Sunday, September 23, 2007

Chapter 19 Section 1 - 4

Chapter 19 The Industrial Revolution Begins (Check page references and accuracy of answers from the correct pages in the updated edition of the textbook).

Section 1


anesthetic: drug that prevents pain during surgery p. 609

enclosure: the process of consolidating and taking over land formerly shared by peasant farmers p. 610

James Watt: looked at Newcomen’s invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient. Watt’s engine, after several years of work, would become a key power source of the Industrial Revolution. p. 611

Smelt: melt in order to get the pure metal away from its waste matter. p. 611

Checkpoint: Why was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in world history? p. 608

Checkpoint: How did an agricultural revolution contribute to population growth? p. 609

Checkpoint: What new technologies helped trigger the Industrial Revolution? p. 611

Notetaking: Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes several key events led to the Industrial Revolution. As you read the section, create a flowchart of these causes. Add categories as needed. pp. 608 - 611

Graph Skills: according to the graph, between which years was the largest percentage of land enclosured? What was the result of these land enclosures? p. 609

Biography: How might the Industrial Revolution have been different if Watt had not found a business partner? p. 610

Section 2


capital: money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise. p. 613

enterprise: a business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories. p. 613

entrepreneur: person who assumes financial risks in the hope of making a profit. p. 613

putting-out system: a system developed in the eighteenth century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry. p. 614

Eli Whitney: invented a machine called the cotton gin that separated the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate. He finished the cotton gin in 1793, and cotton production increased exponentially. p. 614

turnpike: privately built road; owner of road charges a fee to travelers who use it.
p. 614

Liverpool: city and one of largest ports in England; first major rail line linked Liverpool to Manchester in 1830. p. 615

Manchester: city in England; one of leading industrial areas; example of an Industrial Revolution city; first major rail line linked Manchester to Liverpool in 1830. p. 615

Checkpoint: What conditions in Britain paved the way for the Industrial Revolution? p. 613

Checkpoint: What led to the advancement of the British textile industry? p. 614

Checkpoint: Why was the development of railroads important to industrialization? p. 615

Map Skills: 1. Locate: (a) London (b) Manchester (c) Thames River 2. Region Identify the centers of woolen industry in English. 3. Draw Inferences What were the industrial advantages of the rivers during this time? p. 613

British Textile Inventions: How did these inventions change the textile industry? p. 614

Section 3


urbanization: movement of people from rural areas to cities p. 616

Tenement: multistory building divided into crowded apartments p. 618

Labor union: workers’ organization p. 618

Note taking: Reading skill: Understand Effects pp. 616- 617

Graph skills: How many more people were in London in 1900 than in 1750 according to th line graph? p. 617

Checkpoint: What led to the massive migration of people from farms to cities? p. 616

Checkpoint: How did members of the working class react to their new experiences in industrial cities? p. 618

Checkpoint: Why was the Industrial Revolution seen as both a blessing and a curse? p. 620

Checkpoint: How did the Industrial Revolution affect the lives of men, women, and children? p. 619

Primary Source: How was work in factories and mines different from work on the farm? p. 619

Section 4


Thomas Malthus: an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834). p. 622

Jeremy Bentham: English philosopher and jurist; founder of utilitarianism. p. 623

utilitarianism- idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. p. 623

socialism- system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses; or a system in which the government controls part of the economy. p. 625

means of production- farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods. p. 625

Robert Owen: Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities; he campaigned vigorously for laws that limited child labor and encouraged the organization of labor unions. p. 625

Karl Marx: founder of modern communism; wrote The Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848; wrote Das Kapital in 1867. p. 625.

communism: form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole. p. 625

proletariat- working class p. 625.

social democracy: p. 626.

note taking: pp. 622- 626.

Checkpoint: Explain the response to laissez-faire economics during the nineteenth century. p. 623.

Checkpoint: What did John Stuart Mill see as the proper role of Government? p. 624.

Checkpoint: What did early socialists believe? p. 625.

Checkpoint: What did Marx predict ws the future of the proletariat? p. 625.

Checkpoint: How accurate did Marx's predictions about social classes prove to be? p. 626.

Population Theory: What were the advantages of families with many children? p. 623.

Thinking Critically 1. Make Generalizations: How did life for children at New Lanark differ from those who lived in industrial cities? 2. Do you think Utopianism was an effective solution for the challenges of the Industrial Age? p. 624.

Ian Hunter, "When The World Was Round," Animated Video Release

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