of European and Asian imperialism.
To identify factors that influenced American imperialism.
To explain how the United States acquired Hawaii.

Focus & Motivate
How does a person behave when he or she feels superior to others?
Ask if countries might behave in similar fashion.

More About . . .
The last reigning queen of Hawaii greatly admired the role of Britain’s Queen Victoria. L. carried out the antique royal custom of sitting in front of a golden yellow cape of feathers when delivering important messages. The deposed queen lived until 1917. She was respected among Hawaiians as a link to the past. She is also remembered as the composer of “Aloha Oe”—Hawaii’s traditional farewell song.

Objective 1 Instruct
Discussing Key Ideas
Imperialist European nations carve Africa into colonies.
Britain’s empire includes a quarter of the world’s land and people.
Japan joins European nations in imperialist competition in China.

On the World Stage
Carving Up Africa
Critical Thinking:
A flow chart can be created showing causes and effects of imperialism in Africa.

Objective 2 Instruct
American Imperialism
Discussing Key Ideas
American imperialists seek more markets for U.S. goods.
To protect economic interests abroad, the U.S. develops a modern fleet and plans to acquire naval bases.
Some Americans argue that their culture is superior and should be spread to other nations.

More About . . .
Social Darwinism
British naturalist Darwin (1809-1882) had concluded that only the strongest creatures survive in competition against other creatures. Several philosophers applied Darwin’s theory to human situations. They argued that certain people succeed in competition with others due to genetic and biological superiority.

Objective 3, Instruct
The U.S. Takes Hawaii
Discussing Key Ideas
American sugar planters gain control of Hawaii’s government and economy.
White business groups depose Queen L.
Americans establish a provisional government, and the U.S. annexes Hawaii.

History From Visuals
Hawaii’s Changing Population, 1853-1920
Reading the Graph Note that the graph depicts shifts in the percentage of Hawaii’s total population and does not address numbers of persons.

What do the changes in Hawaii’s population shown in the graph say about the effects of imperialism on smaller, less powerful countries?

More About. . .
Sanford B. Dole
The son of an American missionary, Dole was born in Hawaii and educated in the U.S. He returned to Hawaii to practice law and was twice elected to the Hawaii Legislature. An opponent of King Kalakaua’s policies, Dole led an opposition party against the king and eventually helped engineer the overthrow of his sister. After the U.S. annexed Hawaii, Dole served as first territorial governor.

The U.S. joined European and Asian countries in political and economic competition for colonies. A belief in Anglo-Saxon superiority provided additional incentive for imperialism. These factors led to annexation of Hawaii.

Thursday, November 17, 2005

Chapter 17 Section 5 Wilson's New Freedom

Chapter 17 Section 5 Wilson’s New Freedom

To describe Woodrow Wilson’s background and the progressive reforms of his presidency.
To explain the steps leading to woman suffrage.
To sum up the limits of Wilson’s progressivism.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
Who are the “movers and shakers” in the school or community? Who knows how to get things done?
Students should be able to discuss the qualities that effective people share. What qualities would be found in a person described as “born halfway between the Bible and the dictionary.”

More About . . .
Carrie Chapman Catt
Catt became active in the woman suffrage movement after the tragic death of her first husband, editor Leo Chapman, in 1886. When she married George W. Catt four years later, an unusual prenuptial agreement gave her four months each year to work for woman suffrage. After the retirement of Susan B. Anthony, Catt helped lead the suffrage movement to victory in 1920.

Objective 1 Instruct
Progressive Reform Under Wilson
A cluster diagram will organize Wilson’s administrative policies.
Wilson’s Policies
a) Clayton Antitrust Act b) Federal Trade Act

Discussing Key Ideas
· Wilson attacks the trusts with the Federal Trade Act and The Clayton Antitrust Act.
· Wilson lowers tariffs, making up for revenue losses with the new income tax.
· Wilson establishes the Federal Reserve System.

Now & Then
Critical Thinking:
Has anyone, or their families, felt the effects of deregulation? Deregulation has been seen recently in the airfare wars, media mergers, and the Telecommunications Act of 1996,
which removed some restrictions of mergers.

History From Visuals
Tax Revenue, 1915-1995
Reading the Graph
What does the data presented on the graph suggest about the nation and the federal government from 1915 to the present?
Possible Response:
Judging from the increases in taxes collected there was probably a high level of inflation and demand for more revenue in the form of taxes.

Objective 2 Instruct
Woman Suffrage
Discussing Key Ideas
Women press for the vote, winning some local battles. Catt succeeds Susan B. Anthony as head of NAWSA.
In 1920, women finally win the right to vote through ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

More About. . .
Suffrage in Wyoming
While still a territory, Wyoming granted women the right to vote, hold office, and serve on juries in a law passed on December 10, 1869—the first of its kind in the nation.

History From Visuals
Women March for Suffrage
Reading the Art
Look at details from the photograph that are of interest, such as the women’s clothing and the message on the banner.

Wilson’s support for woman suffrage was tepid and vague, why then might the women nevertheless carry this banner?

Possible Responses:
To force Wilson’s hand; to shame him into stronger support; to mislead the public into thinking his support was stronger.

More About . . .
Maud Wood Park
After the death of her first husband, Park married a theatrical agent named Robert Hunter but kept the marriage quiet while she campaigned for woman suffrage. A Boston native, she founded the College Equal Suffrage League with Inez Haynes Gillmore Irwin in 1901 and was the first president of the League of Women Voters, founded in 1919. In later years Park led the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee and wrote a book about her experiences in Washington.

More About . . .
Alice Paul
Raised in a Quaker family, Paul attended Swarthmore College and later trained as a lawyer. In London she worked in a settlement house and was jailed for her activities in the suffrage movement. In 1913, she helped found the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later part of the National Woman’s Party, which she chaired in the 1940s. After WW II, she helped ensure that the U.N. Charter included equal rights provisions for women.

On the World Stage
Emmeline Pankhurst
Critical Thinking:
What is your opinion of Pankhurst’s tactics?
Possible Responses:
Some may feel that her tactics earned needed publicity and advanced a cause. Others may feel that she antagonized too many people.

Objective 3 Instruct
The Limits of Progressivism
Starting With the Student
· How do you feel when someone breaks a promise?
· Are there similar feelings when a politician breaks a campaign promise?

Discussing Key Ideas
Wilson retreats on civil rights.
Reform moves to the back burner as America enters WW I.

More About. . .
William Monroe Trotter
A Harvard graduate, Trotter opposed Booker T. Washington’s accommodations and instead helped found the Niagara Movement with W.E.B. Du Bois. On finding that the NAACP was still too moderate in its timetable, he established the National Equal Rights League to protest discrimination. The nonviolent protest was later adopted by Martin Luther King, Jr., and others in the civil rights movement.

Although Wilson initiated progressive economic and political reforms, his record on social reforms disappointed progressives. Women won the vote with little real help from him, and his record on civil rights was poor.

Wednesday, November 16, 2005

Ch. 17 Section 4 Progressivism Under Taft

Ch. 17 Section 4 Progressivism Under Taft

To summarize the Taft presidency.
To trace the division in the Republican Party.
To describe the election of 1912

Focus & Motivate
Think about a time when you had to give an oral report just after a classmate had given a great one, or when you followed a terrific athlete in a sport in which you don’t excel, or perhaps you have a sibling who was a standout but you were not. How did you feel?
How does the statement, `That’s a tough act to follow,’ apply?

Objective 1 Instruct
Taft Becomes President
Discussing Key Ideas
Refusing a third term, Roosevelt handpicks his successor, William Howard Taft, who beat William Jennings Bryan in 1908.
Taft angers his party’ progressive wing by failing to lower tariffs and by appointing a secretary of the interior who is unsympathetic toward conservation.

Difficult Decisions in History
Controlling Resources
Student responses may include the following:
Factors may include job loss, health concerns, unknown results of upsetting the balance of nature, and the danger of letting potentially useful species become extinct.
Some students will indicate that the wilderness should be preserved at all costs. Others may suggest, that, in 1902, the need to develop the West may have seemed vital—and, at that time, the West may still have seemed too vast to be overexploited.

Objective 2 Instruct
The Republican Party Splits
Starting With the Student
How might different goals break up once-loyal friendships?
Is this likely to happen in political friendships?

Discussing Key Ideas
Taft’s support of Republican Joe Cannon further alienates progressive Republicans.
The party splits, and Roosevelt becomes leader of the Bull Moose Party.

More About . . .
Joseph Cannon
After being elected speaker in 1903, “uncle Joe” began changing House rules to benefit Republicans—a process knows as “cannonizing.” Ousted as head of the Rules Committee by a coalition of Democrats and Republican progressives, he remained in the House until 1913 and then returned to serve in 1917, when he was in his eighties.

Key Player
Critical Thinking:
What does the nickname, “Big Lub” suggest about Taft?

Objective 3 Instruct
The Election of 1912
A chart will be helpful to understand this key election.

Candidate Party States Won

Discussing Key Ideas
Democrat Wilson wins the election of 1912.
The real winner is reform, with 75% of the vote going to reform candidates.

History From Visuals
Election of 1912
Reading the Map
If Roosevelt had not run—and if his votes had gone to Taft—Taft would have won over 50% of the vote in enough states to win the election.

When Taft could not hold together the conservative and progressive wings of the Republican Party, the party split, allowing Democrat Wilson to win the presidency in 1912.

Tuesday, November 15, 2005

World History Ch. 22 Section 4 A New Culture

Ch. 22 Section 4 A New Culture

Guide for Reading Questions
Lesson Plan Focus

In the 1800s, the arts were dominated by two very different movements. Reacting against the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the romantic movement embraced vibrant emotions, heroism, and glorification of the past. Realism, meanwhile, emerged as an attempt to show the harsh realities of the real world. In the visual arts, impressionists and post-impressionists presented their own views of the world.


Today’s group activities are for the purpose of creating a festival that celebrates the arts of the 1800s.
Each group will assume responsibility for one art genre.
Romantic literature, art, and/or music
Realistic literature or art
Women’s literature

Each group should write a general introduction for the genre that they will present. Also, each item in their collection should be preceded with an oral introduction.

Ch. 17 Sec. 3 Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal

Ch. 17 Section 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal

Section 3 Overview
To trace the events of Theodore Roosevelt’s Presidency.
To show how Roosevelt used the power of his office to regulate business.
To identify laws passed to protect citizens’ health and preserve the environment.
To summarize Roosevelt’s stand on civil rights.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
What constitutes a “square,” or fair deal in bargaining with your friends?

Objective 1 Instruct
A Rough-Riding President
Discussing Key Ideas
Theodore Roosevelt becomes president when President McKinley is assassinated in 1901.
Roosevelt rises through political offices and wins acclaim in the Battle of San Juan Hill.
Roosevelt’s belief in a strong federal government helps define the modern presidency.

More About. . .
The Rough Riders
The Rough Riders received enormous attention during the Spanish-American Cuban War. Cowboys, police officers, miners, and college athletes were among those whom Roosevelt recruited. Colonel Leonard Wood resigned his post as White House physician to command the Rough Riders; Roosevelt was second-in-command.

More About. . .
Teddy Roosevelt
“For unflagging interest and enjoyment, a household of children, if things go reasonable well, certainly makes all other forms of success and achievement lose their importance by comparison,” Roosevelt once remarked. He himself had six children, making for what one staff member called “the wildest scramble in the history of the White House.” In addition to sports, the Roosevelt children played often with the their pets: dogs, rabbits, flying squirrels, a badger named Josiah, a macaw called Eli, and a small bear.

Objective 2 Instruct
Using Federal Power
Discussing Key Ideas
Roosevelt intervenes in a 1902 coal strike and sets the precedent for federal arbitration.
The president sets out to control or break up trusts and to regulate the railroads.

More About. . . .
George Baer
Baer worked as a printer’s apprentice before becoming owner of a Pennsylvania newspaper. After studying law, he rose from legal counsel to president of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad. His mining and railroading interests were connected: the Philadelphia & Reading—later just called the Reading Railroad—developed mainly as a means of transporting coal from the mines of Pennsylvania, and in fact became America’s largest carrier of anthracite coal. As associate of multimillionaire financier J.P. Morgan, Baer himself left an estate of $15 million when he died.

History From Visuals
Political Cartoon
Is this a positive or negative portrayal of Roosevelt?

Objective 3 Instruct
Protecting Citizens and the Environment

A chart can illustrate Roosevelt’s administrative reforms:
Law Date Details
Meat Inspection Act 1906 strict cleanliness for meatpackers

Discussing Key Ideas
In 1906 Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Roosevelt supports conservation.

More About. . ..
Upton Sinclair
The Jungle was rejected by many publishers, and Sinclair himself finally paid for its publication. When it proved a bestseller, he used the proceeds to found a cooperative living community that he was forced to abandon when it burned down. In 1934, he lost a bid to become governor of California.

History From Visuals
Meat Inspection
Reading the Art
Which details here show the attempt to make the meat safer?

More About. . .
Harvey Washington Wiley
Indiana native Wiley attended a log schoolhouse. He went on to study chemistry at Purdue University and began working for the USDA in 1883. Before his campaign, pure food and drug laws were impossible to enforce because they varied from state to state an did not clearly define what was “pure.” The 1906 law that he helped get passed was further strengthened by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.

Now & Then
Meat Inspection
Critical Thinking:
What do students think about the new regulations?
Note that the industry largely agreed and supported the new regulations.

History From Visuals
U.S. National Parks, 1872-1947
Reading the Map
Which is the oldest national park? Yellowstone.
How many national parks are east of the Mississippi River? Six.

Why are there so many west of the Mississippi?
The East was already largely built up already, with much of the wilderness destroyed, when the nation began conservation efforts.

More About. . . .
John Muir
A Scottish native, Muir immigrated to Wisconsin as a boy. He worked as an industrial inventor until sustaining an eye injury, then turned to a career as a naturalist. Settling in California, he spent his time growing fruit trees, traveling throughout the western states and Alaska, and campaigning for government preservation of western forests. His efforts helped establish Sequoia and Yosemite national parks in 1890. Muir was founder of the Sierra Club, an environmental group still active today.

More About. . .
Yosemite National Park
Muir believed that glaciers created the formations along Yosemite Valley, a speculation with which many scientists now agree. The valley region contains such wonders as Yosemite Falls and El Capitan, the highest of several peaks.

Objective 4 Instruct
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
Discussing Key Ideas
Roosevelt does little for civil rights in general but sometimes champions the rights of individual African Americans.
W.E.B. Du Bois joins others in the Niagara Movement, which in 1909 evolves into the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Key Player
W.E.B. Du Bois
Critical Thinking:
Analyzing Motives
Why do you think Du Bois may have changed from advocating immediate change to a more gradual approach?

Defining the modern presidency, the dynamic Teddy Roosevelt enhanced the president’s leadership role and helped expand federal power to curb business excesses and to protect citizen’s health and the environment.

"Pretzel Logic or Pretzels and Wireless: Is Philadelphia an Innovator in Education Too?"

Name: G. Mick Smith, PhD
Department: Social Studies
Date Submitted: 15 November 2005

“Pretzel Logic or Pretzels and Wireless: Is Philadelphia an Innovator in Education too?”

Philadelphia is known for several things, such examples include pretzels, hoagies, water ice, and wireless. But is Philadelphia about to be acclaimed for yet another innovation?

Philadelphia is developing and implementing a citywide Wi-Fi network that will stretch over 135 square miles, making it the nation's largest municipal Wi-Fi broadband undertaking to date.

The implications for education in the city may indeed be staggering.

Schools implementing wireless typify innovative learning models. For example, in most geometry classes, students use a compass, ruler, and protractor at their desks. But in grades 6-12 in Sunnyvale, California students wishing to compute the volume of an object are more likely to grab a camcorder, and an iBook and head off to work. Thanks to the wireless laptops and the faculty’s innovative use of such programs as iMovie, Destination Math, and Mathematica, students are now using technology in the math curriculum from beginning Algebra to AP Calculus. Likewise, the Escuela Collingwood School in Calgary, Canada offers a wireless technology environment with 24 bilingual Spanish classes (K-6). In Maine, where the state provided every seventh-and-eighth-grade student and teacher with laptop computers starting in 2002, more than 70 percent of instructors surveyed say the laptops help them meet curriculum goals. The same percentage of students said laptops helped them get their work done more efficiently.

According to Dianah Neff, Philadelphia's chief information officer, 55 percent of households in the city have no Internet connection at all -- a statistic that highlights the reality of the digital divide in the city. The implementation of wireless would accomplish the goal of getting a low-cost Internet connection into low-income households.

And the good news for educators is that with the goal of closing the digital divide our students can be one step nearer to closing the information and educational gap between low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia with innovative educational programs elsewhere in North America.

“Wireless Philadelphia moves one step closer to fulfilling its charter to strengthen the City's economy and transform Philadelphia's neighborhoods by providing high-speed, low-cost wireless access throughout the City," said Neff in a recent statement.

Now if I could only figure out the volume of my ice and the volume of water in my water ice. Where is my handheld computer anyway?

Monday, November 14, 2005

Ch. 17 Section 2 Women in Public Life

Chapter 17 Section 2 Women in Public Life

Section 2 Overview
To trace women’s growing presence in the turn-of-the-century work force.
To summarize women’s leadership in reform movements and the efforts to achieve women suffrage.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
Do boys and girls have the same opportunities open to them?
Do men and women share equal rights in public life? Why?

More About. . . .
Susette La Flesche
La Flesche was aided in her efforts to help the Poncas by Thomas H. Tibbles, an Omaha journalist, whom she later married. After traveling abroad to further the Native American cause, she returned to the reservation where she gained recognition as a writer.

Objective 1 Instruct
Women in the Work Force
Discussing Key Ideas
African-American and immigrant women often work as domestics.
More women, especially immigrants, work in industry, where they are paid only about half as much as men doing equivalent jobs.
More women take white-collar jobs as teachers, typists, and bookkeepers.

Now & Then
Telephone Operators
Critical Thinking:
Analyzing Causes and Effects
How did the gap between men’s and women’s salaries draw more women into the work force?
Possible Response:
Women’s salaries were lower than men’s, prompting businesses to hire them to save expenses.

Objective 2 Instruct
Women’s Leadership in Reform
A time line of important dates in the suffrage movement would help clarify its development.
What should be first?
1848 First women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls.

Historical Spotlight
Vassar’s Maria Mitchell
Critical Thinking:
Was Matthew Vassar correct in offering Mitchell a teaching post at Vassar even though she had not attended college?
Possible Responses:
Some students may feel that degrees that are denied women could not be expected of them; however, anyone may push themselves to gain an education, whether it be formal or informal.

More About. . .
Sophia Smith
Largely self-educated, Sophia Smith completed her formal education at 14. Since she never married, she decided to leave her money to a worthy cause. Deaf at the age of 40, she at first planned to endow a school for the deaf near her western Massachusetts. Home. But when another such school opened, she rewrote her sill, leaving nearly $400,000 to found Northhampton, Massachusetts, women’s college that now bears her name.

Key Player
Susan B. Anthony
Critical Thinking:
What do you think of Anthony’s outrage when only African-American males—and not women, black or white—were granted the right to vote after the Civil War.Possible Responses:
Some students may sympathize with her outrage. Others may feel that such divisions foster prejudice or split and weaken the progressive cause.

As more and more women entered the work force and led the movements for progressive reform, they also pressed for the right to vote.

"U.S. and the World 1865-1917" Test Preparation

“U.S. and the World 1865-1917”
Test Preparation Questions
The following questions or others may be on the next Test; all such questions were covered during the film.
Anyone who answers them today (only) will receive one point of extra credit.

Who said, “The only good Indian is a dead Indian?

How many major military campaigns did the U.S. military engage in during the Indian wars?

Who was the U.S. historian (from UCLA) who discussed the Dawes Plan during the film?

What is the “Carlisle Plan?”

Why did the Senate approve the purchase of Alaska?

How much did the U.S. pay for Alaska?

Havana, Cuba is closer to Washington, D.C., than what major American city?

By 1883, how many steel-clad warships did the U.S. possess?

In 1890, who wrote “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History?”

By 1900, the U.S. had increased its Navy from 13th to _______ largest in the world.

How many U.S. soldiers died in the Philippines?

Which American President referred to the Filipinos as “our little brown brothers?”

Which clause in the Cuban constitution allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban domestic affairs?

By the 1920s, how much of Cuban sugar plantations did the U.S. possess?

How many days did it take a ship to sail around South America before the opening of the Panama Canal?

Which American President added a “corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine?

Wilson claimed his foreign policy would adhere to American democratic beliefs, however, he intervened in how many Latin American nations during his Presidency?

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

Unit 5 1890 - 1920 Modern America Emerges Ch. 17 The Progessive Era

1890-1920 Modern America Emerges
Unit 5

History and Art
Parade of suffragists in New York City
Unknown artist (1912)

Art Note
Photographs like this one became an increasingly important part of newspaper coverage in the early 1900s. New printing processes allowed papers to reproduce photos more clearly, and their use became increasingly popular.

Previewing the Unit
Unit 5 describes how the modern United States begins taking shape in the first tow decades of the 1900s. Americans embrace the progressive movement, which leads to greater government involvement in many aspects of life. Starting with the move to gain colonies overseas and ending with efforts to make peace after WWI, American also plays a greater role in world affairs than ever before.

Action photography
By the time this photograph was taken in 1912, technical improvement shad enhanced the power of photography. This photo captures the women in the middle of their march. Some faces—like this woman’s—are quite expressive.

A New York group, the Equality League, held the first suffrage parade in 1910. The League was formed and led by Harriot Stanton Blatch, daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The parade became an annual spring event in New York and spread throughout the country.

All walks of life
The suffragist parades included women from all walks of life—professional women, industrial workers, waitresses and maids, and mothers with children. Writing about a 1912 parade, a reporter said “all marched with an intensity of purpose that astonished the crowds that lined the street.”

The years leading up to WWI were a period marked by formality of dress. The parading women wear long skirts, and many wear hats and gloves.

Wide streets
The suffragists’ New York parades proceeded up Fifth Avenue, a major street in the city. By using one of the city’s most important streets, they gave their parade greater visibility. The tactic would by adopted by leaders of other protest movements later in the century.

Patriotic Symbols
The suffragists helped promoted their cause by using patriotic symbols. Many carried flags. Stars decorated the red sashes that many wore. This marcher sports a patriotic red, white, and blue hat.

Discussing the Quotation
The Theodore Roosevelt quotation comes from a speech he gave in 1899, when he was governor of New York. Within two years, he became president and was in a position to “dare mighty things” himself.

For discussion:
What do Roosevelt’s words say about the attitudes of American leaders in the early 1900s?
What changes to society might Americans in 1900 have wanted?
How did the suffragists exemplify Roosevelt’s desire to “dare mighty things?”

Discussing the Image
Woman suffrage seemed to many to be a radical departure for American society. To make their goal more acceptable suffragists tried to show that they fit squarely within American tradition. The banner reads, “We demand equal representation for equal taxation.”

For discussion:
How does the slogan on the banner help the cause?
How would parading with children help the cause of suffragist’s?

Chapter 17 The Progressive Era

Starting With the Student
What does progressive mean?
What did Wilson mean when he said democracy “releases the energies” of people?
What does the “release of energy” suggest about what might happen during the progressive era?

More About . . .
Woodrow Wilson
Wilson (1856-1924) became president in 1912, when the progressive movement was well underway. Believing he had been elected with a mandate for continued social reform, Wilson asserted, “We stand in the presence of a revolution whereby America will insist upon recovering in practice those ideals which she has always professed.”

Section 1 The Origins of Progressivism

Section 1 Overview
To explain the four goals of progressivism.
To summarize progressive efforts to clean up local government.
To identify progressive efforts to clean up state government, protect workers, and reform elections.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
Review the One American’s Story of a child injured in a woolen mill.

More About. . .
Camella Teoli
Even First Lady Helen Taft attended congressional hearing on child labor in which Teoli was one of 36 children to testify. Teoli continued to work for the Lawrence mills for over 40 years, marrying a fellow worker an retiring at the age of 63. Teoli is buried in Lawrence, where a walkway on the town common is named for her.

Objective 1 Instruct
Four Goals of Progressivism
Conceptually, Progressivism is: protecting social welfare, promoting moral reform, creating economic reform, and improving efficiency.

Discussing Key Ideas
Progressivism aims to protect social welfare.
Progressives promote moral and economic reform.
Progressive reforms improve workplace efficiency.

Key Player
Florence Kelley
Critical Thinking:
What does the term “guerrilla warrior” suggests about Kelley. Possible responses: Is a dedicated fighter; knows the political landscape well; harasses those she opposes in an effort to undermine their authority.

Historical Spotlight
Anti-Saloon Thinking
Critical Thinking:
Analyzing Motives:
Consider a debate on the goals and methods of the Anti-Saloon League. What specific reasons the League may have had for trying to ban alcohol.
Possible responses: Religious convictions; problem behaviors induced by drinking, such as job loss and souse or child abuse.

More About. . .
Edward Bellamy
Son of a Baptist minister, Bellamy developed a deep concern for the urban poor. Soon after studying law and passing the bar, he became a journalist, but his greatest fame came from a novel, Looking Backward. Published in 1888, the novel describes a socialist utopia in what Bellamy and his readers was the distant future—the year 2000.

More About. . .
Eugene Debs
Debs was only 14 years old when he left home to work for the railroads, and by age 20 he had become a union organizer. In 1895, he was jailed for helping to direct the famous Pullman strike a year earlier. After William Jennings Bryan, whom Debs supported, lost the presidential election of 1896, Debs led the founding of the Socialist Party of America. He ran as its presidential candidate in 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920.

More About . . .
Ford and the Automobile
Ford applied the assembly line on a much larger scale than ever before also sped up production by sticking to the basics: “You can have any color you want as long as it’s black,” he joked. His innovations cut production time of his Model T cars from 14 man-hours in 1910 to two man-hours in 1913, making them more affordable in the process.

History From Visuals
Ford Factory Workers
Reading the Art
What does the picture reveal about what it would be like to work on an assembly line?
Possible Responses: Exhausting; crowded; tedious; noisy.

Objective 2 Instruct
Cleaning Up Government
Starting With the Student
What does the saying, `You can’t fight City hall’ imply?
Is this usually the case?

Discussing Key Ideas
Incompetent handling of natural disasters like hurricanes and floods prompts local reform.
Progressive mayors such as Hazel Pingree of Detroit work to reform local government.

More About. . .
As Detroit’s reform mayor, Pingree’s most famous innovation was providing gardens for the unemployed, which became known as “Pingree’s Potato Patches.” Pingree went on to serve as Michigan’s governor from 1897 to 1901.

Objective 3 Instruct
Reform at the State Level
Discussing Key Ideas
More About. . .
Robert M. La Follette

More About. . .
Louis D. Brandeis

History From Visuals
Child Labor at Textile Mills

On the World Stage
Australian Ballot
Critical Thinking

Progressivism prompted new laws, political cleanups, and other changes aimed at protecting social welfare, promoting moral and economic reform, and improving industrial efficiency.

Monday, November 07, 2005

Daily Life 1877-1917 New Ways to Play

Daily Life

New Ways to Play

To explain how the shift fit to an urban, industrial economy spurred Americans to seek outdoor leisure activities.
To identify sites and activities that turn-of-the-century Americans enjoyed in their leisure time.

Focus & Motivate
Starting with the Student
Imagine, if you will, having a dull job that keeps you indoors during the workweek.
What kinds of places are you likely to want to spend your leisure time?
What kinds of leisure activities would you want to do?

More About. . . .
The Bicycle Craze
Though bicycles developed gradually, it was not until the closing decades of the 19th century that they became popular. At the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, a British firm displayed an “ordinary English bicycle,” that caught the attention of manufacturer Albert. A. Pope, who soon converted hi Massachusetts air-pistol factory into a bicycle works. Within a decade, America had over 50,000 cyclists, with just about every big city sporting a bicycle club. By the turn-of-the-century bicycle manufacturing had grown into a $60 million business in America alone.

Starting With the Student
What parks, beaches, or other outdoor recreational sites are near your home?
What kinds of public recreational facilities do students typically use?
How does your use of these facilities compare with the use of Central Park described in the feature?

Discussing Key Ideas
A shorter workweek gives Americans more leisure time.
Cities establish parks for outdoor recreation, and activities like bicycle riding, ice-skating, boating, and watching sports becomes more popular.

History From Visuals
Based on the central illustration, describe the impression Olmsted and Vaux hoped to achieve with Central Park.
Based on the data file, what other leisure activities did Americans pursue at the turn of the century? How could they afford all this leisure while working fewer hours?
Possible Responses: Americans went to the theater, bought records, and joined social clubs. They could afford this because industrialization was creating more higher-paying jobs, leisure time, and affordable goods.

Friday, November 04, 2005

Ch. 16 Section 4 Dawn of Mass Culture

Ch. 16 Section 4 Dawn of Mass Culture

Section 4 Overview
To give examples of turn-of-century popular sports and other leisure activities.
To describe turn-of-the-century trends in music and the performing arts.
To summarize the growing circulation of newspapers.
To describe turn-of-the-century innovations in marketing and advertising.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
What are some favorite leisure activities?
How do some or all of these activities affect American life in general?

Objective 1 Instruct
American Leisure
Playgrounds, playing fields, and amusement parks help provide vital outdoor activity to city dwellers.
Bicycle riding and tennis become popular crazes that help liberate females from corsets and less tangible confinements.
Sports like boxing and the evolving game of baseball draws crowds of spectators.

More About . . . .
Coney Island
Offering a fine Atlantic beachfront, Coney Island (from the Dutch for “Rabbit Island”) first became a resort in the 1820s but suffered from crime and corruption a few decades later. The turn-of-the-century advent of amusement parks—not only Luna Park but Steeplechase Park and Dreamland—helped revitalize the area as the “world’s largest playground” or “empire of the nickel” for immigrants and other working-class New Yorkers.

More About. . . .
Albert Bigelow Paine
Best-known for editing Mark Twain’s letters and writing his authorized biography, Pain also penned works of his own, including the play The Great White Way (1901), a title that became a nickname for New York City’s theater district.

Now & Then
Skates to Blades
Critical Thinking:
Image yourself as a comparative shopper deciding between “quad” and in-line skates. What qualities should be considered?
Factors to consider are stability, speed, price, appearance, maneuverability, ease of learning, and stylishness.

More About . . .
Turn-of-the-Century Health Foods
Several well-known foods were originally sold for dubious health purposes. John Harvey Kellogg spent years trying to create the cereal that eventually became corn flakes. In addition, Quaker Oats and Fleischmann’s Yeast both claimed to curb nervousness and constipation.

More About . . .
Like horse racing, boxing was enormously popular among 18th-century English gentleman. Then fought without gloves, it was extremely brutal until boxer Jack Broughton introduced a set of rules in 1743. In the 1860s the Marquis of Queensberry sponsored new rules that, among other things, required boxers to wear gloves. Though American boxing star John L. Sullivan was a bare-knuckle champion, he began fighting under the Marquis of Queensberry rules when he found that many U.S. towns and cities would legalize boxing only if gloves were worn.

Objective 2 Instruct
Going to the Show
Discussing Key Ideas
In their leisure hours, many turn-of-the-century Americans watch circuses, vaudeville shows, melodramas and other plays, as well as famous acting and singing stars on tour.
Minstrel shows give way to musicals and vaudeville, and ragtime—which blended African-American and European music and paved the way for jazz—becomes popular.
Soon after the turn of the century, movies emerge as popular entertainment, and by 1914 the American public idolizes its first generation of movie stars.

More About . . .
Hamlin Garland
Garland was a turn-of-the-century writer strongly influenced by the local-color movement—an offshoot of realism that stressed the accurate portrayal of a particular region or people. Garland’s region was the American Midwest—or “Middle Border,” as he often called it. Drawn from his personal experience, his short stories, in anthologies such as Main-Travelled Roads (1891) and Prairie Folks (1893), focused on the hardships of Midwestern farm life.

More About . . .
Scott Joplin
Knows as the “king of ragtime,” Joplin studies piano as a child in Texas and then traveled the Midwest performing, including a stint at Chicago’s Columbian Exposition in 1893. After receiving further musical training at Missouri’s George R. Smith College for Negroes, he began creating his own compositions, winning fame for class piano “rags” like “Maple Leaf Rag” and “The Entertainer.” He spent his final years in New York City, working mainly on a a three-act opera called Treemonisha.

Now & Then . . .
Going to the Movies
Starting With the Student
How important are movies to your leisure activities.
What else would you do if there were no such thing as television or movies?
Discussing Key Ideas
By 1903 the first modern films emerge, and theater owners realize that movies are more profitable than vaudeville.
Sound is added to films in 1927 and majestic movies palaces are built.
The popularity of television in the 1950s causes a decline in movie attendance by 1960, but theater owners combat this with outdoor drive-in movies.
Although the number of movie screens in the Unites States increases in the 1990s, movie attendance remains flat due to cable TV, satellite dishes, and videos.

Objective 3 Instruct
Mass Circulation Newspapers
Discussing Key Ideas
Turn-of-the-century newspapers are widely read by an increasingly literate public.
Publishing moguls Joseph Pulitzer’s and William Randolph Hearst’s newspapers grow more and more sensational.

More About. . .
William Randolph Hearst
After acquiring the Morning Journal, Hearst raided Pulitzer’s World for some of its best employees, including Richard F. Outcault, the inventor of color comics. The son of a U.S. Senator, Hearst extended his sensationalism into politics—the frenzy against Spain whipped up in his newspapers is often cited as a cause of the Spanish-American War.

Objective 4 Instruct
New Ways to Sell Goods
Discussing Key Ideas
The growth of new cities prompts new sales venues such as urban arcades, department stores, and chain stores.
Advertising and brand names become vital parts of the popular culture.
Mail-order catalogs blossom as rural free delivery allows packages to be sent to all parts of America.

Economic Background
Brand Names
Critical Thinking:
What importance do you place on brand names? What brand name products do you find reliable? For what kinds of products do you find the different brands indistinguishable?

More About. . .
Marshall Field’s
Marshall Field’s became the world’s biggest department store, serving as many as 250,000 customers a day by 1900. Helping Field in his efforts was Harry Selfridge, a Wisconsin native who began working at Field’s as a stock boy in 1879. Selfridge’s innovations included gift certificates, annual sales, the bargain basement, and the practice of reminding customers how many days were left for Christmas shopping.

More About. . .
F.W. Woolworth
Frank Winfield Woolworth opened his first “five-and-ten” (or “five-and-dime”) variety stores in Utica, New York, and Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1879. The Utica store failed, but the Lancaster store was so successful that he opened 21 like it in the next decade. In 1909, he successfully expanded into Great Britain and Ireland.

Now & Then
Catalogs Today
Critical Thinking:
Analyzing Causes
Why is catalog shopping so popular?
More women are juggling work and family and have less time to shop in stores; more people living in rural areas shop in this manner because they are too far from cities and stores; crime has dissuaded some shoppers from visiting department stores and malls; catalog retailers have grown more sophisticated in offering the right goods to the right customers.

From movies to shopping to advertising, the turn-of-the-century saw the birth of the American mass culture that has dominated 20th century life.

World History Terms to Review for Assessment

Ideologies – systems of thought and belief.

Universal manhood suffrage – all adult men have the right to vote.

Autonomy – self-rule, such as within the Ottoman Empire.

Conservatives – This group includes monarchs, members of the government, noble landowners, church leaders. They supported the political and social order that had come under attack during the French Revolution. They wanted to restore to power the royal families that had lost their thrones when Napoleon swept across Europe. They accepted the hierarchy of social classes. The lower classes, they felt, should respect and obey their social superiors. They backed an established church—Catholic in Austria and southern European countries, Orthodox in Eastern Europe, and Protestant in Britain, the Netherlands, Prussia, and the Scandinavian lands.

Liberals – This group embraced Enlightenment ideas spread by the French Revolution. They spoke out against divine right monarchy, the old aristocracy, and established churches. They defended the natural rights of individuals to liberty, equality and property. They spoke mostly for the bourgeoisie, or middle class. The group included business owners, bankers and lawyers, as well as politicians, newspaper editors, writers, and others who helped shape public opinion. They wanted government to be based on written constitutions and separation of powers. They called for rulers elected by the people and responsible to them. Thus, they favored a republican form of government over a monarchy, or at least wanted the monarch to be limited by a constitution.

Nationalists – This group was an outgrowth of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. It ignited a number of revolts against established rule. Empires had included many nationalities but unifying and gaining independence for people with a common national heritage became this group’s major goal. Each national group, they believed, should have its own state. This group gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and a goal—establishment of their own homeland. It also had negative effects. It often bred intolerance and led to persecution of national and ethnic minorities.

Greeks – In 1821, these people revolted, seeking and end to centuries of Ottoman rule. They justified their struggle as “a national war, a holy war, a war the object of which is to reconquer the rights of individual liberty.”

Charter of French Liberties – When the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne, he prudently issued a constitution. This created a two-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press. While Louis was careful to shun absolutism, the king retained much power.

Charles X – brother of Louis XVIII (died in 1824) who inherited the throne. He was a strong believer in absolutism, rejected the very idea of the Charter of French Liberties. In July, 1830, he suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press. Liberals and radicals responded forcefully to the king’s challenge. In Paris, angry citizens threw up barricades across the narrow streets. This person abdicated and fled to England.

Louis Phillipe – The French called this person the “citizen king” because he owed his throne to the people. He got along well with the liberal bourgeoisie. Like them, he dressed in a frock coat and top hat. Sometimes he strolled the streets, shaking hands with well-wishers. However, discontent grew. As the turmoil spread, he abdicated.

Louis Napoleon– This is the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. The “new” Napoleon attracted the working classes by presenting himself as a man who cared about social issues such as poverty. However, he grew in power and proclaimed himself Emperor, taking the title of Napoleon III. He used a plebiscite to win public approval of his policies.

Louis Kossuth – Hungarian nationalist who demanded an independent government. He also called for an end to serfdom and a written constitution to protect basic rights. In Prague, the Czechs made similar demands. Overwhelmed by events, the Austrian government agreed to the reforms.

Frankfurt Assembly – Throughout 1848, delegates from many German states met. “We are to create a constitution for Germany, for the whole land,” declared one leader with boundless optimism.

Peninsulares – Dominated Latin American political and social life. Only they could hold the top jobs in government and the Church. This group were Spanish-born settlers.

Creoles – These are the European descended Latin Americans who owned the haciendas, ranches, and mines—who bitterly opposed their second-class status.

Mestizos – This group is a bi-racial mix of Spanish and Native American background limited as a lower social class.

Mulattos – This group is a bi-racial mix of Spanish and African background limited as a lower social class.

Wednesday, November 02, 2005

Neighborhood Project: Frankford History

This research took me about 45 minutes to collect from online sources alone. It
covers the founding of Frankford and the origin of the neighborhood's name, early
history, a survey of what ethnic groups inhabited the area, transportation, early
churches, a historic house, the world famous Frankford Arsenal--describing a key
industry, the YWCA, the evolution of water sources in the area and its problems,
health care, the arts, sports, technology, and even contact information for the
Historical Society of Frankford. This would be a wealth of information to assemble
for a Neighborhood Project.

Area History: Chapter 2 - Part III Vol II - Watson's Annals of PENNSYLVANIA
There has been an opinion prevalent about Frankford village, that it derives its name from "Frank", a black fellow, and his "ford", where he kept a ferry for passengers on foot; but, besides its looking too artificial to be true, there are obvious reasons against that cause of its name. Called Frankford creek in Holmes' map, in 1682.
I see it as early as 1701, referred to in a public petition concerning a road under the name of Frankford besides, it lies on the creek, the Indian Wingohocking, from the "Frankford Company's land" in Germantown. It was their proper water passage to the river. Jonathan Dickinson in 1715, writing respecting Fairman's land at "Frankford creek" says, "a ford there will be very needful, and very expensive, as the winds drive the water from the Delaware over much marshy land". [Thomas Fairman had been a surveyor, who dwelt at the Treaty tree. For two hundred and twenty acres he offers £400. It falls short in the survey thirty-seven acres, thus showing how vaguely it was first done. He says it cannot be surveyed on the marsh [now all converted into productive meadows, &c.] till the winter, so as to go over it on the ice. He states that one hundred loads of timber were cut off it, since it was untenanted in the last winter, by moonlight night. Thus there were great depredators then! They probably cut it for staves and ship timber. In the year 1814, Christopher Kuhn, at Frankford, in digging a cellar foundation for a small store house on Kinsey and Hilles' present tanyard, came to a pot of old coin, hid perhaps by pirates. This tanyard, on the Frankford creek, was close to the bank where it is high; and at three feet depth, he came to an earthen vessel highly glazed, which held about half a pint, and contained one hundred pieces of various sizes and shapes of silver coin. None of it was left to be shown to me; the whole having been sold soon after to the silversmiths as old silver! On questioning him as to their character, he stated that there were many cut pieces of the size which would remain in cutting quarters and halves of dollars into sections of four pieces each. He observed dates to some as much as three hundred years old. One piece was as large as a crown, and was square. Two pieces had a tree on one side, and were marked Massachusetts; such a coin I have myself of the year 1652. On the whole the vessel contained quite a treasure for a collector, and yet none were saved. The aged Giles Gillingham, who died at Frankford in 1825, at the age of 93 years, said that when he was a boy, it was quite common with him to play with Indian boys in the neighbourhood. Frankford then had but very few houses, and was often called Oxford, after the name of its township. About the time of Braddock's defeat, there came an Indian from a distance, blowing a horn as he entered the Indians' place; they soon went off with him, and were no more seen near the place. The Frankford mill, now possessed by Mr. Duffield, was originally used as a mill by the Swedes before Penn landed. The earliest house in the place, now T.W. Duffield's, near the same mill, was deeded to Yeamans Gillingham by Penn's commissioners in 1696. The "Swedes' mill" was probably a saw mill, as wind mills were first used for grist. Arial;">

Situated on the Tacony, since called Frankford Creek, in the lower part of the
township of Oxford. The name of the village was very likely derived from the title of the Franckfort Company, which took up ground there. This village was incorporated into a borough by act of March 2, 1800. By act of April 4, 1831, the boundaries of the borough were extended.

Frankford is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, situated about 6 miles northeast of Center City.

Founded in the mid- to late 1600s by German settlers, the name of the village was very likely derived from the title of the Franckfort Company, which took up ground there, along what is now known as Frankford Creek. It was an early suburb of the town of Philadelphia. William Penn forged a trail through the village that would run from Center City up to New York City, passing through Bucks County, the location of his governor's mansion, Pennsbury Manor. That trail would come to be known as "Frankford Pike" (later Frankford Avenue) and was the town's main street. The village was incorporated into a borough in 1800 and in 1854, the village was included in the boundaries of the city of Philadelphia.

Today, Frankford is primarily a residential neighborhood. Philadelphia's public transportation company, SEPTA, has one of its main bus depots there and the Frankford Transportation Center is the neighborhood's mass transit hub. SEPTA's elevated train, the Market-Frankford Line (the "El"), also runs through the neighborhood, offering train service to Center City and West Philadelphia.

Although its borders are disputed, the neighborhood runs from Frankford Creek to the Roosevelt Boulevard, to Cheltenham Avenue, to the Delaware River, to the banks of the old Frankford Creek to the present-day Frankford Creek. Adjacent neighborhoods include Bridesburg, Juniata, Oxford Circle, Mayfair, and Wissinoming.

Although it was originally founded by German settlers, the neighborhood today includes a wide variety of peoples, including a large number of Italians, Polish, Irish, African Americans and Hispanics.

One of Philadelphia's earliest Catholic Churches, Saint Joachim's, was built here in 1845.,_Philadelphia

Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church

Immanuel was founded on April 4, 1792, at which time, according to a Philadelphia County Deed still on file in City Hall, Joseph J. Miller, a Philadelphia merchant, and his wife Elizabeth transferred 96 perches of land in Frankford, Oxford Township (later to become part of the city of Philadelphia) to a group of German farmers "for and in consideration of promoting purity and Christian religion and of the sum of five shillings lawful a site for a house of religious worship and a schoolhouse for the use of the German Lutheran Congregation of the township of Oxford..."

The Historic Greenwood House

Nomination to the


Frankford Arsenal Reloading Tools

There aren't many veteran reloaders who are not familiar with the famous initials "FA" on military 30/06 brass and for good reason. The original Frankford Arsenal Army Ammunition Plant was constructed between 1816 and1830 on Frankford Creek, which flows into the Delaware River in Philadelphia. In addition to massive small arms ammunition production, Frankford Arsenal was responsible for almost all of the research and development and manufacture of U.S. Army field reloading equipment for the 45/70, 50/70, 30/40 Krag and 30/06, beginning in the 1880's. Their designs were excellent and the workmanship was always beyond question.

YWCA OF PHILADELPHIA--FRANKFORD BRANCH is a membership organization which served the lower Northeast section of Philadelphia from 1920-1994. The organization was one of numerous branches that comprised the YWCA of Philadelphia since its beginnings in 1870.

The Tacony-Frankford Watershed
Historical Timeline

Part 1
Frankford Creek

Part 2
Sewers and Sewage Treatment!!!TFTimeline.html

In the late nineteenth century, a wave of Jewish immigrants fled eastern Europe and settled in northeastern Philadelphia along the Delaware River in Kensington and its surrounding neighborhoods. Separate from the German Jewish community of Philadelphia, the new immigrants created new Jewish settlements that eventually gave way to permanent residences and businesses along Frankford Avenue, Kensington Avenue, Richmond Street, Front Street, Torresdale Avenue, and beyond. Synagogues, bakeries, delicatessens, kosher butchers, and other Jewish establishments flourished for several decades until the area began to decline in the 1960s as a result of the postindustrial era. The Jewish Community under the Frankford El celebrates the history of this Jewish community and the contributions Jews made, as merchants and citizens, to this highly integrated section of Philadelphia.

Frankford's Early Beginnings...
The story of Frankford Hospitals began in 1902, when a resident of the Frankford section of Philadelphia contracted typhoid fever. The patient's physician, Dr. Joseph Ball, couldn’t find a single hospital in the city to admit his seriously ill patient. Not one of the downtown hospitals had an available bed.

Lion Theater was formed as Lion Productions in autumn 1998 with the intention of bringing live theater to Philadelphia's Frankford section. The founding members of Lion Theater, led by Gary Ross, realized that for decades, there had been no venues providing exposure to dramatic arts in the urban areas of Frankford, Kensington and Harrowgate.

Historical Society of Frankford

Other Information

Open by appointment

Related Photo Galleries

With its growing collection of photographs, oral histories and family documents, this society documents the history of Northeast Philadelphia and the community known as Frankford. The society works closely with local schools and organizations.


1507 Orthodox Street
Philadelphia, PA 19124

(215) 743-6030

The Historical Society of Frankford, founded in 1905 to collect, preserve and present the history of Frankford and Northeast Philadelphia, will open it's doors to visitors during the Festival. The Society, recently featured on the national PBS show Find! and in local press reports, has an extraordinary collection of documents and artifacts from the 17th century through the 21st century that trace the history of this important area of Philadelphia. Frankford is one of the oldest communities in Pennsylvania and the site of a number of significant events in our nation's history.

A long time Society board member, Diane Sadler, will take people on an architectural walking tour of the neighborhood highlighting some of the prominent homes, historic sites and unique architecture. Visit the Society at 1507 Orthodox Street on Saturday 10/1 and Sunday 10/2 between the hours of Noon to 4:00 p.m. A 15 minute video, which briefly describes Frankford's history and highlights of the society's extraordinary museum and library collections will be shown throughout the day.

Philadelphia Eagles, professional football team and one of five teams in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference (NFC) of the National Football League (NFL). The Eagles play at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and wear uniforms of green, silver, black, and white. The team began play in 1924 as the Frankford (Pennsylvania) Yellow Jackets. Owners Bert Bell and Lud Wray moved the team to Philadelphia in 1933 and changed its name to the Eagles after the symbol of the National Recovery Administration, which had been created as part of the New Deal.

Welcome to the home of The Frankford Yellow Jackets. The Jackets are one of the original National Football League teams to join in the early 1920's. Originating out of the Frankford section of Philadelphia at the end of the 19th century, the team joined the NFL in 1924 and went on to win the World Championship in 1926. The team become one of the most respected teams in the NFL and was known worldwide. Disbanded in 1931 the team has not fielded since it's last game December 5th, 1931.

OUR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE As Seen From The Frankford EL c. 1924

The Frankford Radio Club originated in the Frankford High School, in Philadelphia, around 1927. This document details its history at length. This presentation is divided into segments for your reading pleasure. We certainly hope you enjoy the story.

Ch. 16 Section 3 Segregation and Discrimination

Ch. 16 Section 3 Segregation and Discrimination

Section 3
To trace the development of legal discrimination against African Americans in the South and their struggle against it.
To summarize turn-of-the-century race relations in the North as well as in the South.
To identify discrimination against Mexican-Americans, Chinese Americans, and others in the American West.

Interpreting Charts
Possible Answer:
Brown meant the laws would not make people equal. Harlan wrote a dissenting opinion and argued that it was wrong to have laws that distinguished people solely on the basis of race.

Answer: The Supreme Court decision opened the door for the legal segregation of almost all public facilities.

Answer: African Americans faced segregation and lynchings. Mexicans faced debt peonage. Chinese faced segregation and obstacles to immigration.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
Have you ever been unfairly discriminated against?
How does such treatment affect both the victim and the perpetrator?

Objective 1 Instruct
African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination
Starting With the Student
Create a chart summarizing the types of laws that weakened African-American voting rights in the South.


Discussing Key Ideas
White Southeners institute voting restrictions and segregation laws, reducing African Americans to second-class citizenship.
In Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, the Supreme Court made “separate but equal” the law of the land. In practice, the separation was enforced, but the equality was not.

More About. . . .
Jim Crow
Thomas Dartmouth (“Daddy”) Rice was the father of American minstrel shows, musical entertainment in which blacks or whites in blackface, poked fun at the singing and dancing of African-American slaves. Winning fame as a “Negro impersonator,” Rice created the character of Jim Crow in an 1828 minstrel routine that conveyed the stereotype of the simple, happy-go-lucky black man who loves to dance and sing for “de white folks.” Minstrel shows became hugely popular by mind-century when companies like the Virginia Minstrels and Bryant’s Minstrels went on tour and the most famous of all, the Christy Minstrels, performed Stephen Foster songs on Broadway in New York City.

Objective 2 Instruct
Turn-of-the-Century Race Relations
Starting With the Student
How would you have reacted to the Jim Crow Laws described in the text?
How could such laws could have been fought?

Discussing Key Ideas
African Americans face segregation, especially in the South, and discrimination everywhere.
In the struggle for equality, Booker T. Washington urges a gradual approach, while W.E.B. Du Bois demands full equality immediately.
Crusaders like Ida Wells fight against the violence that confronts African Americans accused of violating the racial etiquette.

Historical Spotlight
Washington and Du Bois Debate
Critical Thinking: Interpreting
Why did Du Bois use the phrase “Atlanta Compromise?” Possible Responses: To convey his view that Washington merely accommodated the white status quo; to remind people of the inadequacies of the Missouri Compromise decades earlier.

More About . . . .
Segregated Neighborhoods
The most famous African-American neighborhood was probably Harlem in New York City. Even before the subway line opened along Harlem’s Lenox Avenue in 1901, real-estate speculators began building fine apartment houses there, anticipating a middle-class influx. When the middle class did not arrive, African-American developer Philip A. Payton stepped in, promising high rents to landlords who would allow African-American tenants. Soon, despite inflated costs, African Americans from all over began moving to Harlem, which offered far better accommodations than most other areas where blacks were permitted to live.

Objective 3 Instruct
Discrimination in the West
Discussing Key Ideas
In the West, nonwhite immigrants such as the Mexicans and Chinese fall victim to discrimination.
Mexican workers are sometimes forced into debt peonage, or involuntary servitude, until the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1911.
Prejudice against the Chinese is so great that in 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which restricted Chinese immigration and suspended naturalization for those already present.

More About . . .
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 emerged not simply as an example of American racism. The act was part of a broader social concern over class tensions in an industrial society. At first, the act only restricted the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years, in order to protect the jobs of white workers and reduce the kinds of tensions that led to events like the Railroad Strike of 1877. Nevertheless, the act expanded to include “all persons of the Chinese race” in 1888. It was then extended another ten years in 1892 and made indefinite in 1902.

African Americans faced legal segregation in the South and de facto segregation in the North, while Mexican Americans and Chinese Americans, mostly in the West, also faced severe discrimination.

Answer: Brown meant the laws would not make people equal. Harlan wrote a dissenting opinion and argued that it was wrong to have laws that distinguished people solely on the basis of race.

Answer: The Supreme Court decision opened the door for the legal segregation of almost all public facilities.

Answer: African Americans faced segregation and lynchings. Mexicans faced debt peonage. Chinese faced segregation and obstacles to immigration.

Section 3 Assessment
Wells, p. 473
Literacy test, p. 474
Poll tax, p. 474
Grandfather clause, p. 474
Jim Crow laws, p. 474
segregation, p. 474
Plessy v. Ferguson, p. 475
Debt peonage, p. 477

2. Summarizing
People: Ida B. Wells, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois.

Places: The Southwest (Mexican peonage); California (the Chinese).

Legal Issues: Literacy tests, poll tax; Jim Crow laws; segregated schools; Plessy v. Ferguson.

Events: Lynchings; Well’s anti-lynching campaign.

3. Possible Answer: African Americans were the victims of voting restrictions and Jim Crow laws, and were forced to adhere to a racial etiquette. They faced discrimination in jobs and housing, and were forced to accept separate schools and other facilities.

Possible Answer: Both faced discrimination in employment. While both were not treated as well as white workers, African Americans had more conflicts with whites. The Newlands Reclamation Acts created work for Mexicans, while Jim Crow laws harmed African Americans.