Sunday, May 22, 2011

Honors World History II: 23 May 2011

Prayer
Beyond the Sound Bites (if time after 18.2 Quiz):

Clear your desk except for a pencil. Once everyone is quiet, and no talking during the Quiz, we can begin. Be sure to put your name on the Quiz and the Scantron. You may write on both the Quiz and the Scantron.

If you finish early, you may take out non-class materials; once everyone is finished, put away the non-class materials. Then, I will collect the Scantron first, and then I will collect the Quiz.

Be sure your name is on both the Scantron and the Quiz.

If your name is not on the Quiz it will not be returned.


Six-Day War

The original Mandate for Palestine, agreed to unanimously by the League of Nations in 1920, designated 124,466 sq. km. for the Jewish National Homeland, to be known as Israel. Israel did not receive that territory – but legally, the territory is still theirs today.

Here’s the map of that area legally belonging to Israel (unchanged today) as granted by the League of Nations:

Two years later, that 120,466 sq. km. had been reduced to 28,166 sq. km., as requested by the British trustees and approved by the League of Nation. The remaining 77% of the land originally proposed for the Jewish homeland was to become the Arab state of Jordan.

The creation of an Arab state in eastern Palestine (today Jordan) on 77 percent of the landmass of the original Mandate intended for a Jewish National Home in no way changed the status of Jews west of the Jordan River, nor did it inhibit their right to settle anywhere in western Palestine, the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea.

These documents are the last legally binding documents regarding the status of what is commonly called “the West Bank and Gaza.”

The Jewish homeland was to consist of all the land west of the Jordan River, stretching to the Mediterranean Sea – and including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

The the Arabs would not have it. The League of Nations dissolved into the United Nations and the problem was handed over to the U.N., including the trusteeship of the British mandate to make a Jewish state a reality. The Mandate stood.

U.N. Resolution 181, known also as the U.N. 1947 Partition Resolution, was passed by the U.N. General Assembly, and implemented but never accepted by the Arabs. The Iraq spokesman took to the podium and put on record “Iraq does not recognize the validity of this decision.”

From Syria: “My country will never recognize such a decision [Partition]. It will never agree to be responsible for it.” From Yemen: “the Government of Yemen does not consider itself bound by such a decision.”

The Partition Plan was met not only by verbal rejection on the Arab side but also by concrete, bellicose steps to block its implementation and destroy the Jewish polity by force of arms, a goal the Arabs publicly declared even before Resolution 181 was brought to a vote.

Arabs not only rejected the compromise and took action to prevent establishment of a Jewish state but also blocked establishment of an Arab state under the partition plan not just before the Israel War of Independence, but also after the war when they themselves controlled the West Bank (1948-1967), rendering the recommendation ‘a still birth.’

The UN itself recognized that 181 had not been accepted by the Arab side, rendering it a dead issue: …

The U.N. partition began. More land was taken from the Jewish homeland.

The partition plan took on a checkerboard appearance. This was largely because Jewish towns and villages were spread throughout Palestine. This did not complicate the plan as much as the fact that the high living standards in Jewish cities and towns had attracted large Arab populations. This demographic factor insured that any partition would result in a Jewish state that included a substantial Arab population. Recognizing the need to allow for additional Jewish settlement, the majority proposal allotted the Jews land in the northern part of the country, Galilee, and the large, arid Negev desert in the south. The remainder was to form the Arab state.

The map now looked like this:

These boundaries were based solely on demographics. The borders of the Jewish State were arranged with no consideration of security; hence, the new state’s frontiers were virtually indefensible. Overall, the Jewish State was to be comprised of roughly 5,500 square miles and the population was to be 538,000 Jews and 397,000 Arabs. The Arab State was to be 4,500 square miles with a population of 804,000 Arabs and 10,000 Jews. Though the Jews were allotted more total land, the majority of that land was in the desert.

Israel’s land which was originally mandated at 126,000+ sq. km., was now to be a mere 14,245 sq. kms. In addition to limiting Jewish lands, the immigration of Jews was also limited so that a majority of Jews in the land would never be accomplished.

Arab immigration had no immigration restrictions.

Israel accepted the partition, but in reality, it did not change or diminish the legality of the lands mandated for Israel – which still included the West Bank and the Gaza Strip – because the Arabs would agree to nothing which facilitated Jews in Palestine.

Creating the Arab state of Jordan in no way affected or “changed the status of Jews west of the Jordan River, nor did it inhibit their right to settle anywhere in western Palestine, the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea.” Nothing from the time of the Mandate until today, changes the fact that under international law, the West Bank and Gaza is open to Jewish settlement.

Under international law, neither Jordan nor the Palestinian Arab ‘people’ of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have a substantial claim to the sovereign possession of the occupied territories.

The UN Charter’s Article 80 implicitly recognizes the “Mandate for Palestine” of the League of Nations. The International Court of Justice has reaffirmed the validity of Article of 80.

In other words, neither the ICJ nor the UN General Assembly can arbitrarily change the status of Jewish settlement as set forth in the “Mandate for Palestine,” an international accord that has never been amended.

All of western Palestine, from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea, including the West Bank and Gaza, remains open to Jewish settlement under international law.

The new Jewish state was to have the right to self-determination of political, civil and religious rights. “Not once are Arabs as a people mentioned in the Mandate for Palestine. At no point in the entire document is there any granting of political rights to non-Jewish entities (i.e., Arabs).”

The Arabs accepted nothing. They wanted no Jews in Palestine, under any circumstance – there would be, to this day, no acceptable plan to which Arabs would agree to living next door to Jews.

On May 14th, 1948, a temporary legislature of the soon-to-be Israel, accepted the U.N. partition and declared statehood.

Eleven minutes after, the United States recognized the State of Israel. On May 15th, 1948 Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria invaded the sovereign nation of Israel, crossing international frontiers, and the Arab-Israeli War (Israeli War of Independence) began.

By July 24, 1949, Syria had signed an armistice agreement and Israel had increased it’s land area by almost 50% over the U.N. partition plan. The resulting armistice determined Israel’s borders for nineteen years. Egypt gained Gaza in the armistice. This document offers an extended discussion and links to maps.

By Fall 1949, Jordan had control of Gaza and East Jerusalem.

The odd and secretive 1956 War began. The short but incomplete story is that Israel took Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, and then under threat by the U.S., gave it back.

Then came the 1967 Six Day War. In the Spring, Syria conducted terrorist raids against Israel, water was diverted by Syria, from Israel and irrigation projects for south and central Israel, although approved by Arab engineers as non-detrimental to Arab lands, were not approved by the Arab governments. In May, Egypt blocked the Strait of Tiran to Israeli ships. “Lebanon, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia all mobilized their troops. Iraqi troops reportedly approached the Syrian and Jordanian borders while Jordan moved tanks towards the West Bank.”

Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Saudi Arabia formed a “defense pact.” Egyptian President Nasser said “Our basic objective will be the destruction if Israel."

The Arab people want to fight.” This link is an excellent map of the areas of attack on Israel from the “pact.” Click to enlarge the map. The tiny nation of Israel was surrounded by “some 500,000 troops, more than 5,000 tanks, and almost 1,000 fighter planes.” France, Israel’s major arms supplier, issued a “complete ban on weapons sales and transfers to Israel.”

Under the leadership of Moyshe Dayan, Israel decided to go to war on June 5, 1967.

After a three days of fierce fighting, especially in and around Jerusalem, Israeli forces defeated the Jordanians and gained control of all of Jerusalem as well as the West Bank, the historical heartland of the Jewish people known to Israelis as Judea and Samaria. Following an air attack by the Syrians on the first day of the war, Israel dealt a shattering blow to the Syrian air force. On the fifth day of the war, the Israelis mustered enough forces to remove the Syrian threat from the Golan Heights. This difficult operation was completed the following day, bringing the active phase of the war to a close.

Israel now looked like this:

The areas shown in bright green (Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza, West Bank and East Jerusalem) were occupied by Israel during the 6-day war. Israel has since returned all of Sinai to Egypt in return for peace. Most of Gaza is currently under the jurisdiction of the autonomous Palestinian Authority (2002). Parts of the West Bank (Cf. the link is here.) The areas shown in bright green (Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza, West Bank and East Jerusalem) were occupied by Israel during the 6-day war. Israel has since returned all of Sinai to Egypt in return for peace. Most of Gaza is currently under the jurisdiction of the autonomous Palestinian Authority (2002). Parts of the West Bank (see Map of Israel and Palestinian territories following Oslo II) had been ceded to the Palestinian authority, but these areas are currently re-occupied by Israel. Following the 6 day war, Israel began building settlements in these areas. Click for a map of the settlements. The aftermath of the war was complicated, but one fact was all too simple: Arabs rejected all diplomatic attempts. Some of [the] displaced people were able to return to Israeli-controlled West Bank and, along with their neighbors, witnessed unprecedented economic growth over the course of the next two decades. Israeli investment into the infrastructure of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, coupled with policies that allowed Arabs to move freely increased the standard of living of Palestinians, who were now able to work both in Israel and in the oil rich countries in the Middle East. After years of relative prosperity followed but Palestinians and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) insisted that they would replace Israel, not co-exist with her. With continued PLO agitation of the people, violence became common. Israel made peace with Egypt and returned the Sinai. The 1993 failed Oslo Peace Accord had Israel giving up the Gaza Strip and the West Bank – which was accomplished with Israel’s withdrawal, including the ejection of Jewish residents in the area in 2005. Once out of Gaza, nothing changed. The terrorists of Gaza Strip became slumlords and violence against Israel has continued. Palestinian militants—with the support of their Hamas-led government—have used the evacuated territory to launch rockets into Israel’s pre-1967 borders, shelling residents of Sderot and other neighboring communities and causing death, injuries and damage within Israel. Since Israel’s withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, the territory has also become the site of deadly internecine violence among Palestinian factions, kidnapping of journalists, vandalism, looting and general mayhem. Far from bringing peace to the Gaza Strip, the withdrawal has resulted in less secure borders for Israel. In the 1973 War (Yom Kippur War), again the Arab world came against Israel, as Egypt sought to regain territories lost to Israel in 1967. After two days of trying to recover from the surprise attack, Israel’s IDF blocked Syrian, Egyptian and Iraqi assaults and once again took the Golan Heights. By the time a U.N. ceasefire was implemented, “Israel had completely surrounded the Egyptian Third Army.” The Palestinian leadership remains committed to the destruction of Israel. The terrorist organizations Hamas and Fatah have never accepted “peace” with Israel. They co-exist next door to her – if only Israel will remove all settlements from wherever they may be currently. The issue is not the Jews in the settlements. The issue is the Jews in the Middle East. No discussion of the Israeli-Arab conflict is complete without taking a look at the Palestinian people. Who are they? Who did they evolve from? The area known as Palestine was and is a geographic area, not an ethnic people. In other words, Arabs living in the area are not ethnically Palestinian. To say it another way: Palestinians are not a native people. “The word Palestine is not even Arabic.” Palestine is a name coined by the Romans around 135 CE from the name of a seagoing Aegean people who settled on the coast of Canaan in antiquity – the Philistines. The name was chosen to replace Judea, as a sign that Jewish sovereignty had been eradicated following the Jewish Revolts against Rome. In the course of time, the Latin name Philistia was further bastardized into Palistina or Palestine. During the next 2,000 years Palestine was never an independent state belonging to any people, nor did a Palestinian people distinct from other Arabs appear during 1,300 years of Muslim hegemony in Palestine under Arab and Ottoman rule. During that rule, local Arabs were actually considered part of, and subject to, the authority of Greater Syria (Suriyya al-Kubra). Archeologists explain that the Philistines were a Mediterranean people who settled along the coast of Canaan in 1100 BCE. They have no connection to the Arab nation, a desert people who emerged from the Arabian Peninsula. Tagging the Arabs in Palestine as Palestinian was a mission fabricated by Arabs to attempt to assert the Arab right to the Jewish holy lands at the time when Jewish statehood was becoming a reality – but history shows that Arabs were never identified as Palestinians: This is substantiated in countless official British Mandate-vintage documents that speak of the Jews and the Arabs of Palestine – not Jews and Palestinians. The Jerusalem Post, founded in 1932, was called The Palestine Post until 1948. Bank Leumi L’Israel, incorporated in 1902, was called the “Anglo-Palestine Company” until 1948. The Jewish Agency – an arm of the Zionist movement engaged in Jewish settlement since 1929 – was initially called the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Today’s Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1936 by German Jewish refugees who fled Nazi Germany, was originally called the “Palestine Symphony Orchestra,” composed of some 70 Palestinian Jews. The United Jewish Appeal (UJA) was established in 1939 as a merger of the United Palestine Appeal and the fund-raising arm of the Joint Distribution Committee. Fifty-one countries acknowledged that Israel had an historic connection to the land eventually known as Palestine: Whereas recognition has been given to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country. Furthermore, the rhetoric by Arab leaders on behalf of the Palestinians rings hollow. Arabs in neighboring states, who control 99.9 percent of the Middle East land, have never recognized a Palestinian entity. They have always considered Palestine and its inhabitants part of the great “Arab nation,” historically and politically as an integral part of Greater Syria. The Arabs never established a Palestinian state when the UN in 1947 recommended to partition Palestine, and to establish “an Arab and a Jewish state” (not a Palestinian state, it should be noted). Nor did the Arabs recognize or establish a Palestinian state during the two decades prior to the Six-Day War when the West Bank was under Jordanian control and the Gaza Strip was under Egyptian control; nor did the Palestinian Arabs clamor for autonomy or independence during those years under Jordanian and Egyptian rule. The population of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Iraq did not “evolve,” but were created by “colonial powers.” There is no Palestinian DNA. Unlike nation-states in Europe, modern Lebanese, Jordanian, Syrian, and Iraqi nationalities did not evolve. They were arbitrarily created by colonial powers. In 1919, in the wake of World War I, England and France as Mandatory (e.g., official administrators and mentors) carved up the former Ottoman Empire, which had collapsed a year earlier, into geographic spheres of influence. This divided the Mideast into new political entities with new names and frontiers. The prevailing rationale behind these artificially created states was how they served the imperial and commercial needs of their colonial masters. Iraq and Jordan, for instance, were created as emirates to reward the noble Hashemite family from Saudi Arabia for its loyalty to the British against the Ottoman Turks during World War I, under the leadership of Lawrence of Arabia. Iraq was given to Faisal bin Hussein, son of the sheriff of Mecca, in 1918. To reward his younger brother Abdullah with an emirate, Britain cut away 77 percent of its mandate over Palestine earmarked for the Jews and gave it to Abdullah in 1922, creating the new country of Trans-Jordan or Jordan, as it was later named. Israel did not steal the homeland of the Palestinians.

The Fatah Constitution states in Articles 12 and 19: Complete liberation of Palestine and eradication of Zionist economic, political, military and cultural existence.” Armed struggle is a strategy and not a tactic, and the Palestinian Arab People’s armed revolution is a decisive factor in the liberation fight and in uprooting the Zionist existence, and this struggle will not cease unless the Zionist state is demolished and Palestine is completely liberated.” The PLO Charter Article 15 calls the liberation of Palestine a national (qawmi) duty to repel the Zionist and imperialist aggression against the Arab homeland, and aims at the “liquidation of the Zionist presence” in Palestine. The Hamas Charter: “The Day of Judgement will not come about until Moslems fight the Jews (killing the Jews), when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees. In the Hamas Charter Article 15 (a portion): “The day that enemies usurp part of Moslem land, Jihad becomes the individual duty of every Moslem. In face of the Jews’ usurpation of Palestine, it is compulsory that the banner of Jihad be raised. To do this requires the diffusion of Islamic consciousness among the masses, both on the regional, Arab and Islamic levels. It is necessary to instill the spirit of Jihad in the heart of the nation so that they would confront the enemies and join the ranks of the fighters.”

Related and Background: Israel – Palestine Flight from Fact – The Maddening Reality Other Sources: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict Over Palestine The Myth of Moslem-Jewish coexistence in “Palestine” How Feudal Arab landowners who exploited their peasantry became Nationalist Leaders" Map of Israel and Palestinian territories following Oslo II) Map of Israel and Palestinian territories following Oslo II) had been ceded to the Palestinian authority, but these areas are currently re-occupied by Israel. Following the 6 day war, Israel began building settlements in these areas. Click for a map of the settlements.

The aftermath of the war was complicated, but one fact was all too simple: Arabs rejected all diplomatic attempts.

Some of [the] displaced people were able to return to Israeli-controlled West Bank and, along with their neighbors, witnessed unprecedented economic growth over the course of the next two decades. Israeli investment into the infrastructure of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, coupled with policies that allowed Arabs to move freely increased the standard of living of Palestinians, who were now able to work both in Israel and in the oil rich countries in the Middle East.

After years of relative prosperity followed but Palestinians and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) insisted that they would replace Israel, not co-exist with her.

With continued PLO agitation of the people, violence became common. Israel made peace with Egypt and returned the Sinai. The 1993 failed Oslo Peace Accord had Israel giving up the Gaza Strip and the West Bank – which was accomplished with Israel’s withdrawal, including the ejection of Jewish residents in the area in 2005. Once out of Gaza, nothing changed. The terrorists of Gaza Strip became slumlords and violence against Israel has continued.

Palestinian militants—with the support of their Hamas-led government—have used the evacuated territory to launch rockets into Israel’s pre-1967 borders, shelling residents of Sderot and other neighboring communities and causing death, injuries and damage within Israel. Since Israel’s withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, the territory has also become the site of deadly internecine violence among Palestinian factions, kidnapping of journalists, vandalism, looting and general mayhem. Far from bringing peace to the Gaza Strip, the withdrawal has resulted in less secure borders for Israel.

In the 1973 War (Yom Kippur War), again the Arab world came against Israel, as Egypt sought to regain territories lost to Israel in 1967. After two days of trying to recover from the surprise attack, Israel’s IDF blocked Syrian, Egyptian and Iraqi assaults and once again took the Golan Heights. By the time a U.N. ceasefire was implemented, “Israel had completely surrounded the Egyptian Third Army.”

How could they succeed when Palestinian leadership remained and remains committed to the destruction of Israel? Those deluded into thinking that terrorist organizations Hamas and Fatah will accept “peace” with Israel, and co-exist next door to her – if only Israel will remove all settlements from wherever they may be, please rethink this issue, and believe the words of Palestinian leadership, which says it will never happen.

The issue is not the Jews in the settlements. The issue is the Jews in the Middle East.

No discussion of the Israeli-Arab conflict is complete without taking a look at the Palestinian people. Who are they? Who did they evolve from?

Palestine is a Geographical Area, Not a Nationality

The area known as Palestine was and is a geographic area, not an ethnic people. In other words, Arabs living in the area are not ethnically Palestinian. To say it another way: Palestinians are not a native people. “The word Palestine is not even Arabic.”

Palestine is a name coined by the Romans around 135 CE from the name of a seagoing Aegean people who settled on the coast of Canaan in antiquity – the Philistines.

The name was chosen to replace Judea, as a sign that Jewish sovereignty had been eradicated following the Jewish Revolts against Rome.

In the course of time, the Latin name Philistia was further bastardized into Palistina or Palestine. During the next 2,000 years Palestine was never an independent state belonging to any people, nor did a Palestinian people distinct from other Arabs appear during 1,300 years of Muslim hegemony in Palestine under Arab and Ottoman rule.

During that rule, local Arabs were actually considered part of, and subject to, the authority of Greater Syria ( Suriyya al-Kubra). Archeologists explain that the Philistines were a Mediterranean people who settled along the coast of Canaan in 1100 BCE. They have no connection to the Arab nation, a desert people who emerged from the Arabian Peninsula.

Tagging the Arabs in Palestine as Palestinian was a mission fabricated by Arabs to attempt to assert the Arab right to the Jewish holy lands at the time when Jewish statehood was becoming a reality – but history shows that Arabs were never identified as Palestinians:

This is substantiated in countless official British Mandate-vintage documents that speak of the Jews and the Arabs of Palestine – not Jews and Palestinians.

The Jerusalem Post, founded in 1932, was called The Palestine Post until 1948.
Bank Leumi L’Israel, incorporated in 1902, was called the “Anglo-Palestine Company” until 1948.

The Jewish Agency – an arm of the Zionist movement engaged in Jewish settlement since 1929 – was initially called the Jewish Agency for Palestine.

Today’s Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1936 by German Jewish refugees who fled Nazi Germany, was originally called the “Palestine Symphony Orchestra,” composed of some 70 Palestinian Jews.

The United Jewish Appeal (UJA) was established in 1939 as a merger of the United Palestine Appeal and the fund-raising arm of the Joint Distribution Committee.

Fifty-one countries acknowledged that Israel had an historic connection to the land eventually known as Palestine:

Whereas recognition has been given to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country.

Furthermore:

The rhetoric by Arab leaders on behalf of the Palestinians rings hollow. Arabs in neighboring states, who control 99.9 percent of the Middle East land, have never recognized a Palestinian entity. They have always considered Palestine and its inhabitants part of the great “Arab nation,” historically and politically as an integral part of Greater Syria…

The Arabs never established a Palestinian state when the UN in 1947 recommended to partition Palestine, and to establish “an Arab and a Jewish state” (not a Palestinian state, it should be noted). Nor did the Arabs recognize or establish a Palestinian state during the two decades prior to the Six-Day War when the West Bank was under Jordanian control and the Gaza Strip was under Egyptian control; nor did the Palestinian Arabs clamor for autonomy or independence during those years under Jordanian and Egyptian rule.

The population of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Iraq did not “evolve,” but were created by “colonial powers.” No “Palestinian DNA exists!

Unlike nation-states in Europe, modern Lebanese, Jordanian, Syrian, and Iraqi nationalities did not evolve. They were arbitrarily created by colonial powers.

In 1919, in the wake of World War I, England and France as Mandatory (e.g., official administrators and mentors) carved up the former Ottoman Empire, which had collapsed a year earlier, into geographic spheres of influence. This divided the Mideast into new political entities with new names and frontiers.

The prevailing rationale behind these artificially created states was how they served the imperial and commercial needs of their colonial masters. Iraq and Jordan, for instance, were created as emirates to reward the noble Hashemite family from Saudi Arabia for its loyalty to the British against the Ottoman Turks during World War I, under the leadership of Lawrence of Arabia. Iraq was given to Faisal bin Hussein, son of the sheriff of Mecca, in 1918.

To reward his younger brother Abdullah with an emirate, Britain cut away 77 percent of its mandate over Palestine earmarked for the Jews and gave it to Abdullah in 1922, creating the new country of Trans-Jordan or Jordan, as it was later named.

The Palestinian position denounces Israel

Fatah Constitution Articles 12 and 19: Complete liberation of Palestine and eradication of Zionist economic, political, military and cultural existence.” Armed struggle is a strategy and not a tactic, and the Palestinian Arab People’s armed revolution is a decisive factor in the liberation fight and in uprooting the Zionist existence, and this struggle will not cease unless the Zionist state is demolished and Palestine is completely liberated.”

The PLO Charter Article 15 calls the liberation of Palestine a national (qawmi) duty to repel the Zionist and imperialist aggression against the Arab homeland, and aims at the “liquidation of the Zionist presence” in Palestine.

The Hamas Charter: “The Day of Judgement will not come about until Moslems fight the Jews (killing the Jews), when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees….Hamas Charter Article 15 (a portion): “The day that enemies usurp part of Moslem land, Jihad becomes the individual duty of every Moslem. In face of the Jews’ usurpation of Palestine, it is compulsory that the banner of Jihad be raised.

To do this requires the diffusion of Islamic consciousness among the masses, both on the regional, Arab and Islamic levels. It is necessary to instill the spirit of Jihad in the heart of the nation so that they would confront the enemies and join the ranks of the fighters.”

Related and Background:

Israel – Palestine Flight from Fact – The Maddening Reality

Other Sources:

The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict Over Palestine

The Myth of Moslem-Jewish coexistence in “Palestine”

Feudal Arab landowners who exploited their peasantry became Nationalist LeadersHow

http://www.theblaze.com/stories/is-heaven-for-real-12-year-old-colton-burpo-vs-famed-scientist-stephen-hawking/

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

The Chapter 11 Section 4 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 17 Section 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 17 Section 2 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 17 Section 1 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 16 Test Make-up is today.

The Chapter 16 Section 4 Quiz Make-up is today.

There is no #27 on the Quiz; leave #27 on the Scantron blank. Do not answer on the Scantron, skip #27.

The Chapter 16 Section 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 16 Section 2 Quiz Make-up is today.

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+World+History+II+Chapter+16+Section+2+Quiz+Prep+Page+Spring+2011

The Chapter 16 Section 1 Quiz Make-up is today.

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+World+History+II+Chapter+16+Section+1+Quiz+Prep+Page+Spring+2011

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Cf. http://www.cueprompter.com/

The Philadelphia Inquirer is available.

URL: http://nie.philly.com
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
Login:
Username: bshsinky@shanahan.org
Password: 10888

Cf. http://vozme.com/index.php?lang=en

Cf. http://www.xtranormal.com/

Cf. http://www.wordle.net/create

ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm

Or, http://www.glogster.com/login/

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Cf. http://www.cueprompter.com/

Cf. http://ant.umn.edu/vae.php

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Chapter 18: Nationalism Around the World, 1919–1939

Section 3 Revolutionary Chaos in China

Nationalists and Communists

In-class

Reading Check

Explaining

How did Chiang Kai-shek change the Communist-Nationalist alliance?

The Communists in Hiding

In-class

Reading Check

Identifying

Which group did Mao believe would start the Communist Revolution in China?

The Long March

In-class

8th

Reading Check

Explaining

Why did it seem that communism was no longer a threat to China after the Long March?

The New China of Chiang Kai-shek

In-class

5th/8th

China in revolution 1911-1949 (part5/10), 10:43

What challenges did Chiang Kai-shek face?
From what country in particular?
What happened in 1931?
What city did the Japanese attack?
In what year did the Japanese set up a puppet government?
In what ways did the Chinese resist the Japanese?
What did Chiang think was the best way to resist?
What did Mao call for with the Nationalists?
In 1936, who was kidnapped?
Meanwhile, Shanghai was like what European city?
What was the reality of China?


In-class

5h/8th

Reading Check

Identifying

What was the intended final stage of Chiang Kai-shek's reform program?

Section 4 Nationalism in Latin America

American investors directly controlled many Latin American industries beginning in the 1920s. Latin American nationalists claimed that U.S. investments propped up the regions' dictators. The Great Depression weakened regional economies and led to the creation of government-run industries, since Latin Americans could not afford many imported goods. Economic crisis and instability prompted military leaders to overthrow the elected governments—which were dominated by small elites—and to establish authoritarian regimes. Dictators sometimes gained an urban following by promising better factory conditions. Industrialization became a core government project. Fascist symbols and nationalist slogans were used amid harsh political repression. In Mexico, a single-party state dominated society. The popular Depression-era leader Lázaro Cárdenas nationalized foreign-owned oil companies and redistributed land to Mexican peasants. Artists helped build national identity in many Latin American countries.

The Latin American Economy

In the early 1900s, Latin America’s economy was booming because of exports. Latin Americans sold their plentiful natural resources and cash crops to industrialized countries. In return, they bought products made in those countries. Meanwhile, foreign investors controlled many of Latin America’s natural resources.

Stable governments helped to keep the region’s economy on a good footing. Some Latin American nations, such as Argentina and Uruguay, had democratic constitutions. However, military dictators or small groups of wealthy landowners held the real power. The tiny ruling class kept the economic benefits of the booming economy for themselves. The growing middle class and the lower classes—workers and peasants—had no say in their own government. These inequalities troubled many Latin American countries, but in Mexico the situation led to an explosive revolution.

Democracy and Market Economy in Latin America (3 of 3), 5:05

The Future of Democracy and Market Economy in Latin America. An interview to Hernando De Soto, President, Institute for Liberty and Democracy, Lima, Peru.

Role of the United States

Impact of the Great Depression

During the 1920s and 1930s, world events affected Latin American economies. After World War I, trade with Europe fell off. The Great Depression that struck the United States in 1929 spread around the world in the 1930s. Prices for Latin American exports plunged as demand dried up. At the same time, the cost of imported consumer goods rose. Latin America’s economies, dependent on export trade, declined rapidly.

A tide of economic nationalism, or emphasis on home control of the economy, swept Latin American countries. They were determined to develop their own industries so they would not have to buy so many products from other countries. Local entrepreneurs set up factories to produce goods. Governments raised tariffs, or taxes on imports, to protect the new industries. Governments also invested directly in new businesses. Following Mexico’s lead, some nations took over foreign-owned assets. The drive to create domestic industries was not wholly successful. Unequal distribution of wealth held back economic development.

Vocabulary Builder
assets—(as ets) n. things of value

The Great Depression also triggered political changes in Latin America. The economic crisis caused people to lose faith in the ruling oligarchies and the ideas of liberal government.

Liberalism, a belief in the individual and in limited government, was a European theory actually only really successful as applied in the United States.

People began to feel that it did not work in Latin America. However, ideas about what form a new type of government should take varied.

In-class

5h/8th

Reading Check

Comparing

How did the United States's method investing in Latin American differ from that of Britain?

The Move to Authoritarianism

Argentina

Brazil

Good Neighbor Policy, 3:58

FDR's support for dictator Getulio Vargas, Brazil, Carmen Miranda

In the Second World War, the U.S. is virtually isolated from its former trading partners in Asia and Europe. The war is raging in the world, and moreover, the U.S. needed to match the firepower of the Germans. Looking for Raw Material, the alternative was to approach its neighbors, including Brazil.

The Americans propagated the "good neighbor policy" in the Americas. And in time of War 2 was followed as part of this policy of friendship, three Pan American Conference, a council of continental defense held in Panama in 1939, Havana, Cuba in 1940 and Rio de Janeiro - Brazil in 1942. All countries that hosted these meetings during the war Geographical have high strategic value. The Panama Canal provides access to the Pacific Ocean and the island of Cuba positioned ahead of the U.S. coasts and in addition, the Brazil that is five hours of flight bombing of Dakar, Africa.

At this time the film industry came into its heyday and how part of this project was cultural partnership through film, the filmmaker Walt Disney and Orson Welles, came steadily for Brazil and the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Relations, Aranha played magnificently its diplomatic role. Celebrities such as Joe Carioca appeared as part of this project, the ELF symbol of the snake smoke created by the Brazilians in Italy, won a version designed by Disney. Products such as Coca-Cola, were brought by the Americans to Brazil.

In 1942, as a result of cultural reciprocity between American nations, a Brazilian muse came to prominence in Hollywood, Carmen Miranda, who was carrying in his luggage Brazilian culture to the home of Uncle Sam.

During and after World War I, investments by the United States in the nations of Latin America soared. British influence declined. The United States continued to play the role of international policeman, intervening to restore order when it felt its interests were threatened.

Vocabulary Builder
intervening—(in tur veen ing) vi. coming between two arguing factions

During the Mexican Revolution, the United States stepped in to support the leaders who favored American interests. In 1914, the United States attacked the port of Veracruz to punish Mexico for imprisoning several American sailors. In 1916, the U.S. army invaded Mexico after Pancho Villa killed more than a dozen Americans in New Mexico. This interference stirred up anti-American feelings, which increased throughout Latin America during the 1920s. For example, in Nicaragua, Augusto César Sandino led a guerrilla movement against United States forces occupying his country.

In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt took a new approach to Latin America and pledged to follow “the policy of the good neighbor.” Under the Good Neighbor Policy, the United States pledged to lessen its interference in the affairs of Latin American nations. The United States withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua. It lifted the Platt Amendment, which had limited Cuban independence. Roosevelt also supported Mexico’s nationalization of its oil companies. The Good Neighbor policy strengthened Latin American nationalism and improved relations between Latin America and the United States.

Mexico

This Mexican peasants’ song from the early 1900s reflected many Mexicans’ desire for change under the rule of the dictator Porfirio Díaz:

“Our homes and humble dwellings

always full of sadness

living like animals

in the midst of riches.

On the other hand, the haciendados,

owners of lives and lands,

appear disinterested

and don’t listen to our complaints.”

By 1910, the dictator Porfirio Díaz had ruled Mexico for almost 35 years, winning reelection as president again and again. On the surface, Mexico enjoyed peace and economic growth. Díaz welcomed foreign investors who developed mines, built railroads, and drilled for oil. However, underneath the surface, discontent rippled through Mexico. The country’s prosperity benefited only a small group. Most Mexicans were mestizos or Indian peasants who lived in desperate poverty. Most of these peasants worked on haciendas, or large plantations, controlled by the landowning elite. Some peasants earned meager wages in factories and mines in Mexico’s cities. Meanwhile, the growing urban middle class wanted democracy and the elite resented the power of foreign companies. All of these groups opposed the Diáz dictatorship.

The unrest boiled over in 1910 when Francisco Madero, a liberal reformer from an elite family, demanded free elections. Faced with rebellion in several parts of the country, Díaz resigned in 1911. Soon a bloody, complex struggle engulfed Mexico.

In 1917, voters elected Venustiano Carranza president of Mexico. That year, Carranza reluctantly approved a new constitution that included land and labor reform. With amendments, it is still in force today.

The Constitution of 1917 addressed three major issues: land, religion, and labor. The constitution strengthened government control over the economy. It permitted the breakup of large estates, placed restrictions on foreigners owning land, and allowed nationalization, or government takeover, of natural resources. Church land was made “the property of the nation.” The constitution set a minimum wage and protected workers’ right to strike.

Although the constitution gave suffrage only to men, it did give women some rights. Women doing the same job as men were entitled to the same pay. In response to women activists, Carranza also passed laws allowing married women to draw up contracts, take part in legal suits, and have equal authority with men in spending family funds.

Fighting continued on a smaller scale throughout the 1920s, including Carranza’s overthrow in 1920. In 1929, the government organized what later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The PRI managed to accommodate many groups in Mexican society, including business and military leaders, peasants, and workers. The PRI did this by adopting some of the goals of these groups, while keeping real power in its own hands. It suppressed opposition and dissent. Using all of these tactics, the PRI brought stability to Mexico and over time carried out many desired reforms. The PRI dominated Mexican politics from the 1930s until the free election of 2000.

At first, the Constitution of 1917 was just a set of goals to be achieved in the future. But in the 1920s and 1930s, as the government finally restored order, it began to carry out reforms.

In the 1920s, the government helped some Indian communities regain lands that had been taken from them. In the 1930s, under President Lázaro Cárdenas, millions of acres of land were redistributed to peasants under a communal land program. The government supported labor unions and launched a massive effort to combat illiteracy. Schools and libraries were set up. Dedicated teachers, often young women, worked for low pay. While they taught basic skills, they spread ideas of nationalism that began to bridge the gulf between the regions and the central government. As the revolutionary era ended, Mexico became the first Latin American nation to pursue real social and economic reforms for the majority of its people.

The government also took a strong role in directing the economy. In 1938, labor disputes broke out between Mexican workers and the management of some foreign-owned petroleum companies. In response, President Cárdenas decreed that the Mexican government would nationalize Mexico’s oil resources. American and British oil companies resisted Cárdenas’s decision, but eventually accepted compensation for their losses. Mexicans felt that they had at last gained economic independence from foreign influence.

In-class

1st/5h/8th

Reading Check

Examining

How was the Mexican government democratic in form but not in practice?

Culture in Latin America

By the 1920s, Latin American writers, artists, and thinkers began to reject European influences in culture as well. Instead, they took pride in their own culture, with its blend of Western and native traditions.

In Mexico, cultural nationalism, or pride in one’s own culture, was reflected in the revival of mural painting, a major art form of the Aztecs and Maya. In the 1920s and 1930s, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco (oh rohs koh), David Alfaro Siqueiros (see keh rohs), and other muralists created magnificent works. On the walls of public buildings, they portrayed the struggles of the Mexican people for liberty. The murals have been a great source of national pride ever since.

Diego Rivera, 4:50

In-class

1st/5h/8th

Reading Check

Examining

How did Diego Rivera use his artistic talent as a political tool?

Preview

Chapter 19 World War II 1939-1945

Chapter 19: World War II, 1939–1945
The German and Japanese occupations of neighboring countries led to a brutal war that took millions of lives. Both countries were defeated, but not before the Nazis had killed millions of people in pursuit of Aryan domination of Europe.

Section 1 Paths to War
Aggressive moves by Germany and Japan set the stage for World War II. Adolf Hitler began a massive military buildup and instituted a draft in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The German annexation of Austria alarmed France but did not shake Great Britain's policy of appeasement. Mussolini became a German ally. Appeasement of Germany peaked at a conference in Munich where Hitler claimed he sought only one final territory, the Czech Sudetenland. This soon proved false. When Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with Stalin and invaded Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Japanese expansion into Manchuria and northern China brought condemnation from the League of Nations. While still at war with China, Japan launched a surprise attack on U.S. and European colonies in Southeast Asia.

Section 2 The Course of World War II
German forces swept through northern Europe early in the war and set up the Vichy government in France. German air attacks on Great Britain resulted in fierce British retaliation. In the east, harsh weather and a resolute Soviet Union defeated an invading German army. The Japanese conquered the Pacific but miscalculated when they attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. The United States surprised Japan by abandoning its neutrality and entering the war to retake the Pacific. By the end of 1943, the tide had turned against Germany, Italy, and Japan. After the invasion of Normandy, the Allies liberated Paris and defeated Germany. U.S. President Harry Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin met at Potsdam, Germany, to plan the post-war world. The war in Asia continued until the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing massive casualties and bringing Japan's surrender.

Section 3 The New Order and the Holocaust
To further their war effort and Hitler's plans for Aryan expansion, the Nazis forced millions of people to resettle as forced laborers. No aspect of the Nazi New Order was more terrifying than the deliberate attempt to exterminate the Jews. As part of the Nazis' Final Solution, Jews were locked into cramped, unsanitary ghettos or forced to dig their own mass graves before being killed. When this proved too slow for the Nazis, they transported Europe's Jews to death camps where they were worked to death or sent to die in gas chambers. The Nazis killed between five and six million Jews and nine to ten million non-Jews. In Asia, Japan showed little respect for the conquered peoples in its effort to secure industrial markets and raw materials. Japanese treatment of prisoners of war was equally harsh. Japan professed a commitment to ending Western colonialism, but the brutality of the Japanese convinced many Asians to resist Japanese occupation.

Section 4 The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
World War II reached almost every area of the world, and mobilization for war brought widespread suffering and even starvation. The war caused 20 million civilian deaths. The United States, which did not fight the war on its own territory, sent its forces to fight and produced much of the military equipment for the Allies. Segregation in the U.S. military led African Americans to demand civil rights. Racism and suspicion led to the war-time detention of more than 100,000 Japanese Americans. The bombing of cities by the Allied and Axis powers cost thousands of lives, but probably did nothing to weaken the morale of either side. After the war, ideological conflict between the West and the Soviet Union resulted in the Cold War. The Cold War centered around the status of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe.

World War II 1939-1945

Chapter 19 World War II 1939-1945

Note Taking

Reading and Listening Skill: Recognize Sequence

As you read and listen, keep track of the sequence of events that led to the outbreak of World War II by completing a table like the one below.


Note Taking
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence

Complete this timetable of German aggression as you read.


The German Path to War

Hitler pursued his goal of bringing all German-speaking people into the Third Reich. He also took steps to gain “living space” for Germans in Eastern Europe. Hitler, who believed in the superiority of the German people, or “Aryan race,” thought that Germany had a right to conquer the inferior Slavs to the east. “Nature is cruel,” he claimed, “therefore we, too, may be cruel. . . .I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin.”

Hitler on the History of the Aryan Race (Mein Kampf in English), 3:10



Throughout the 1930s, challenges to peace followed a pattern. Dictators took aggressive action but met only verbal protests and pleas for peace from the democracies. Mussolini, Hitler, and the leaders of Japan viewed that desire for peace as weakness and responded with new acts of aggression. With hindsight, we can see the shortcomings of the democracies’ policies. These policies, however, were the product of long and careful deliberation. At the time, some people believed they would work.

The First Steps

Hitler, too, had tested the will of the Western democracies and found it weak. First, he built up the German military in defiance of the treaty that had ended World War I. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the “demilitarized” Rhineland bordering France—another treaty violation.

March 1936 Rhineland remilitarized, 3:50



Germans hated the Versailles treaty, and Hitler’s successful challenge made him more popular at home. The Western democracies denounced his moves but took no real action. Instead, they adopted a policy of appeasement, or giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to to keep the peace.

The World At War - Appeasement, 6:54



The Western policy of appeasement developed for a number of reasons. France was demoralized, suffering from political divisions at home. It could not take on Hitler without British support. The British, however, had no desire to confront the German dictator. Some even thought that Hitler’s actions constituted a justifiable response to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which they believed had been too harsh on Germany.

In both Britain and France, many saw Hitler and fascism as a defense against a worse evil—the spread of Soviet communism. Additionally, the Great Depression sapped the energies of the Western democracies. Finally, widespread pacifism, or opposition to all war, and disgust with the destruction from the previous war pushed many governments to seek peace at any price.

As war clouds gathered in Europe in the mid-1930s, the United States Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts. One law forbade the sale of arms to any nation at war. Others outlawed loans to warring nations and prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of warring powers. The fundamental goal of American policy, however, was to avoid involvement in a European war, not to prevent such a conflict.

The Mood Of The USA 1939 to Pearl Harbor, 2:16



New Alliances

In the face of the apparent weakness of Britain, France, and the United States, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed what became known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. Known as the Axis powers, the three nations agreed to fight Soviet communism. They also agreed not to interfere with one another’s plans for territorial expansion. The agreement cleared the way for these anti-democratic, aggressor powers to take even bolder steps.

Berlin-Rome-Tokyo 1937, 2:36



In Italy, Mussolini decided to act on his own imperialist ambitions. Italy’s defeat by the Ethiopians at the battle of Adowa in 1896 still rankled. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia, located in northeastern Africa. Although the Ethiopians resisted bravely, their outdated weapons were no match for Mussolini’s tanks, machine guns, poison gas, and airplanes. The Ethiopian king Haile Selassie (hy luh suh lah see) appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League voted sanctions against Italy for violating international law. But the League had no power to enforce the sanctions, and by early 1936, Italy had conquered Ethiopia.

Union with Austria

From the beginning, Nazi propaganda had found fertile ground in Austria. By 1938, Hitler was ready to engineer the Anschluss (ahn shloos), or union of Austria and Germany. Early that year, he forced the Austrian chancellor to appoint Nazis to key cabinet posts. When the Austrian leader balked at other demands in March, Hitler sent in the German army to “preserve order.” To indicate his new role as ruler of Austria, Hitler made a speech from the Hofburg Palace, the former residence of the Hapsburg emperors.

The Anschluss violated the Versailles treaty and created a brief war scare. Some Austrians favored annexation. Hitler quickly silenced any Austrians who opposed it. And since the Western democracies took no action, Hitler easily had his way.

Demands and Appeasement

Germany turned next to Czechoslovakia. At first, Hitler insisted that the three million Germans in the Sudetenland (soo day tun land)—a region of western Czechoslovakia—be given autonomy. Czechoslovakia was one of only two remaining democracies in Eastern Europe. (Finland was the other.) Still, Britain and France were not willing to go to war to save it. As British and French leaders searched for a peaceful solution, Hitler increased his demands. The Sudetenland, he said, must be annexed to Germany.

At the Munich Conference in September 1938, British and French leaders again chose appeasement. They caved in to Hitler’s demands and then persuaded the Czechs to surrender the Sudetenland without a fight. In exchange, Hitler assured Britain and France that he had no further plans to expand his territory.

After the horrors of World War I, Western democracies desperately tried to preserve peace during the 1930s while ignoring signs that the rulers of Germany, Italy, and Japan were preparing to build new empires. Despite the best efforts of Neville Chamberlain and other Western leaders, the world was headed to war again.

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain spoke to a jubilant crowd upon returning to London from a conference with Adolf Hitler in Munich, Germany, in September 1938:

“For the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honor. I believe it is peace for our time . . . Go home and get a nice quiet sleep.”

"Peace in our Time," Chamberlain, September 1938, 3:24



Great Britain and France React

Hitler and the Soviets

Just as Churchill predicted, Europe plunged rapidly toward war. In March 1939, Hitler broke his promises and gobbled up the rest of Czechoslovakia. The democracies finally accepted the fact that appeasement had failed. At last thoroughly alarmed, they promised to protect Poland, most likely the next target of Hitler’s expansion.

In August 1939, Hitler stunned the world by announcing a nonaggression pact with his great enemy—Joseph Stalin, the Soviet dictator. Publicly, the Nazi-Soviet Pact bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations. Secretly, the two agreed not to fight if the other went to war and to divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe between them.

Stalin-Hitler pact commemorated, 3:58



The pact was based not on friendship or respect but on mutual need. Hitler feared communism as Stalin feared fascism. But Hitler wanted a free hand in Poland. Also, he did not want to fight a war with the Western democracies and the Soviet Union at the same time. For his part, Stalin had sought allies among the Western democracies against the Nazi menace. Mutual suspicions, however, kept them apart. By joining with Hitler, Stalin tried to protect the Soviet Union from the threat of war with Germany and grabbed a chance to gain land in Eastern Europe.

In-class

Reading Check

Identifying

Where did Hitler believe he could find more "living space" to expand Germany?

The Japanese Path to War

One of the earliest tests had been posed by Japan. Japanese military leaders and ultranationalists thought that Japan should have an empire equal to those of the Western powers. In pursuit of this goal, Japan seized Manchuria in 1931. When the League of Nations condemned the aggression, Japan simply withdrew from the organization. Japan’s easy success strengthened the militarist faction in Japan. In 1937, Japanese armies overran much of eastern China, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War. Once again, Western protests did not stop Japan.

Japanese Invasion of Manchuria, 2:06



When war broke out in Europe in 1939, the Japanese saw a chance to grab European possessions in Southeast Asia. The rich resources of the region, including oil, rubber, and tin, would be of immense value in fighting its war against the Chinese.

In 1940, Japan advanced into French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale of war materials, such as iron, steel, and oil to Japan. Japanese leaders saw this move as an attempt to interfere in Japan’s sphere of influence.

Asian Holocaust - Asia-Pacific theatre of war, World War II, 1:07

This short clip highlights the human scale of the tragedy in the Second World War Asia-Pacific theatre. Between 1931-1945, Japanese Imperial Forces invaded and occupied parts of China, Manchukuo, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), New Guinea, French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia), British Malaya, Singapore, Burma, Borneo, American-occupied Philippines. This clip is part of a project on www.asianholocaust.org to gather resources and information to commemorate the Asian and Allied victims of this epic conflict.



Japan and the United States held talks to ease the growing tension. But extreme militarists, such as General Tojo Hideki, hoped to expand Japan’s empire, and the United States was interfering with their plans.

War with China

The New Asian Order

In-class

Reading Check

Explaining

Why did Japan want to establish a New Order in East Asia?

Section 2 The Course of World War II

German forces swept through northern Europe early in the war and set up the Vichy government in France. German air attacks on Great Britain resulted in fierce British retaliation. In the east, harsh weather and a resolute Soviet Union defeated an invading German army. The Japanese conquered the Pacific but miscalculated when they attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. The United States surprised Japan by abandoning its neutrality and entering the war to retake the Pacific. By the end of 1943, the tide had turned against Germany, Italy, and Japan. After the invasion of Normandy, the Allies liberated Paris and defeated Germany. U.S. President Harry Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin met at Potsdam, Germany, to plan the post-war world. The war in Asia continued until the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, causing massive casualties and bringing Japan's surrender.

World War Two : Europe and North Africa 1939 - 1945 Map


Europe At War

Hitler's Early Victories

The Battle of Britain

Attack on the Soviet Union

p. 594

In-class

Reading Check

Identifying

Where did Hitler believe he could find more "living space" to expand Germany?

Japan At War

Pearl Harbor Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 5:23


p. 599, Geography Skills, #1-2

p. 600, Reading Check

Describing

By the spring of 1942, which territories did Japan control?

The Allies Advance

The European Theater

The Asian Theater

In-class

p. 603, Reading Check

Summarizing

Why was the German assault on Stalingrad a crushing defeat for the Germans?

Last Years of the War

The European Theater

People in History

Winston Churchill

The Asian Theater

p. 604, Reading Check

In-class

Identifying

What was the "second front" that the Allies opened in Western Europe?

Section 3 The New Order and the Holocaust
To further their war effort and Hitler's plans for Aryan expansion, the Nazis forced millions of people to resettle as forced laborers. No aspect of the Nazi New Order was more terrifying than the deliberate attempt to exterminate the Jews. As part of the Nazis' Final Solution, Jews were locked into cramped, unsanitary ghettos or forced to dig their own mass graves before being killed. When this proved too slow for the Nazis, they transported Europe's Jews to death camps where they were worked to death or sent to die in gas chambers. The Nazis killed between five and six million Jews and nine to ten million non-Jews. In Asia, Japan showed little respect for the conquered peoples in its effort to secure industrial markets and raw materials. Japanese treatment of prisoners of war was equally harsh. Japan professed a commitment to ending Western colonialism, but the brutality of the Japanese convinced many Asians to resist Japanese occupation.

Ch. 19 Resources

See the war through the eyes of soldiers, secret agents, pilots and evacuees.

Life for children during the war.

Listen to an air raid warning.

The blitz and the home front in the UK.

Churchill and the bombing of Dresden


London, England during World War II



Cologne, 1944

Preview: Section 4 The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War

Section 4 The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
World War II reached almost every area of the world, and mobilization for war brought widespread suffering and even starvation. The war caused 20 million civilian deaths. The United States, which did not fight the war on its own territory, sent its forces to fight and produced much of the military equipment for the Allies. Segregation in the U.S. military led African Americans to demand civil rights. Racism and suspicion led to the war-time detention of more than 100,000 Japanese Americans. The bombing of cities by the Allied and Axis powers cost thousands of lives, but probably did nothing to weaken the morale of either side. After the war, ideological conflict between the West and the Soviet Union resulted in the Cold War. The Cold War centered around the status of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe.

The Mobilization of Peoples: Four Examples

The Soviet Union

The United States

Germany

Japan

In-class

Reading Check

Evaluating

How did World War II contribute to racial tensions in the United States?

Front line Civilians: The Bombing of Cities

p. 615, "The ferocious bombing of Dresden from February 13 to 15, 1945, created a firestorm that may have killed as many as a hundred thousand inhabitants and refugees. . . . Germany suffered enormously from the Allied bombing raids. Millions of buildings were destroyed, and possibly half a million civilians died."

Bombing of Dresden in World War II, 3:06


Britain

Germany

Japan

Science, Technology & Society, p. 616

"Of the city's [Hiroshima] 350,000 inhabitants, 140,000 had died by the end of 1945. By the end of 1950, another 50,000 had died from the effects of radiation."

In-class

Reading Check

Explaining

Why were civilian populations targeted in bombing raids?

Peace and a New War

The Tehran Conference

The Yalta Conference

The Potsdam Conference

War Crimes Trails

A New Struggle

In-class

Reading Check

Identifying

Why did Stalin want to control Eastern Europe after World War II?

Ch. 19 Resources

Online guide to the Holocaust

Colonel Paul Tibbets describes dropping the A-Bomb on Hiroshima August 6, 1945.

Cf. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/vohiroshima.htm

See the war through the eyes of soldiers, secret agents, pilots and evacuees.

Life for children during the war.

Listen to an air raid warning.

The blitz and the home front in the UK.

Churchill and the bombing of Dresden



Audio file of the death dive of a Kamikaze.

Cf. http://avanimation.avsupport.com/sound/Kamikaze.wav

London, England during World War II

Cologne, 1944

p. 628ff, Ch. 20 Cold War and Postwar Changes 1945-1970

Confrontation of the Superpowers

p. 632, The Truman Doctrine

Truman Doctrine, 2:31


p. 632, The Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan, 1:40


p. 635, The Cuban Missile Crisis

Kennedy addresses the nation on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 3:05


p. 635, Vietnam and the Domino Theory

Domino Theory, Eisenhower to Nixon, 1:11


p. 638, Picturing History, Sputnik

Sputnik beeps overhead, Americans in awe, including a young John Glenn, 3:23


John F. Kennedy's Moon Speech to Congress - May 25, 1961, America on the Moon, July 20, 1969, 1:36


p. 644, Economic Miracles: Germany and Japan


p. 646, Youth Protest in the 1960s, "The Times They Are A-Changin'"

Mario Savio: Sproul Hall Steps, December 2, 1964, 1:26


Campus Unrest in late 1960s & early 1970s at UCLA, Inauguration, Communist professor teaching, Angela Davis, 6:31

Cf. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AI4U-q2o2cg&feature=PlayList&p=55D6264643BE92EA&playnext_from=PL&playnext=1&index=41

p. 646, The United States in the 1960s

p. 646, John F. Kennedy

Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You: the inaugural address of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 5:37


p. 646, The Johnson Administration

McGovern Warns Obama of LBJ Legacy, 3:40

In 1964, President Johnson said of Vietnam that I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think that we can get out. Its just the biggest damn mess I ever saw.'' Yet Johnson escalated the conflict and America became bogged down in Southeast Asia for more than a decade. Former Senator George McGovern recently sat down with ANP and said that President Obama runs the risk, like Johnsons Great Society, of hobbling his ambitious domestic goals if he continues to send troops into Afghanistan.


pp. 647, 651, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream"

I have a Dream Speech, 2:18


p. 648, The Emergence of a New Society

Ch. 21 The Contemporary Western World 1970-Present

p. 656, "Tear Down This Wall"

Ronald Reagan- "Tear Down This Wall," 4:00


p. 661, Revolutions in Eastern Europe

p. 661, Poland, Lech Walesa, Roman Catholic Church

p. 668, The U.S. Domestic Scene

p. 668, Nixon and Watergate

Watergate Scandal, 3:29


p. 669, The Carter Administration

"Crisis of Confidence" Speech July 15, 1979, 2:08


p. 669, The Reagan Revolution

Ronald Reagan 1984 TV Ad: "Its morning in America again," 1:00


Revisiting the Reagan Revolution -- A Book Release Party Featuring Dr. Steven Hayward, 4:08


p. 672, The Growth of Terrorism

p. 672, 9/11

Michael Scheuer on "Inside 9/11," 4:27


p. 675, Popular Culture

p. 675, Elvis, Beatles

Elvis Presley - Sun Records History, 2:08

Sun Studio was opened by rock pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 3, 1950. It was originally called Memphis Recording Service, sharing the same building with the Sun Records label business. Reputedly the first rock-and-roll single, Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' "Rocket 88" was recorded there in 1951 with song composer Ike Turner on keyboards, leading the studio to claim status as the birthplace of rock & roll. Blues and R&B artists like Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Little Milton, B.B. King, James Cotton, Rufus Thomas, and Rosco Gordon recorded there in the early 1950s.

Rock-and-roll, country music, and rockabilly artists, including unknowns recording demos and others like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Charlie Feathers, Ray Harris, Warren Smith, Charlie Rich, and Jerry Lee Lewis, signed to the Sun Records label recorded there throughout the latter 1950s until the studio outgrew its Union Avenue location. Sam Phillips opened the larger Sam C. Phillips Recording Studio, better known as Phillips Recording, in 1959 to take the place of the older facility. Since Sam had invested in the Holiday Inn Hotel chain earlier, he also recorded artist starting in 1963 on the label Holiday Inn Records for Kemmons Wilson.

In 1969, Sam Phillips sold the label to Shelby Singleton, and there was no recording-related or label-related activity again in the building until the September 1985 Class of '55 recording sessions with Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash, produced by Chips Moman.




Chapter 18 References

The End of the British Empire, Cf. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/empire/g3/default.htm

Video clips of Gandhi and other Indian leaders

The life of Gandhi

Find out more about African independence

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History

Middle East

Oil


Mary Wells - My Guy, 2:32


Games for cats, 1:40


Check the school schedule for upcoming 4th Quarter Assessment day; the blog schedule does not replace the official school schedule.

HW: email (or hard copy) me at gmsmith@shanahan.org.

Monday HW
1. p. 581, Preview Questions #1-2; 2. p. 585, #4.
Tuesday HW
1. p. 591, Preview Questions #1-2; 2. p. 594, #4.
Wednesday HW
1. p. 596, Preview Questions #1-2; 2. p. 604, #4.
Thursday HW
1. p. 606, Preview Questions #1-2; 2. p. 611, #4.

Honors Business Economics: 23 May 2011

Prayer
Beyond the Sound Bites (if time after 13.1 Quiz):

Clear your desk except for a pencil. Once everyone is quiet, and no talking during the Quiz, we can begin. Be sure to put your name on the Quiz and the Scantron. You may write on both the Quiz and the Scantron.

If you finish early, you may take out non-class materials; once everyone is finished, put away the non-class materials. Then, I will collect the Scantron first, and then I will collect the Quiz.

Be sure your name is on both the Scantron and the Quiz.

If your name is not on the Quiz it will not be returned.


Religion and Economics


The Chapter 12 Section 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 12 Section 2 Quiz Make-up is today.

Cross out "f."

The Chapter 12 Section 1 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 11 Test Make-up is today.

The Chapter 11 Section 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 11 Section 2 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 11 Section 1 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 10 Test Make-up is today.

Skip #31; leave it blank.

The Chapter 10 Section 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 10 Section 2 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 10 Section 1 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Chapter 9 Test Make-up is today.

The Quiz 9.(4) Prep Page is available.

For the Make-up Quiz, consider the material found in Chapter 9 Section 3:

minimum tax, VAT (Value-Added Tax), flat tax, federal tax reform, business taxes, profits, tax burden, personal income rate, depreciation, investment tax credit, and, capital gains.

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+Business+Economics+Chapter+9+Section+4+Quiz+Prep+Page+Spring+2011

Standard feature:

The electronic edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer is available. We have the Sunday edition, available on Mondays, in addition to the Tuesday through Friday editions on the other days.

Please follow the steps below:

URL: http://nie.philly.com
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
Login:
Username: bshsinky@shanahan.org
Password: 10888

Unit 4 Macroeconomics: Performance and Stabilization

Chapter 13

leading economic indicator

composite index of leading economic indicators

econometric model

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.

13.1 Reading Strategy

Complete the graphic organizer by identifying factors that can cause changes in the business cycle.

Issues in the News

Economic Growth Totters

Business Cycles: Characteristics and Causes

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.

When does a cycle begin and end?
What are the phases?
If the economy continues to expand; what is this called?

13.1 Business Cycles

http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p354.swf

Phases of the Business Cycle

Changes in Investment Spending

Innovation and Imitation

Monetary Policy Decisions

External Shocks

In-class

Reading Check

Summarizing

What are thought to be the cause of business cycles?

Business Cycles in the United States

The Great Depression

Causes of the Great Depression

Recovery and Legislation

Cycles After World War II

In-class

Inferring

What impact did the Great Depression have on the United States?

In-class

13.2 Index of Leading Economic Indicators

http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p358.swf

What can the Index show?
What can it predict?
On average, how many months before a recession begins does the Index indicate it?
How many months before a recovery begins does the Index reveal this?

Forecasting Business Cycles

Using Everyday Economic Statistics

Using Econometric Models

In-class

Reading Check

Analyzing

Why are short-term econometric models more accurate than long-term models?

13.1 Review

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.

Use the graphic organizer to identify the causes and effects of the Great Depression.

Business Week

News clip

Dog Days: A Frank Look at the Economy

Section 2: Inflation

Inflation is the increase in the general level of prices of goods and services. Several price indexes are used to measure inflation. Consumer price index (CPI) is a statistical series that tracks monthly changes in the prices paid by urban consumers for a representative "basket" of goods and services. Another index is the producer price index (PPI), which is a monthly series that reports prices received by domestic producers. Causes of inflation include strong demand, rising costs, and wage-price spirals, along with a growing supply of money. Therefore, inflation can reduce purchasing power, distort spending, and affect the distribution of income.

inflation

UNDERSTANDING ECONOMICS: INFLATION, 6:32

In-class

What is inflation?
What is the most effective tool used to gauge the level of inflation?
What are the two types of inflation?
How is each defined?
How does the government attempt to combat inflation?
Define the attempts.
What is deflation?
What is stagflation?
What is hyperinflation?


Text from vid:
Inflation is defined as an overall increase in the price level. Or, in other words, an overall decrease in the purchasing power of the dollar.
When inflation occurs, currency buys fewer goods and services.

The most effective tool used to gauge the level of inflation is the Consumer Price Index, or CPI.
The Consumer Price Index is a basket of about 400 commonly purchased goods and services that is used to represent overall consumption.
Each month, the Department of Labor checks the prices of these 400 different items in 85 areas all over the U.S.
Inflation exists when the average cost of the items is rising. If the average cost of these items remains the same, there is no inflation, even though most likely the prices went up on some of the items, while the prices went down on others.
The overall percentage of increase or decrease of cost for these items from year to year is the annual inflation rate.
Well cover the Consumer Price Index in greater detail in a later video.

There are two types of inflation: demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation.
Demand-pull inflation occurs when the demand for goods and services increases faster than the supply of goods and services. This increase in demand could come from increases in the money supply, or increases in the amount of money government spends.
Demand-pull inflation is sometimes described as too much money chasing too few goods.
When demand increases, there would be a shortage of many items if prices stayed at the same level. However, prices will not stay at the same level.
When theres a shortage of something, the price on that item will rise until it hits an equilibrium. This causes a rise in the overall average of prices.

Cost-push inflation happens when there is an increase in the cost to produce goods and services. These increased production costs could be increases in the cost of raw materials, energy, or any other item used in production.
There also could be increases in wages. This is sometimes referred to as wage-push inflation, or the price-wage spiral.

The government attempts to combat inflation using fiscal policy and monetary policy.
Fiscal policy is the use of the governments taxing and spending powers to attempt to accomplish economic pulls. Fiscal policy can be used to decrease spending to reduce demand-pull inflation.
Government can reduce total spending by reducing its own spending. It could also reduce overall spending by raising taxes, which leaves consumers with less money to spend on goods and services.

Monetary policy involves the changing of interest rates and availability of loans to attempt to accomplish economic goals.
The Fed can reduce spending by raising interest rates and making loans harder to obtain, which in turn reduces demand-pull inflation.

Inflation can never be totally eliminated. Furthermore, efforts to reduce inflation tends to cause unemployment, just like efforts to reduce unemployment tends to cause inflation.
Because of this tradeoff, policymakers have to struggle with which is worse when making policy decisions.
Should they attempt to reduce inflation at the cost of higher unemployment? Should they attempt to reduce unemployment at the cost of higher inflation?
These questions are the subject of much debate among economists. And while these policies might work good in theory, its safe to argue that theyre not as effective as one might hope.

There are some other terms worth mentioning briefly. The first is deflation.
Deflation is defined as the general drop in the price level. Or, to put it another way, an increase in the purchasing power of the dollar.
Deflation occurs during recessions when the GDP is declining.
Because of the decline in demand, sellers must reduce their prices to attract buyers, which causes an overall price decrease, also known as deflation.

Music:
Danse Macabre - Low Strings Finale (Theme)
Witch Hunt
Dangerous
Crisis
Gustav Sting
Home Base Grove
by Kevin MacLeod
incompetech.com

deflation

price index

consumer price index (CPI)

market basket

base year

In-class

Reading Strategy

Complete the graphic organizer by illustrating the steps in a wage-price spiral.

In-class

Reading Check

Analyzing

How is a market basket used to measure the price level?

In-class

Reading Check

Explaining

Which explanation do you think gives the most reasonable cause of inflation? Why?

In-class

Reading Check

Identifying

Why is inflation especially hard on people with fixed incomes?

In-class

Review

Use a graphic organizer to identify the steps in measuring inflation.

Profiles in Economics

Milton Friedman

Resources

Overviews

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078747643/student_view0/unit4/chapter13/chapter_overviews.html

Student Web Activity

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078747643/student_view0/unit4/chapter13/student_web_activities.html

In Motion

13.1 Business Cycles

http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p354.swf

13.2 Index of Leading Economic Indicators

http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p358.swf

13.7 Measuring Consumer Discomfort

http://glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/socialstudies/in_motion_08/epp/EPP_p374.swf

Crossword Puzzle

http://www.glencoe.com/sec/socialstudies/tutor/economics/econprinciples2005/puzzles/epp2005_13.html

Flashcards

http://www.glencoe.com/qe/efcsec.php?qi=15463

Ch. 13 Multiple-choice Quiz

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078747643/student_view0/unit4/chapter13/self-check_quizzes.html

Wisconsin Labor Protests - Noodles, 1:36



Homemaking Knowledge Contributes To The Enrichment of Life, 9:19

From the "Why Study Home Economics?" (1955); Two teenage girls learn how a knowledge of homemaking can contribute to the enrichment of life. They also learn about the vocational opportunities available to home economic students. Home economics, is an academic discipline which combines aspects of consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting and human development, interior decoration, textiles, family economics, housing, apparel design and resource management as well as other related subjects. Producer: Centron Corporation; Creative Commons license: Public Domain.


Slo-mo Jello 1:00


Over Population Nightmare from 1960s - Star Trek's Mark of Gideon, 2:47


Sing along to Abattabad, :54


PaperPhone, 1:39


PaperPhone is the world's first nextgen, thin film smartphone and interactive paper computer. It is based on a 3.7" flexible electrophoretic (E Ink) display that does not consume electricity when it is not refreshed. Thinfilm sensors allow the phone to respond to bending of the screen to navigate pages in ebooks, play or pause mp3s, make phone calls, or navigate apps. A flexible wacom tablet allows users to draw on the screen with a pen as if it were a sheet of paper.
For more information visit http://www.hml.queensu.ca/paperphone

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078747643/student_view0/unit3/chapter11/self-check_quizzes.html


Business Cycle Rap (Teach Me How To Dougie Parody), 4:47

Economics Theorist Project by: Or S. & Nadya P
Schumpeter - Business Cycle
"Teach Me 'Bout The Cycle"

Lyrics:

*Anthem of former Austria-Hungary

Aye! Aye!
They ask me, Schumps (what?)
Can you teach me 'bout the cycle?
You know why?
It's what the economy goes by
All I need are his theories and some simple math.
So you, you, and you will learn 'bout this in ropo's class
First stage, off the page, its the business start-up
They gonna be all over it when they hear about that cycle right?
Invest resources like land labor capital
New ideas are important to succeed
establish a position in the market, its what they need
creating a rep(utation) among the investors and consumers
first step has high risks to end up like a loser
marked by lower profit margins
is the price paid by entrepreneurs

[Refrain]
Teach me 'bout the cycle
T-Teach me 'bout the cycle
Never change the cycle
Never Never change the cycle
E'erbody know it, E'erbody know it (T-E-P-R)
You ain't messin' with the cycle (T-E-P-R)

The T is for trough
The E is for expansion
The P is for peak
The R is for recession
E'erbody know it, E'erbody know it (T-E-P-R)
You ain't messin' with the cycle (T-E-P-R)

The name is Schums
For thoses that don't know him
This stage has economic growth and money
A rise in consumer demand isn't funny
They've built a core of loyalty and trust
A group of consumers come back as a must.

Keep up with rising sales and further expansion
They have to increase what's essential.
Manufacturing n' production, these inputs are substantial.
Once upgraded and aided, its part of the plan
Their profit margins continue to rise, 'cause they know they can
Gaining status and approval, they establish their niche
Ads and commercials, can't keep 'em on a leash.
[
As a brand name in the market,
they put money in their pocket.
It's all positives here as they continue to cheer...

Refrain

The third stage, they're at a certain age
When the business matures.
They've fixed every fault and filled every hole
Now they travel through the market on cruise-control

The sales reached a regular amount
Less resources employed on their account
No retirement required, they are not disabled
Stuff profit in the pocket, the margin's still stable.

Venture out, attempt product innovation
It's their call, they're in charge of navigation
Nothing's off limits, the options swirled
Cause they're happy where they are,
On top of the world

Refrain

The final stage is the toughest of all
Favourable conditions are hard to stall
When economic activity is reduced by a lot
The decline in buying and selling cannot be fought
Since employment / also circles the drain
Followed by production and most domaine(s)
None of which / they'll be able to sustain.

They struggle in the market, trying to self discover
Hoping that they will quickly recover

Refrain

Don't focus on the trees, look at the forest
(E'erbody know it, T-E-P-R)
Don't focus on the trees, look at the forest
(You ain't messin' with the cycle)

That's all you need to know 'bout circular flow; Peace.


Coca-Cola Rocket


Dr John- Iko Iko, 5:48

Dr John with Levon Helm, Ringo, Joe Walsh, Rick Danko, Clarence Clemens, Nils Lofgrin


Dodge ball, :38


Air Force Dodge ball, :44

Guideline: the class schedule does not replace the official school Calendar.

Email (or hand in hard copy) to gmsmith@shanahan.org.

Monday HW
1. p. 348, #20-22.
Tuesday HW
1. p. 348, #23-25.
Wednesday HW
1. p. 348, #26-28.