Chapter 19 The Industrial Revolution Begins (Check page references and accuracy of answers from the correct pages in the updated edition of the textbook).
anesthetic: drug that prevents pain during surgery p. 609
enclosure: the process of consolidating and taking over land formerly shared by peasant farmers p. 610
James Watt: looked at Newcomen’s invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient. Watt’s engine, after several years of work, would become a key power source of the Industrial Revolution. p. 611
Smelt: melt in order to get the pure metal away from its waste matter. p. 611
Checkpoint: Why was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in world history? p. 608
Checkpoint: How did an agricultural revolution contribute to population growth? p. 609
Checkpoint: What new technologies helped trigger the Industrial Revolution? p. 611
Notetaking: Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes several key events led to the Industrial Revolution. As you read the section, create a flowchart of these causes. Add categories as needed. pp. 608 - 611
Graph Skills: according to the graph, between which years was the largest percentage of land enclosured? What was the result of these land enclosures? p. 609
Biography: How might the Industrial Revolution have been different if Watt had not found a business partner? p. 610
capital: money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise. p. 613
enterprise: a business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories. p. 613
entrepreneur: person who assumes financial risks in the hope of making a profit. p. 613
putting-out system: a system developed in the eighteenth century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry. p. 614
Eli Whitney: invented a machine called the cotton gin that separated the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate. He finished the cotton gin in 1793, and cotton production increased exponentially. p. 614
turnpike: privately built road; owner of road charges a fee to travelers who use it.
Liverpool: city and one of largest ports in England; first major rail line linked Liverpool to Manchester in 1830. p. 615
Manchester: city in England; one of leading industrial areas; example of an Industrial Revolution city; first major rail line linked Manchester to Liverpool in 1830. p. 615
Checkpoint: What conditions in Britain paved the way for the Industrial Revolution? p. 613
Checkpoint: What led to the advancement of the British textile industry? p. 614
Checkpoint: Why was the development of railroads important to industrialization? p. 615
Map Skills: 1. Locate: (a) London (b) Manchester (c) Thames River 2. Region Identify the centers of woolen industry in English. 3. Draw Inferences What were the industrial advantages of the rivers during this time? p. 613
British Textile Inventions: How did these inventions change the textile industry? p. 614
urbanization: movement of people from rural areas to cities p. 616
Tenement: multistory building divided into crowded apartments p. 618
Labor union: workers’ organization p. 618
Note taking: Reading skill: Understand Effects pp. 616- 617
Graph skills: How many more people were in London in 1900 than in 1750 according to th line graph? p. 617
Checkpoint: What led to the massive migration of people from farms to cities? p. 616
Checkpoint: How did members of the working class react to their new experiences in industrial cities? p. 618
Checkpoint: Why was the Industrial Revolution seen as both a blessing and a curse? p. 620
Checkpoint: How did the Industrial Revolution affect the lives of men, women, and children? p. 619
Primary Source: How was work in factories and mines different from work on the farm? p. 619
Thomas Malthus: an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834). p. 622
Jeremy Bentham: English philosopher and jurist; founder of utilitarianism. p. 623
utilitarianism- idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. p. 623
socialism- system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses; or a system in which the government controls part of the economy. p. 625
means of production- farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods. p. 625
Robert Owen: Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities; he campaigned vigorously for laws that limited child labor and encouraged the organization of labor unions. p. 625
Karl Marx: founder of modern communism; wrote The Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848; wrote Das Kapital in 1867. p. 625.
communism: form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole. p. 625
proletariat- working class p. 625.
social democracy: p. 626.
note taking: pp. 622- 626.
Checkpoint: Explain the response to laissez-faire economics during the nineteenth century. p. 623.
Checkpoint: What did John Stuart Mill see as the proper role of Government? p. 624.
Checkpoint: What did early socialists believe? p. 625.
Checkpoint: What did Marx predict ws the future of the proletariat? p. 625.
Checkpoint: How accurate did Marx's predictions about social classes prove to be? p. 626.
Population Theory: What were the advantages of families with many children? p. 623.
Thinking Critically 1. Make Generalizations: How did life for children at New Lanark differ from those who lived in industrial cities? 2. Do you think Utopianism was an effective solution for the challenges of the Industrial Age? p. 624.
Sunday, September 23, 2007
Jerkin' Crocus in the UK will release the first single from Ian Hunter's critically acclaimed album Shrunken Heads on 29 Oct 2007. 'When The World Was Round' will be available in three formats: a 7 inch picture disc, a CD single, and a DVD single. Each format will be on sale for £1.99, or all three can be bought for £3.99. The 7 inch and CD will both include unreleased material, whilst the DVD will include an animated video. Pre-orders are available now from Townsend Records.