Monday, November 08, 2010

Honors World History II: 9 November 2010

Prayer
Current Events:


MSNBC Anchor O'Donnell

Left-wing

Terms: Socialist, Progressive, Liberal, Blue Dog

The Make-Up Quiz on Ch. 11 Sec. 2 is today; this is the last Quiz/Test for the Quarter. November HW will count for the 2nd Quarter.

HW is available below (per our usual procedure HW is also posted at the bottom of the daily blog post as well as being posted on GradeConnect):

Chapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon




Napoleon formed a new government, the consulate, in which he held absolute power. In 1802 he was crowned emperor and signed a peace treaty with Russia, Great Britain, and Austria. At home, he made peace with the Catholic Church and created a functioning bureaucracy. His Napoleonic Code preserved many of the rights gained in the revolution. War was soon renewed. By 1807, Napoleon had created a French empire. In parts of the empire, Napoleon sought to spread the revolution. However, his invasions had contributed to the spread of nationalism as well. This, along with British sea power, would spell his defeat. After a disastrous invasion of Russia, other European nations attacked Napoleon's army and captured Paris. Napoleon was exiled from France, and the monarchy was restored. Napoleon returned to power briefly, only to face final military defeat against a combined Prussian and British force at Waterloo and to be exiled once again.

Wordle: Chapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon
The Age of Napoleon


Objectives

Terms, People, and Places

Video clips about Napoleon

Map of Napoleon's Empire

Refight Trafalgar!

Napoleon's Empire in 1812

Napoleon's army retreating from Moscow

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

The Battle of Waterloo Game

The Rise of Napoleon

Focus Question

Explain Napoleon’s rise to power in Europe, his subsequent defeat, and how the outcome still affects Europe today.

Early Life

Additional references:

Napoleon and Josephine
Courtship and Marriage
The Emperor and Empress
Crisis and Divorce
A New Life

Napoleon and Josephine (screen at your leisure outside of class)



Military Successes







Music: Maurice Ravel - "le Bolero" (screen at your leisure outside of class--set to events we are studying)







Consul and Emperor

Checkpoint

How did Napoleon rise to power so quickly in France?

Reading Check

What personal qualities did Napoleon possess that gained him popular support?

Napoleon's Domestic Policies

Peace With the Church

Codification of the Laws

Checkpoint

What reforms did Napoleon introduce during his rise to power?

A New Bureaucracy

Preserver of the Revolution?

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël

Reading Check

Evaluating

What was the significance of Napoleon's Code?

Napoleon's Empire

Building the Empire

Vocabulary Builder

anticipate—(an tis uh payt) vt. to foresee or expect

The Map of Europe Is Redrawn

Napoleon’s Power in Europe, 1812

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-1841

Map Skills

Napoleon’s empire reached its greatest extent in 1812. Most of the countries in Europe today have different names and borders.

Compare Europe of Napoleon’s empire to Europe of today on the maps above. How has Europe changed?

Spreading the Principles of the Revolution

Checkpoint

How did Napoleon come to dominate most of Europe by 1812?

Reading Check

Identifying

What were the three parts of Napoleon's Grand Empire? (i.e., identify which areas or countries make up the following): French Empire, Dependent states, and States allied with Napoleon.

The European Response

Britain's Survival (Napoleon Strikes Britain)

Nelson won a decisive at Trafalgar but he only enjoyed his victory briefly as he fell mortally wounded during the battle.

Nelson's Principles of War



Animated Map: the Battle of Trafalgar

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/launch_ani_trafalgar.shtml

Battlefield Academy: Re-fight Trafalgar!

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/launch_gms_trafalgar_bfacademy.shtml


Nationalism

Nationalism Works Against Napoleon

Reading Check

Explaining

Why did being a sea power help Britain survive an attack by the French?

Spain and Austria Battle the French

The Fall of Napoleon

Disaster in Russia


Primary Source

As shown in this painting, the Russian winter took its toll on Napoleon’s army. Philippe Paul de Ségur, an aide to Napoleon, describes the grim scene as the remnants of the Grand Army returned home.

What were the effects of this disaster in Russia?


"Bienvenue, je suis Napoléon, de France, le militaire le plus intelligent de l'Histoire mondiale."

Discovery School Channel (Video)

Watch Napoleon’s Lost Army on the Witness History Discovery School™ video program to learn about Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812.

Checkpoint

What challenges threatened Napoleon’s empire and what led to the disaster in Russia?

Reading Check

Explaining

Why did Napoleon invade Russia?

The Final Defeat

After the Russian campaign and Leipzig Napoleon was finished. He was forced to abdicate, and he comforted his old guard who were his veterans and those who followed him for twenty years since the Italian campaign.

He gave his famous speech to the guard, France Has Fallen. The background music is Sigfried's Funeral March by Wagner from Twilight of the Gods, 2:54.



Napoleon Abdicates Briefly




With Napoleon's abdication (stepping down from power), the victors exiled him to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean. They then recognized Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, as king of France.

The restoration of Louis XVIII did not go smoothly. He agreed to accept the Napoleonic Code and honor the land settlements made during the revolution. However, many émigrés rushed back to France bent on revenge. An economic depression and the fear of a return to the old regime helped rekindle loyalty to Napoleon.

As the victorious allies gathered in Vienna for a general peace conference, Napoleon escaped his island exile and returned to France. Soldiers flocked to his banner. As citizens cheered Napoleon’s advance, Louis XVIII fled. In March 1815, Napoleon entered Paris in triumph.

Napoleon’s triumph was short-lived. His star soared for only 100 days, while the allies reassembled their forces. On June 18, 1815, the opposing armies met near the town of Waterloo in Belgium. British forces under the Duke of Wellington and a Prussian army commanded by General Blücher crushed the French in an agonizing day-long battle. Once again, Napoleon was forced to abdicate and to go into exile on St. Helena, a lonely island in the South Atlantic. This time, he would not return.

Crushed at the Battle of Waterloo

You can learn more or prepare for the Battle of Waterloo Game by viewing the Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator.

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

If you have not prepared with the Battle Simulator the fight at Waterloo will still occur in the Game.

The Battle of Waterloo Game













Napoleon's death was not without controversy and there is evidence that he may have been poisoned (Cf. The Murder of Napoleon by Ben Weider. As a fascinating sidelight to the story of Napoleon, it appears that Count Charles-Tristan de Montholon, an aide to Napoleon and a member of the "pre-Revolutionary aristocracy" poisoned him slowly with arsenic (a poison) on St. Helena (Weider, p. 33).

Napoleon, although it was widely known that he had suffered from physical ailments his entire life (it appears to be the scratching disease, scabies, Napoleon's Glands, Arno Karlen, p. 7), had nonetheless a legendary reputation for work; yet, he succumbed at the relatively young age of 51 thus at the very least his death should raise questions.

At the time of Napoleon's death, the arsenic poisoning went unnoticed and it was not until a Swedish researcher in 1955, Sten Forshufvud, reconstructed the accounts and medical evidence of Napoleon's death that a modern, forensic connection could be established determining that Napoleon was murdered. Montholon had a motive, he was attached to the pre-Revolutionary aristocracy, and he appeared to be an agent of Count d'Artois, brother of King Louis XVIII, and later Charles X in the restored French monarchy who hated the Revolutionary Napoleon (Weider, pp. 144, 254).

Napoleon himself may have sensed something was amiss in his last days. Six days before his death he directed:


After my death, which cannot be far off. I want you to open my body. . . . I want you to remove my heart, which you will put in spirits of wine and take to Parma, to my dear Marie-Louise [Napoleon's second wife]. . . . I recommend that you examine my stomach particularly carefully; make a precise, detailed report on it, and give it to my son. . . . I charge you to overlook nothing in this examination. . . . I bequeath to all the ruling families the horror and shame of my last moments.
(Wieder, preface).

Napoleon’s Legacy

Napoleon died in 1821, but his legend lived on in France and around the world. His contemporaries as well as historians today have long debated his legacy. Was he “the revolution on horseback,” as he claimed? Or was he a traitor to the revolution?

No one, however, questions Napoleon’s impact on France and on Europe. The Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution. The France of Napoleon was a centralized state with a constitution. Elections were held with expanded, though limited, suffrage. Many more citizens had rights to property and access to education than under the old regime. Still, French citizens lost many rights promised so fervently by republicans during the Convention.
Resources

Crushed at the Battle of Waterloo

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcomb Swanston, p. 107.

The Encyclopedia of Warfare by Robin Cross, Napoleon's Tactics, p. 135; on Waterloo, pp. 141-143.

Napoleon as Military Commander by James Marshall-Cornwall, pp, 263-281.

The Napoleonic Wars: an Illustrated History, 1792-1815, by Michael Glover, pp. 215-222.

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

The Battle of Waterloo Game





Chapter 12 Preview
A Story That Matters, p. 362

The Congress of Vienna

Prince Clemens von Metternich, p. 373

As Austria’s foreign minister, Metternich (1773–1859) used a variety of means to achieve his goals. In 1809, when Napoleon seemed vulnerable, Metternich favored war against France. In 1810, after France had crushed Austria, he supported alliance with France. When the French army was in desperate retreat from Russia, Metternich became the “prime minister of the coalition” that defeated Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich helped create a new European order and made sure that Austria had a key role in it. He would skillfully defend that new order for more than 30 years.

A key question to consider is: why did Metternich’s policies toward France change?

Map

Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-1842

Map Skills

At the Congress of Vienna, European leaders redrew the map of Europe in order to contain France and keep a balance of power.

1. Locate

(a) German Confederation, (b) Netherlands, (c) Vienna

2. Region

Name three states that were in the German Confederation.

3. Recognize Cause and Effect

Why did the Congress enlarge some of the countries around France?

On the world stage, Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideas of the revolution. He failed to make Europe into a French empire. Instead, he sparked nationalist feelings across Europe. The abolition of the Holy Roman Empire would eventually help in creating a new Germany. Napoleon’s impact also reached across the Atlantic. In 1803, his decision to sell France’s vast Louisiana Territory to the American government doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion.

Checkpoint

How did Napoleon impact Europe and the rest of the world?

Leaders Meet at the Congress of Vienna

After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the Congress of Vienna. They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war. The Congress met for 10 months, from September 1814 to June 1815. It was a brilliant gathering of European leaders. Diplomats and royalty dined and danced, attended concerts and ballets, and enjoyed parties arranged by their host, Emperor Francis I of Austria. The work fell to Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Lord Robert Castlereagh of Britain. Defeated France was represented by Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.




Congress Strives For Peace

The chief goal of the Vienna decision makers was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy. Each of the leaders also pursued his own goals. Metternich, the dominant figure at the Congress, wanted to restore things the way they were in 1792. Alexander I urged a “holy alliance” of Christian monarchs to suppress future revolutions. Lord Castlereagh was determined to prevent a revival of French military power. The aged diplomat Talleyrand shrewdly played the other leaders against one another so France would be accepted as an equal partner.

The peacemakers also redrew the map of Europe. To contain French ambitions, they ringed France with strong countries. In the north, they added Belgium and Luxembourg to Holland to create the kingdom of the Netherlands. To prevent French expansion eastward, they gave Prussia lands along the Rhine River. They also allowed Austria to reassert control over northern Italy.

To turn back the clock to 1792, the architects of the peace promoted the principle of legitimacy, restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated. Even before the Congress began, they had put Louis XVIII on the French throne. Later, they restored “legitimate” monarchs in Portugal, Spain, and the Italian states.

Congress Fails to See Traps Ahead

To protect the new order, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain extended their wartime alliance into the postwar era. In the Quadruple Alliance, the four nations pledged to act together to maintain the balance of power and to suppress revolutionary uprisings, especially in France. Another result of the Congress was a system known as the Concert of Europe, in which the powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe.

The Vienna statesmen achieved their immediate goals in creating a lasting peace. Their decisions influenced European politics for the next 100 years. Europe would not see war on a Napoleonic scale until 1914. They failed, however, to foresee how powerful new forces such as nationalism would shake the foundations of Europe and Latin America in the next decades.

Portrait of Louis XVIII




Checkpoint

Explain the chief goal and outcome of the Congress of Vienna.
Unit 3 An Era of European Imperialism 1800-1914

The Period in Perspective

Primary Sources Library

Refer to pp. 776-777 for primary source readings to accompany Unit 3.
Looking Back . . . To See Ahead

Industrialization

Great Britain

Workshop of the World

The United States

The Revolution Spreads

Japan

The Search for Markets

Why It Matters

Chapter 12 Industrialization and Nationalism 1800-1870

Key Events

The Impact Today

History Online

Chapter Overview

wh.mt.glencoe.com

Chapter Overviews

The Industrial Revolution and a wave of liberal nationalist revolutions transformed Europe during the nineteenth century. A weakened old order gave way, and a number of unified European states emerged.

While the American Revolution and the French Revolution were being fought in the late 1700s, another kind of revolution took hold in Britain. Though not political, this revolution—known as the Industrial Revolution—brought about just as many changes to society. Paul Johnson, historian, describes this time period as “the age, above all in history, of matchless opportunities for penniless men with powerful brains and imaginations.”

Section 1 The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in the late eighteenth century and turned Great Britain into the first and the richest industrialized nation. A series of technological advances caused Great Britain to become a leader in the production of cotton, coal, and iron. After the introduction of the first steam-powered locomotives, railroad tracks were laid across Great Britain, reducing the cost of shipping goods. The Industrial Revolution spread to the rest of Europe and North America. In the United States, the railroad made it possible to sell manufactured goods from the Northeast across the country. The Industrial Revolution had a tremendous social impact in Europe. Cities grew quickly, and an industrial middle class emerged. The industrial working class, meanwhile, dealt with wretched working conditions. These conditions gave rise to socialism, a movement aimed at improving working conditions through government control of the means of production.

Section 2 Reaction and Revolution
After the defeat of Napoleon, European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore the old order and establish stable borders. Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria met regularly to maintain the new balance of power. Meanwhile, liberalism and nationalism—two philosophies that opposed the old order—were on the rise. Many liberals were middle-class men who wanted a constitution and a share in the voting rights enjoyed by landowners. Liberals tended to be nationalists as well. In 1830, France's upper middle class overthrew the king and installed a constitutional monarchy. Belgium broke free of Dutch control. Revolts in Poland and Italy failed. Economic crises in 1846 led to a revolt of the French working classes. This time, a Second Republic was formed, under the leadership of Napoleon's nephew, Louis-Napoleon. Revolts followed in German states, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. In each case the old order was restored.

Section 3 National Unification and Nationalism
The Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe. A defeated Russia retreated from European affairs, and Austria was isolated. Italian and German nationalists exploited Austria's isolation. Both gained important territory in the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War, and a unified Germany and Italy emerged. Growing prosperity and expanded voting rights helped Great Britain avoid revolution in 1848. In 1852, the French voted to restore their empire. Louis-Napoleon became the authoritarian Napoleon III and ruled until France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Austria granted Hungarians the right to govern their own domestic affairs. In Russia, Czar Alexander II freed the serfs and instituted other reforms. When a radical assassinated him, his son, Alexander III, reverted to repressive rule. The United States endured a costly civil war between the Northern and Southern states. After two short rebellions, Canada won its independence from Great Britain.

Section 4 Romanticism and Realism
At the end of the eighteenth century, a new intellectual movement, known as romanticism, emerged as a reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment. Romantics emphasized feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing. Many were passionately interested in the past. Gothic literature, was critical of industrialization. Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution revived interest in science. The new age of science produced important ideas, such as Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease and Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. The scientific outlook influenced the work of the realist novelists and artists, who depicted everyday life in realistic, and unromantic detail.

Chapter Preview

A Story That Matters

The Congress of Vienna

The chief goal of the Vienna decision makers was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy. Each of the leaders also pursued his own goals. Metternich, the dominant figure at the Congress, wanted to restore things the way they were in 1792. Alexander I urged a “holy alliance” of Christian monarchs to suppress future revolutions. Lord Castlereagh was determined to prevent a revival of French military power. The aged diplomat Talleyrand shrewdly played the other leaders against one another so France would be accepted as an equal partner.

The peacemakers also redrew the map of Europe. To contain French ambitions, they ringed France with strong countries. In the north, they added Belgium and Luxembourg to Holland to create the kingdom of the Netherlands. To prevent French expansion eastward, they gave Prussia lands along the Rhine River. They also allowed Austria to reassert control over northern Italy.

To turn back the clock to 1792, the architects of the peace promoted the principle of legitimacy, restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated. Even before the Congress began, they had put Louis XVIII on the French throne. Later, they restored “legitimate” monarchs in Portugal, Spain, and the Italian states.

Why It Matters

Chapter 12 Section 1 The Industrial Revolution

Section 1 The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in the late eighteenth century and turned Great Britain into the first and the richest industrialized nation. A series of technological advances caused Great Britain to become a leader in the production of cotton, coal, and iron. After the introduction of the first steam-powered locomotives, railroad tracks were laid across Great Britain, reducing the cost of shipping goods. The Industrial Revolution spread to the rest of Europe and North America. In the United States, the railroad made it possible to sell manufactured goods from the Northeast across the country. The Industrial Revolution had a tremendous social impact in Europe. Cities grew quickly, and an industrial middle class emerged. The industrial working class, meanwhile, dealt with wretched working conditions. These conditions gave rise to socialism, a movement aimed at improving working conditions through government control of the means of production.

Objectives

Analyze why life changed as industry spread.

Summarize how an agricultural revolution led to the growth of industry.

Outline the new technologies that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution.

Key Terms Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/WH+II+Ch.+12+Sec.+1+The+Industrial+Revolution

capital

entrepreneur

cottage industry

puddling

industrial capitalism

socialism

People to Identify

James Watt

Robert Fulton

Additional Terms, People, and Places

anesthetic

enclosure

smelt

Voices From the Past

The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain

In-Motion Animations (Map): Industry in Great Britain by 1850

Who Wants to Be a Cotton Millionaire?



Britain emerged in Victorian times as the world's first industrial power, but the transition wasn't smooth.

Some entrepreneurs made fortunes from the new cotton industry, but many of the factory start-ups went bust. Success depended on a variety of factors, which you will encounter as you play the game.

As you play, your stacks of money will rise and fall, depending on the choices you make, and you'll find out if you can make it as a Victorian entrepreneur.

Choose well, make money and the business will survive. Choose badly, and the businessman could end up in debtors' prison.

Contributing Factors

When agricultural practices changed in the eighteenth century, more food was able to be produced, which in turn fueled population growth in Britain. The agricultural changes also left many farmers homeless and jobless. These two factors led to a population boom in the cities as people migrated from rural England into towns and cities. This population increase, in turn, created a ready supply of labor to mine the coal, build the factories, and run the machines. The start of the Industrial Revolution in Britain can be attributed to many factors. Population growth was just one of them.

Why Britain?

What characteristics of eighteenth-century Britain made it ripe for industrialization? Historians cite several reasons for Britain’s lead.

Natural Resources Abound

Britain had the advantage of plentiful natural resources such as natural ports and navigable rivers. Rivers supplied water power and allowed for the construction of canals. These canals increased accessibility for trade and were instrumental in bringing goods to market. In addition, Britain was able to establish communications and transport relatively cheaply due to its easy accessibility to the sea from all points. Britain’s plentiful supply of coal was fundamental to its industrialization and was used to power steam engines. Vast supplies of iron were available to be used to build the new machines.

The Effects of Demand and Capital

In the 1700s, Britain had plenty of skilled mechanics who were eager to meet the growing demand for new, practical inventions. This ready workforce, along with the population explosion, boosted demand for goods. In order to increase the production of goods to meet the demand, however, another key ingredient was needed. Money was necessary to start businesses.

From the mid-1600s to 1700s, trade from a growing overseas empire helped the British economy prosper. Beginning with the slave trade, the business class accumulated capital, or money used to invest in enterprises. An enterprise is a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories. Many businessmen were ready to risk their capital in new ventures due to the healthy economy.

In addition to the advantages already cited, Britain had a stable government that supported economic growth. While other countries in Europe faced river tolls and other barriers, Britain did not. The government built a strong navy that protected its empire, shipping, and overseas trade. Although the upper class tended to look down on business people, it did not reject the wealth produced by the new entrepreneurs. These entrepreneurs were those who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting new businesses.

Changes in Cotton Production

The Textile Industry Advances

The Industrial Revolution first took hold in Britain’s largest industry—textiles. In the 1600s, cotton cloth imported from India had become popular. British merchants tried to organize a cotton cloth industry at home. They developed the putting-out system, also known as cottage industry, in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes. Skilled artisans in the towns then finished and dyed the cloth.

Inventions Speed Production

Under the putting-out system, production was slow. As the demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with a string of remarkable devices that revolutionized the British textile industry. For example, John Kay’s flying shuttle enabled weavers to work so fast that they soon outpaced spinners. James Hargreaves solved that problem by producing the spinning jenny in 1764, which spun many threads at the same time. A few years later, in 1769, Richard Arkwright patented the water frame, which was a spinning machine that could be powered by water.

Meanwhile, in America, these faster spinning and weaving machines presented a challenge—how to produce enough cotton to keep up with England. Raw cotton grown in the South had to be cleaned of dirt and seeds by hand, a time-consuming task. To solve this, Eli Whitney invented a machine called the cotton gin that separated the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate. He finished the cotton gin in 1793, and cotton production increased exponentially.

Factories Are Born in Britain

The new machines doomed the putting-out system. They were too large and expensive to be operated at home. Instead, manufacturers built long sheds to house the machines. At first, they located the sheds near rapidly moving streams, harnessing the water power to run the machines.

Later, machines were powered by steam engines.

The Spinning Mill Animation

Spinning mills used 'line shafting', which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along rotating shafts (rods) to spinning or weaving mills.

This animation depicts a spinning mill like that found at Quarry Bank museum in Cheshire. It shows a furnace powering a flywheel, which is there to smooth out the otherwise jerky rotation of the crank.

In spinning mills, which could be multi-storey, there are large numbers of ropes coming off the flywheel. These 'rope races' convey power to the mill's different floors.
Spinners and weavers now came each day to work in these first factories, which brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. Early observers were awed at the size and output of these establishments. One onlooker noted: “The same [amount] of labor is now performed in one of these structures which formerly occupied the industry of an entire district.”

Checkpoint

What led to the advancement of the British textile industry?

The Coal and Iron Industries

Another factor that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution was the development of new technology. Aided by new sources of energy and new materials, these new technologies enabled business owners to change the ways work was done.

An Energy Revolution
During the 1700s, people began to harness new sources of energy. One vital power source was coal, used to develop the steam engine. In 1712, British inventor Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines. Scottish engineer James Watt looked at Newcomen’s invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient. Watt’s engine, after several years of work, would become a key power source of the Industrial Revolution. The steam engine opened the door not only to operating machinery but eventually to powering locomotives and steamships.

The Quality of Iron Improves

Coal was also a vital source of fuel in the production of iron, a material needed for the construction of machines and steam engines. The Darby family of Coalbrookdale pioneered new methods of producing iron. In 1709, Abraham Darby used coal instead of charcoal to smelt iron, or separate iron from its ore.

Darby’s experiments led him to produce less expensive and better-quality iron, which was used to produce parts for the steam engines. Both his son and grandson continued to improve on his methods. In fact, Abraham Darby III built the world’s first iron bridge. In the decades that followed, high-quality iron was used more and more widely, especially after the world turned to building railroads.

Abraham Darby III completed the world’s first iron bridge in 1779. The bridge still stands today.

Checkpoint

What new technologies helped trigger the Industrial Revolution?

Railroads

It was the invention of the steam locomotive that made the growth of railroads possible. In the early 1800s, pioneers like George Stephenson developed steam-powered locomotives to pull carriages along iron rails. The railroad did not have to follow the course of a river. This meant that tracks could go places where rivers did not, allowing factory owners and merchants to ship goods swiftly and cheaply over land. The world’s first major rail line, from Liverpool to Manchester, opened in England in 1830. In the following decades, railroad travel became faster and railroad building boomed. By 1870, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe, and North America.

Stephenson's Rocket Animation

Background

The Rocket was designed and built by George Stephenson with the help of his son, Robert, and Henry Booth, for the 1829 Rainhill Trials.

The Trials were held by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company, to find the best locomotive engine for a railway line that was being built to serve these two English cities. On the day of the Trials, some 15,000 people came along to see the race of the locomotives.

During the race, the Rocket reached speeds of 24mph during the 20 laps of the course. This was due to several new design features. It was the first locomotive to have a multi-tube boiler - with 25 copper tubes rather than a single flue or twin flue.

The blast pipe also increased the draught to the fire by concentrating exhaust steam at the base of the chimney. This meant that the boiler generated more power (steam), so the Rocket was able to go faster than its rival, and thus secure its place in history.

The Rocket can be seen at the Science Museum, in London.
One of the most important developments of the Industrial Revolution was the creation of a countrywide railway network. The world’s first major rail line went from Liverpool to Manchester in England. Fanny Kemble, the most famous actress of the day, was one of the first passengers:

“We were introduced to the little engine which was to drag us along the rails. . . This snorting little animal, . . . started at about ten miles an hour. . . . You can’t imagine how strange it seemed to be journeying on thus, without any visible cause of progress other than the magical machine . . .”

Learn

Focus Question

What key factors allowed Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution?

The New Factories

The new machines doomed the putting-out system. They were too large and expensive to be operated at home. Instead, manufacturers built long sheds to house the machines. At first, they located the sheds near rapidly moving streams, harnessing the water power to run the machines. Later, machines were powered by steam engines.

Spinners and weavers now came each day to work in these first factories, which brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. Early observers were awed at the size and output of these establishments. One onlooker noted: “The same [amount] of labor is now performed in one of these structures which formerly occupied the industry of an entire district.”

Checkpoint

What led to the advancement of the British textile industry?

Reading Check

Describing

How were adult and child factory workers disciplined?

The Spread of Industrialization

Europe

Industrial Europe, c. 1850

North America (note how in the Glencoe textbook the entire section is about the United States; it states nothing about Mexico and Canada yet the section is entitled "North America.")

Reading Check

Evaluating

Social Impact in Europe

Growth of Population and Cities

The agricultural revolution contributed to a rapid growth of population. Precise population statistics for the 1700s are rare, but those that do exist are striking. Britain’s population, for example, soared from about 5 million in 1700 to almost 9 million in 1800. The population of Europe as a whole shot up from roughly 120 million to about 180 million during the same period. Such growth had never before been seen.

Vocabulary Builder
statistics—(stuh tis tiks) pl.n. data that are gathered and tabulated to present information

Why did this population increase occur? First, the agricultural revolution reduced the risk of death from famine because it created a surplus of food. Since people ate better, they were healthier. Also, better hygiene and sanitation, along with improved medical care, further slowed deaths from disease.

Checkpoint

How did an agricultural revolution contribute to population growth?

The Industrial Middle Class

The Industrial Revolution created a new middle class along with the working class. Those in the middle class owned and operated the new factories, mines, and railroads, among other industries. Their lifestyle was much more comfortable than that of the industrial working class.

When farm families moved to the new industrial cities, they became workers in mines or factories. Many felt lost and bewildered. They faced tough working conditions in uncomfortable environments. In time, though, factory and mine workers developed their own sense of community despite the terrible working conditions.

The Industrial Middle Class

Those who benefited most from the Industrial Revolution were the entrepreneurs who set it in motion. The Industrial Revolution created this new middle class, or bourgeoisie (boor zhwah zee), whose members came from a variety of backgrounds. Some were merchants who invested their growing profits in factories. Others were inventors or skilled artisans who developed new technologies. Some rose from “rags to riches,” a pattern that the age greatly admired.

Middle-class families lived in well-furnished, spacious homes on paved streets and had a ready supply of water. They wore fancy clothing and ate well. The new middle class took pride in their hard work and their determination to “get ahead.” Only a few had sympathy for the poor. Women of the middle class did not leave the home to work but instead focused their energy on raising their children. This contrasted with the wealthy, who had maidservants to look after their children, and the working class, whose children were a part of the workforce.

The Industrial Working Class

As more and more people moved to the cities to work, they had little choice about where to live. There was no public water supply, waste lined the unpaved streets, and disease spread rapidly in these unsanitary conditions. Dr. Southwood-Smith worked in two districts of London and wrote:

“Uncovered sewers, stagnant ditches and ponds, gutters always full of putrefying matter . . . It is not possible for any language to convey an adequate conception of the poisonous condition in which large portions of both these districts always remain, . . . from the masses of putrefying matter which are allowed to accumulate.”
Learn

Focus Question

What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution brought great riches to most of the entrepreneurs who helped set it in motion. For the millions of workers who crowded into the new factories, however, the industrial age brought poverty and harsh living conditions.

In time, reforms would curb many of the worst abuses of the early industrial age in Europe and the Americas. As standards of living increased, people at all levels of society would benefit from industrialization. Until then, working people would suffer with dangerous working conditions; unsafe, unsanitary, and overcrowded housing; and unrelenting poverty.

People Move to New Industrial Cities

The Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization, or the movement of people to cities. Changes in farming, soaring population growth, and an ever-increasing demand for workers led masses of people to migrate from farms to cities. Almost overnight, small towns around coal or iron mines mushroomed into cities. Other cities grew up around the factories that entrepreneurs built in once-quiet market towns.

The British market town of Manchester numbered 17,000 people in the 1750s. Within a few years, it exploded into a center of the textile industry. Its population soared to 40,000 by 1780 and 70,000 by 1801. Visitors described the “cloud of coal vapor” that polluted the air, the pounding noise of steam engines, and the filthy stench of its river. This growth of industry and rapid population growth dramatically changed the location and distribution of two resources—labor and people.

Checkpoint

What led to the massive migration of people from farms to cities?

While the wealthy and the middle class lived in pleasant neighborhoods, vast numbers of poor struggled to survive in foul-smelling slums. They packed into tiny rooms in tenements, or multistory buildings divided into apartments. These tenements had no running water, only community pumps. There was no sewage or sanitation system, so wastes and garbage rotted in the streets. Sewage was also dumped into rivers, which created an overwhelming stench and contaminated drinking water. This led to the spread of diseases such as cholera.

Vocabulary Builder
contaminated—(kun tam uh nayt id) adj. unclean and impure; polluted

Workers Stage Futile Protests

Although labor unions, or workers’ organizations, were illegal at this time, secret unions did exist among frustrated British workers. They wished to initiate worker reforms, such as increases in pay, but had no political power to effect change. Sometimes their frustration led to violence. The first instances of industrial riots occurred in England from 1811 to 1813. Groups of textile workers known as the Luddites (lud yts) resisted the labor-saving machines that were costing them their jobs. Some of them smashed textile machines with sledgehammers and burned factories. They usually wore masks and operated at night. There was widespread support among the working class for these Luddite groups.

Workers Find Comfort in Religion

Many working-class people found comfort in a religious movement called Methodism. This movement was influenced by the Industrial Revolution as people moved to cities and lost connections with their old churches. John Wesley had founded the Methodist movement in the mid-1700s. Wesley stressed the need for a personal sense of faith. He encouraged his followers to improve themselves by adopting sober, moral ways.

Vocabulary Builder
stressed—(stresd) vt. emphasized

Methodist meetings featured hymns and sermons promising forgiveness of sin and a better life to come. Methodist preachers took this message of salvation into the slums. There, they tried to rekindle hope among the working poor. They set up Sunday schools where followers not only studied the Bible but also learned to read and write. Methodists helped channel workers’ anger away from revolution and toward reform.

Checkpoint

How did members of the working class react to their new experiences in industrial cities?

Life in the Factories and Mines

The heart of the new industrial city was the factory. There, the technology of the machine age and the rapid pace of industrialization imposed a harsh new way of life on workers.

Discovery School Channel

Watch In Old New York on the Witness History Discovery School™ video program to learn about life during the Industrial Age.

Factory Workers Face Harsh Conditions

Working in a factory system differed greatly from working on a farm. In rural villages, people worked hard, but their work varied according to the season. Life was also hard for poor rural workers who were part of the putting-out system, but at least they worked at their own pace. In the grim factories of industrial towns, workers faced a rigid schedule set by the factory whistle.

Working hours were long, with shifts lasting from 12 to 16 hours, six or seven days a week. Workers could only take breaks when the factory owners gave permission. Exhausted workers suffered accidents from machines that had no safety devices. They might lose a finger, a limb, or even their lives. In textile mills, workers constantly breathed air filled with lint, which damaged their lungs. Those workers who became sick or injured lost their jobs.

The majority of early factory workers were women rather than men. Employers often preferred to hire women workers because they thought women could adapt more easily to machines and were easier to manage. In addition, employers generally paid women half what they paid men.

Factory work created a double burden for women. Their new jobs took them out of their homes for 12 hours or more a day. They then returned to their tenements, which might consist of one damp room with a single bed. They had to feed and clothe their families, clean, and cope with such problems as sickness and injury.

Miners Face Worse Conditions

The Industrial Revolution increased the demand for iron and coal, which in turn increased the need for miners. Although miners were paid more, working conditions in the mines were even worse than in the factories. They worked in darkness, and the coal dust destroyed their lungs. There were always the dangers of explosions, flooding, and collapsing tunnels. Women and children carted heavy loads of coal, sometimes on all fours in low passages. They also climbed ladders carrying heavy baskets of coal several times a day.

Even children as young as five years old worked in the mines. James Kay-Shuttleworth worked as a physician among the different classes of the Industrial Revolution in Manchester. His profession allowed him to see the working conditions of poor in the cities. How was work in factories and mines different from work on the farm?

Children were accustomed to work on a farm: the money earned by children was vital to most working class families during the early 20th century and before.

Primary Source

“Whilst the engine runs, people must work—men, women, and children are yoked together with iron and steam. The animal machine is chained fast to the iron machine, which knows no suffering and weariness.”

—James Kay-Shuttleworth, 1832

Children Have Dangerous Jobs

Factories and mines also hired many boys and girls. These children often started working at age seven or eight, a few as young as five. Nimble-fingered and quick-moving, they changed spools in the hot and humid textile mills where sometimes they could not see because of all the dust. They also crawled under machinery to repair broken threads in the mills. Conditions were even worse for children who worked in the mines. Some sat all day in the dark, opening and closing air vents. Others hauled coal carts in the extreme heat. Because children had helped with work on the farm, parents accepted the idea of child labor. The wages the children earned were needed to keep their families from starving.

Child labor reform laws called “factory acts” were passed in the early 1800s. These laws were passed to reduce a child’s workday to twelve hours and also to remove children under the age of eight or nine from the cotton mills. Because the laws were generally not enforced, British lawmakers formed teams of inspectors to ensure that factories and mines obeyed the laws in the 1830s and 1840s. More laws were then passed to shorten the workday for women and require that child workers be educated.

Families could afford to take trips to such places as the zoo as wages increased.

Checkpoint

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the lives of men, women, and children?

Early Socialism

While the champions of laissez-faire economics praised individual rights, other thinkers focused on the good of society in general. They condemned the evils of industrial capitalism, which they believed had created a gulf between rich and poor. To end poverty and injustice, they offered a radical solution—socialism. Under socialism, the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production—the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods. Socialism grew out of the Enlightenment faith in progress, its belief in the basic goodness of human nature, and its concern for social justice.

Are Utopians Dreamers?

A number of early socialists established communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common. When there was no difference between rich and poor, they said, fighting between people would disappear. These early socialists were called Utopians. The name implied that they were impractical dreamers. The Utopian Robert Owen set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland, to put his own ideas into practice.

Infographic
Owen’s Utopia

For: Interactive Village
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-1941

Owen Establishes a Utopia

A poor Welsh boy, Owen became a successful mill owner. Unlike most industrialists at the time, he refused to use child labor. He campaigned vigorously for laws that limited child labor and encouraged the organization of labor unions.

Checkpoint

What did early socialists believe?

Reading Check

Describing

What type of working conditions did the industrial workers face?

References and Resources

Rise of the Working Class by Jurgen Kuczynski

Making of the English Working Class by E.P. Thompson

Cultural Foundations of Industrial Civilization by John U. Nef
Sign entering the village. Graphic source: The Next Generation



A living museum can be viewed at Old Sturbridge Village. At the village visitors can ride the stagecoach, interact with the farm animals, talk with costumed historians, and watch the blacksmith, cooper, potter, and farmers at work. In the village visitors can experience life in the 1830s--with 40 antique homes, buildings, and water-powered mills. The village is well worth exploring in some detail.

The flag is central to village life. Graphic source: The Next Generation



Our relationship to God is of paramount importance. Graphic source: The Next Generation



Defense is always a concern for a nation. Graphic source: The Next Generation



If you have questions about 19th Century life you can always "Ask Jack."

Jack Larkin is the Chief Historian and Museum Scholar at the Village, where he has worked since 1971. He is also Affiliate Professor of History at Clark University in Worcester, MA, and consults for many museums and historical organizations. His latest book, Where We Lived: Exploring the Places We Once Called Home. The American Home from 1790 to 1840, was published in 2006.
To feel more at home in the village you will need to know the tools of the trade. A number of fun and educational links are available for the OSV.

Old Sturbridge Village Feature Shown on Al Jazeera Television winter 2008



Laura Linney and Ken Burns on the importance of Old Sturbridge Village



4th of July at OSV.



Redcoats to Rebels at OSV.

Mystic sign. Photo Source: The Next Generation

Mystic Seaport -- The Museum of America and the Sea is the nation's leading maritime museum. In it, you can explore American maritime history first-hand as you climb aboard historic tall ships, stroll through a re-created 19th-century coastal village, or watch a working preservation shipyard in action.




Traditional American Music performed live at Mystic Seaport, CT: Part 1

Traditional American Music performed live at Mystic Seaport, CT: Part 2



Traditional American Music performed live at Mystic Seaport, CT: Part 3



The Charles W. Morgan embarks on a voyage of restoration at the Henry B. DuPont Preservation Shipyard at Mystic Seaport. Shipyard Director, Quentin Snediker explains what is done to prepare the ship for the historic journey.

The Charles W. Morgan is the last surviving wooden whaling ship from the great days of sail. Built in 1841 in New Bedford, MA, the Morgan had a successful 80-year whaling career. She made 37 voyages before retiring in 1921, and was preserved as an exhibit through the efforts of a number of dedicated citizens. After being on display in South Dartmouth, MA, until 1941, she came to Mystic Seaport, where each year thousands of visitors walk her decks and hear the fascinating story of her career as a whaling vessel, historic exhibit, film and media star, and a porthole into America's rich history.

Over the last three decades, the Charles W. Morgan has undergone two regimes of partial restoration along with annual maintenance. Despite these efforts, the inevitable effects of time on the wooden fabric of the vessel's structure demand additional extensive restoration. If left unchecked, these deficiencies will threaten the structural integrity of the Morgan and her use as a primary artifact in Mystic Seaport's interpretive programs.



Mystic Seaport, 1960 (No, this is not Dr. Smith as a boy), from family home movies.



Whaling in popular culture: Mountain, "Nantucket Sleighride"



The cold hard steel of the harpoon's point
Struck deep into its side.
We played out line and backed the oars
And took the cruel sleighride.

The term "Nantucket Sleighride" was coined by the whalers to explain what happened after they harpooned a whale. (Nantucket Island was considered the whaling capital of the world during the 19th century.) The first strike of the harpoon was not intended to kill the whale but only to attach it to the whale boat. The whale would take off pulling the whale boat along at speeds of up to 23 mph (37 kmh). The whale would eventually tire itself out, the leading officer in the boat would then use a penetrating lance to kill the whale.

Nantucket Sleighride is Dedicated to Owen Coffin who was cabin boy aboard the whaler Essex, which was destroyed by a sperm whale in 1819. Owen ended up in the lifeboat with Captain Pollard, his uncle. Two other lifeboats also put out. During the next 3 - 4 months, the lifeboats separated. One was never seen again, but some of those on the remaining two boats were eventually rescued.
During those long months at sea (and on desert islands), many of the men died. The remainder eventually had to resort to cannibalism to survive. After the dead of natural causes were consumed, the men determined to draw lots to see who would sacrifice his life for the others. Owen Coffin ``won'' the lottery. The Captain tried to take Owen's place, but the youth insisted on his ``right''. The executioner was also drawn by lot. That ``winner'', another young man named Charles Ramsdell, also tried vainly to swap places with Owen. Again he refused. Owen's body kept the others alive for ten days (Captain Pollard refused to eat his nephew). Another man died, and his body kept Pollard and Ramsdell alive a few more days until they were rescued.

Lyrics
Goodbye, little Robin-Marie
Don't try following me
Don't cry, little Robin-Marie
'Cause you know I'm coming home soon
My ships' leaving on a three-year tour
The next tide will take us from shore
Windlaced, gather in sail and spray
On a search for the mighty sperm whale
Fly your willow branches
Wrap your body round my soul
Lay down your reeds and drums on my soft sheets
There are years behind us reaching
To the place where hearts are beating
And I know you're the last true love I'll ever meet
Starbuck's sharpening his harpoon
The black man's playing his tune
An old salt's sleeping his watch away
He'll be drunk again before noon
Three years sailing on bended knee
We found no whales in the sea
Don't cry, little Robin-Marie
'Cause we'll be in sight of land soon

Agriculture

Farming and everyday life during the past 250 years

Children who lived in the English countryside

The Agricultural Revolution

Transportation, Industrial Revolution

Stephenson's Rocket Animation

The Spinning Mill Animation

Britain at the time of the Great Exhibition

Who Wants to Be a Cotton Millionaire?

Iron Bridge Virtual Tour

New machines that brought changes in America

Review changes of the 18th and 19th centuries

The Industrial Revolution

The everyday life of children in Victorian Britain (including the cities)

Online game about life in an industrial Victorian city

Take a tour of a workhouse
Links, resources, and bibliographical references

Video clips about Napoleon

Map of Napoleon's Empire

Refight Trafalgar!

Napoleon's Empire in 1812

Napoleon's army retreating from Moscow

Waterloo Interactive Battle Simulator

The Battle of Waterloo Game

The Napoleonic Alliance

The Napoleonic Collection

Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution at Florida State University

The Napoleon Foundation

The War Times Journal: Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Guide
Napoleon as Military Commander by James Marshall-Cornwall

The Napoleonic Wars: an Illustrated History, 1792-1815, by Michael Glover

Napoleon's Glands and Other Ventures in Biohistory by Arno Karlen

The Murder of Napoleon by Ben Weider

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcomb Swanston
Resources
Chapter Review

Chapter: Know It? Show It

Radical Revolution and Reaction review

Radical Days of the Revolution

5th/8th

Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nba&wcsuffix=1831



"Bienvenue, je suis Napoléon, de France, le militaire le plus intelligent de l'Histoire mondiale."

"Welcome, I am Napoleon of France, the most intelligent military man in world history."



Nelson (part 1/3), 8:21





London Licks, Waterloo Sunset, Kinks, 2:38



The Kinks, Waterloo Sunset, 3:14



Napoleon on the Danny Kaye Show, 2:49

The Danny Kaye Show is an American variety show that aired on CBS from 1963 to 1967.




The Quiz on Ch. 11 Sec. 2 is the last Quiz/Test for the Quarter. November HW will count for the 2nd Quarter.

HW: email (or hard copy) me at gmsmith@shanahan.org.


Tuesday HW
1. p. 351, #6-7

Honors Business Economics Chapter 3: 9 November 2010

Prayer:
Current Events:


Chapter 3

Business Organizations, p. 60

Section 1 Forms of Business Organization, p. 61

Most businesses operate in search of profits. Others are organized and operate like a business, although profits are not their primary concern. There are three main forms of business organization. The first is the sole proprietorship, which is a business owned and operated by one person. The second is the partnership, which is a business jointly owned by two or more persons. The third is the corporation, which is recognized as a separate entity having all the rights of an individual. The proprietorship is the most common and most profitable form of business organization. The corporation is the largest and most visible.

One is a sole proprietorship which one individual, the sole proprietor, exercises complete control over the business. Another is a partnership in which two or more individuals combine their efforts and share the profits of the business. Under both business forms, the business is an asset owned by the owner or owner, it has no existence separate from them, and any financial or legal problems encountered by the business are their responsibility. All of the owners’ assets, even those not involved in the business, are at risk. Liability is unlimited.

Chapter Three Spotlight Video



Content Vocabulary

Some Real Examples

Some Final Basics

Why It Matters Today


Corporations and Stocks game

Cf. http://www.shmoop.com/corporations-stocks/game.html



Main types of business

Types reviewed and advantages and disadvantages
In-class assignment: what are the types reviewed, what are their respective advantages and disadvantages?


Sole Proprietorship, p. 62


Partnerships

Forming a Partnership, p. 65
Advantages

Disadvantages, p. 66

Reading Check

Contrasting

What are the differences between a general partnership and a limited partnership?

Corporations, p. 67

Main Idea

What is a Corporation?


Forming a Corporation
A corporation is a very different type of business organization. Most significantly, a corporation is a business entity legally separated from its owners. When business owners decide to incorporate they secure a charter from the state government. This charter is like a birth certificate, establishing the existence of a new and separate legal entity. Once incorporated, the corporation can buy and sell property, enter into contracts, sue, and be sued... just like a living, breathing person.

In fact, that's what a corporation is: a legal "person." (The word "incorporate" shares the same root as "corpse"; it means something like "to give it a body.") The idea is that the corporation is a fictitious person, with many of the same rights under the law as a real person.

For the sole proprietor turned corporation, there are several benefits. Most importantly, his personal assets (home, car, boat, iPod) are no longer at risk should the corporation have problems. If the corporation is sued, only its assets are at risk. If the corporation goes broke, its creditors can only go after the corporation’s assets. As there is a legal barrier separating the corporation and its owners, the owners enjoy limited liability.

There are other benefits as well. To finance expansion, corporations may sell stock. Most corporations, in fact, do not sell stock to the public; all of the stock is privately owned. But if a company decides to expand its capital base by “going public” it issues an initial public offering or IPO. People buying the stock acquire partial ownership in the corporation. And the more shares they buy, the larger percentage of the corporation they own. Of course, this also means that the original owners also have to share profits. These may be distributed to the shareholders quarterly in the form of dividends.

Corporations may also raise money by selling corporate bonds. Like governments, corporations may issue bonds that promise repayment over a specified period at a certain interest rate.

Another benefit of turning a sole proprietorship or partnership into a corporation is that the business becomes more durable—that is, it is no longer so tied to the health of the founder. If the founder dies, the corporation lives on. Similarly, a corporation is less dependent on the talents of its founders. As corporations grow, they are governed by a board of directors elected by the shareholders. This board selects a president or CEO (chief executive officer) to manage the corporation. A sole proprietorship may have a technically brilliant but, from a business point of view, inept founder. He may turn the business over to his even more incompetent children. But the governing structure of corporations allows management to be handed over to professionally trained executives.

Why It Matters Today

Are corporations people?

The common-sense answer is no. A corporation is not, to state the obvious, actually a living human being.

But in the eye of the law, the answer is essentially yes. A series of Supreme Court decisions in the 1800s expanded the rights of corporations, eventually extending to them the crucial rights to substantive due process included in the 14th Amendment. As recently as January 2010, the Court reaffirmed that corporations have most of the rights of real people, overturning a campaign finance law on the grounds that it violated corporations' (and unions') right to free speech.

This Court decision figured prominently in the Justice Alito: State of the Union "Close-Up" (1/27/10), :17

Some people said they can read the Judge's lips; can you? What do you think he said?



Justice Alito saying, "(That's) not true" when Obama criticized the recent Supreme Court decision permitting corporations to buy unlimited ads to influence elections.

Corporate Structure

In Motion Corporate Structure



Cf. http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p68.swf

Advantages, p. 68
Financially, corporations benefits from being allowed to raise capital by selling stock. In purchasing stock, stockholders become partial owners of the corporation and are entitled to a share of the profits. Corporations can also raise money by selling bonds like a government. Legally, corporations benefit from limited liability. Since the corporation is a legal entity separate from its owners, the owners’ personal assets are not placed at risk by any action taken by the corporation. Should the corporation be sued or have financial problems, only corporate assets can be seized.

Disadvantages, p. 69

Through what is commonly labeled “double taxation,” corporate profits are taxed and then, if distributed in the form of dividends, these same profits are taxed again along with the rest of the shareholder’s income.

Reading Check, p. 70

Evaluating

Why do many business owners prefer corporations over other forms of business organizations?

Entrepreneur, p. 71

Profiles in Economics

Andrea Jung

On Charlie Rose - Andrea Jung (Avon), 2:20



1. p. 71, What changes did Jung make to Avon's marketing strategy?
2. p. 71, What career steps did Jung take that allowed her to move from a degree in English literature to a top management position



Proprietorship - owned and run by a single person.

Partnership - jointly owned by two or more persons.

Corporation - business organization recognized by law as a separate legal entity with all the rights of an individual.

References

Forms of Business Organizations, Tax and Insurance Issues for Small Business, 9:56

Learn: * How to Choose a Form of Business * How it can maximize your protections and future growth potential * Characteristics of a sole proprietorship, general partnership, corporation, limited liability companies and limited liability partnerships * Whether S Corporation Tax election is right for you * What tax issues are important for small business and why * What insurance coverage every small business owner should consider

Panelists
Larissa Buerano, Agent, State Farm Insurance

Rajeev Kaul, CPA, PC.

Joyce Moy, Executive Director, Asian American / Asian Research Institute - CUNY



My Own Business: A course on how to start a business

Chapter 3: Business Organizations
Self-Check Quizzes


Crossword Puzzle

Vocabulary eFlashcards
Show Business is the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's learning activity on economics and the entertainment industry. The goal is to provide an additional tool for teaching and learning about basic economic concepts, with some economic history snuck in.

Cf. http://www.bos.frb.org/entertainment/index.htm
JA Titan
Test your skills running a business in this ultimate business simulation! As CEO, you will match wits in the competitive, technologically advanced industry of the Holo-Generator™.Cf. http://oldtitan.ja.org/home.php

Corporations and Stocks game

Cf. http://www.shmoop.com/corporations-stocks/game.html

A music video from School House Rock on investing and Wall Street.

Cf. http://www.shmoop.com/corporations-stocks/botw/resources?d=http://www.gamequarium.org/cgi-bin/search/linfo.cgi?id=3797

Preview

Ch. 3 Sec. 2 Business Growth and Expansion

Honors Business Economics Chapter 3 Section 2 Business Growth and Expansion
Guide to Reading

Section Preview

Businesses can expand in many different ways. One way is through reinvesting internally generated funds, which can also be paid out to the owners in the form of dividends. Another way is through combinations called mergers. Two kinds of mergers, horizontal mergers and vertical mergers, take place for a number of reasons. Some firms merge to become bigger or more efficient. Others merge to eliminate their rivals or to change corporate identity. Some mergers may result in a conglomerate, or even a multinational if the business has manufacturing or service operations in a number of different countries.

Content Vocabulary

merger

The consolidation of two separately-owned businesses under single ownership. This can be accomplished through a mutual, "friendly" agreement by both parties, or through a "hostile takeover," in which one business gets ownership without cooperation from the other. Mergers fall into one of three classes -- (1) horizontal--two competing firms in the same industry that sell the same products, (2) vertical--two firms in different stages of the production of one good, such that the output of one business is the input of the other, and (3) conglomerate--two firms that are in totally, completely separated industries.

income statement

A statement of the revenues, expenditures, and profit for a business, household, or government entity over a given period of time. An income statement also goes by the names profit and loss statement, earnings report, and operating statement. This is one of two key financial statements for an entity. The other is a balance sheet, which is a statement of assets, liabilities, and net worth at a given point in time.

net income

A common term for profit, as the difference between total revenue and total cost. When used in the real world of business wheeling and dealing, this notion of net income general refers to accounting profit rather than economic profit. The "net" aspect of net income indicates that some (that something being cost) is deducted from total or "gross" income. Other common terms used in this same context are net revenue and net earnings.

depreciation

A more or less permanent decrease in value or price. "More or less permanent" doesn't include temporary, short-term drops in price that are common in many markets. It's only those price declines that reflect a reduction in consumer satisfaction. While all sorts of stuff can depreciate in value, some of the more common ones are capital, real estate, corporate stock, and money. The depreciation of capital results from the rigors of production and affects our economy's ability to produce stuff. A sizable portion of our annual investment is thus needed to replace depreciated capital. The depreciation of a nation's money is seen as an increase in the exchange rate.

cash flow

horizontal merger

The consolidation under a single ownership of two separately-owned businesses in the same industry. An example of a horizontal merger would be two soft drink companies merging to form a single firm. A horizontal merger should be contrasted with vertical merger--two firms in different stages of the production of one good, such that the output of one business is the input of the other; and conglomerate merger--two firms in totally, completely separate industries.

vertical merger

The consolidation under a single ownership of two separately-owned businesses that have an input-output relationship, in which the output of one firm is the input of another. An example of a vertical merger would be a soft drink company merging with a sugar company to form a single firm. A vertical merger should be contrasted with horizontal merger--two competing firms in the same industry that sell the same products; and conglomerate merger--two firms in totally, completely separate industries.

conglomerate

multinational

Academic Vocabulary

Reading Strategy

Comparing

Companies in the News

Reinvesting for Monster Growth

Growth Through Reinvestment

Main Idea
Economics and You

Estimating Cash Flows

Reinvesting Cash Flows

Reading Check

Summarizing

What is the benefit of reinvesting cash flow in a business?

The Global Economy and You

Know Your Manners

Growth Through Mergers

Main Idea

Economics and You

Types of Mergers

Reasons for Merging

Conglomerates

Multinationals

Reading Check

Contrasting

How do conglomerates and multinationals differ?

Case Study

7-Eleven


Figure 3.4 Growth Through Reinvestment, p. 73

Cf. http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p73.swf
Corporations: warning, there is one PG-13 word in this video if you use it for reference or if you prefer not to view; it is not required viewing.

According to this video, what is a corporation? What is it composed of? What sort of characteristics are typical of a corporation?




Money (That's What I Want), 2:36

Barrett Strong recorded this in 1959 for Motown records, it reached number 2 on the R&B charts and 23rd on the US Pop charts making it Motown's first hit. Barrett Strong later went on to become one of Motown's most famous song writers.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z6xkT7FMyTc

Beatles, You Never Give Me Your Money, 3:26



OK Go, This Too Shall Pass, 3:53




HW email to gmsmith@shanahan.org or hand in hard copy.

Tuesday HW
1. p. 68, Figure 3.3, Who does the president hire?
2. p. 68, Who reports directly to the vice president of production?
3. p. 68, Write a paragraph, using your own words, that explain the typical structure found in a corporation. Refer to the text and the Corporate Structure illustration.