Beyond the Sound Bites
Moodys Analytics Chief Economist Mark Zandi discusses the state of U.S. manufacturing, small business job growth and whether the economy can achieve 4% growth this year.
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Chapter 6 Prices and Decision Making
Ch. 6 Sec. 1 Reading Strategy
The Economic Impact of the BP Oil Spill
The Global Economy and You
Advantages of Prices
In what way do prices perform the allocation function?
Allocations without Prices
Problems with Rationing
What are the differences between the price system and rationing?
Prices as a System
How do prices allocate resources between markets?
Ch. 6 Sec. 1 Review
In-class assignment: with a partner, identify the problems associated with rationing.
I Bought It On eBay
Section 2 The Price System at Work
Economists develop economic models of markets with supply and demand curves in order to analyze and predict outcomes. In a competitive market, the forces of supply and demand establish prices. A temporary surplus drives prices down; a temporary shortage forces prices up. Eventually, the market reaches the equilibrium price where there are neither shortages nor surpluses. Changes in supply or demand can disturb the market, but the market will tend to find its new equilibrium with the help of temporary shortages and/or surpluses. Whenever supply or demand for a product fluctuates, the elasticity of the two curves affects the size of the price change. Competitive markets represent the ideal, but the lessons learned from them apply to other markets as well.
Ch. 6 Sec. 2 Reading Strategy
In-class assignment: with a partner, complete the graphic organizer by describing how a surplus and a shortage affect prices, demand, and supply. .
In-class assignment, working with a partner, answer the following.
In your own words, explain the price system.
Does one person make a pencil?
Do it take many people and cultures to produce even simple goods such as pencils?
Does it take cooperation?
Is it likely that the differences between people would make them hate each other if they met?
Then what brought all these people together?
What does the price system foster if left unregulated according to Friedman?
Milton Friedman, Free to Choose (explains the price system), 2:11
Guide to Reading
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.
As illustrated in the video, draw the graph.
Which direction does the demand curve go?
Which direction does the supply curve go?
Why (for each curve)?
What is the intersection of the curves called?
What does the idea of the surplus entail?
What is the red (in the video) section called?
What lines define the consumer surplus?
Can prices be determined as a result?
Equilibrium price and surplus, 6:27
Description of equilibrium price, consumer surplus, producer surplus and social surplus using supply and demand diagrams.
Companies in the News
Want prime seats? Get ready to bid?
The Price Adjustment Process
A Market Model
Figure 6.1 Market Equilibrium
Figure 6.2 Surpluses and Shortages
How do surpluses and shortages help establish the equilibrium price?
Explaining and Predicting Prices
Change in Supply
Figure 6.3 Changes in Prices
Change in Demand
Change in Supply and Demand
The Importance of Elasticity
Real Estate Agent
Real estate agents, among others such as actors (including voice actors), artists, novelists, freelance writers, and similar creative artists as talents are generally compensated on a "per job" basis, and thus are not treated as employees; as freelancers, they file a 1099 form for their taxes. They are not, strictly speaking, an employee of a company. The health care provisions passed last year require them to purchase health care and to be treated as regular employees of companies.
Prices and Competitive Markets
How does the elasticity of a good affects its price?
Business Week Newsclip
What's Raining on Solar's Parade?
Solar Power: Why Economics Matters, 7:12
Ch. 6 Sec. 2 Review
In-class assignment, with a partner, complete the graphic organizer to show how a change in demand and supply affects the price of a product.
Section 3 Social Goals and Market Efficiency
Prices work as a system to allocate resources between markets. However, if prices are fixed in one market, temporary shortages and surpluses tend to become permanent. A price ceiling, such as rent control, is one form of fixed price; a price floor, such as the minimum wage, is another example. Agriculture is especially hard-hit by price changes, because demand and supply tend to be inelastic, while weather often causes the supply curve to change. Therefore, to help farmers, the federal government established the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency in the Department of Agriculture. The CCC then used a target price, which is essentially a price floor, to help stabilize farm prices. As a result, over the years, the government has established other forms of support for agriculture in the economy.
Guide to Reading
Price Floors and Price Ceilings, 5:59
In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following:
What happens when the government interferes with the market mechanism by artificially imposing a "better" price?
What may interfere with the market?
How does the video define price floor?
Who is the price floor meant to protect?
What is the seller protected from?
What kinds of businesses would warrant such help?
Rather than impose an artificial price on the market resulting in all manner of other problems is there any way to manage the market to get the equilibrium price up to Pf?
Define price ceiling.
Who is a price ceiling meant to protect?
Would you rather pay a higher price for gas if you knew you could get it, or, would you rather pay a lower price for gas but take the chance none would be available?
Are there ways to make a lower price of gas available instead of imposing a government price?
Minimum Wage, 2:30
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following:
Before Congress, who testifies in favor of minimum wage?
Do labor unions generally work for minimum wage?
Why do labor unions favor a minimum wage?
Which groups are often harmed by the minimum wage?
Are small businesses harmed?
Issues in the News
Minimum Wage Rise Hurts Students
Distorting Market Outcomes
Figure 6.4 Price Ceilings
Figure 6.5 Price Floors
What are the negative and positive aspects of price ceilings and price floors?
Agricultural Price Supports
Figure 6.6 Deficiency Payments
Conservation "Land Banks"
Reforming Price Supports
Continued Agricultural Support
What has been the effect of agricultural price supports?
When Markets Talk
Can you think of any other examples of markets "talking"? Explain
Did You Know?
Profiles in Economics
Margaret (Meg) Whitman, eBay
Debates in Economics
Should College Athletes Be Paid?
Ch. 4 Prep
Multiple Choice Quiz
Ch. 5 Prep
Chapter 5 Supply Multiple Choice Quiz
Chapter 5 Puzzle
Chapter 5 Supply Flashcards
Ch. 6 Prep
Chapter 6: Prices and Decision Making
Multiple Choice Quiz
Academic, Glossary, People/Places/Events
Ian Hunter, How's Your House, for the New Orleans Musicians Relief Fund
Email (or hand in hard copy) to firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. p. 146, #5; p. 147, #1-2
1. p. 154, #1, 3, 4
1. p. 161, #1