Video of the incident provided by the Israeli Defence Force.
According to the Oslo Accords, Israel has the right to blockade, and the right to stop-and-or-search ships for weapons bound for Israel.
Israeli commandos board relief ship, gun down 19 peace activists in raid on Gaza ships.
AP: Israeli naval commandos stormed a flotilla of ships carrying aid and hundreds of pro-Palestinian activists to the blockaded Gaza Strip on Monday, killing at least 10 passengers in a predawn raid that set off worldwide condemnation and a diplomatic crisis.
Israel said its commandos were attacked by knives, clubs and live fire from two pistols wrested from soldiers after they rappelled from a helicopter to board one of the vessels.
Dozens of activists and at least 10 Israeli soldiers were wounded in the bloody confrontation in international waters.
UC Irvine Jewish Students Break the Silence
HW is due daily.
Section 3 The New Order and the Holocaust
In April, 1937, Hadj Amin al-Husseini, the Mufti of Jerusalem, visited Hitler because he wanted to know how open the Germans were to support Muslims against the Jews.
Resettlement in the East
Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
Himmler established the Nazi Party's intelligence service in 1931, appointing Reinhard Heydrich as its chief. This section of the SS was created to uncover the Party's enemies and keep them under surveillance. After the outbreak of the war, the SD was assigned operational tasks, joined the Einsatzgruppen,and played a central role in organizing and implementing the "Final Solution."
The Gestapo was composed of professional police agents, unlike the SS or SA. The Gestapo, in addition to their own agents, had block wardens, who kept close watch on the tenants of their block. The Gestapo was everywhere. Even a hint of criticism of the National Socialist Regime could result in arrest.
The Nazi party military and police agencies wielded their power violently, leaving a wake of terror and fatalities. Joseph Goebbels and Reinhard Heydrich orchestrated a night of terror in Germany, destroying synagogues, smashing windows of Jewish businesses and homes, looting, physically beating Jews, and arresting thousands of Jews who were then sent to concentration camps. On November 9 and 10, 1938, Kristallnacht,or "The Night of Broken Glass," was a turning point in the escalation of terror against Jews.
Heinrich Himmler: Anatomy of a Mass Murderer, 4:05
Hitler pursued a vicious program to kill all people he judged “racially inferior,” particularly Europe’s Jews. The Nazis also targeted other groups who did not meet the Aryan racial ideal, including Slavs, Romas (Gypsies), homosexuals, and the disabled. Political and religious leaders who spoke out against Nazism also suffered abuse. Starting in 1939, the Nazis forced Jews in Poland and other countries to live in ghettos, or sections of cities where Jewish people were confined. Many died from starvation, disease, overwork and the harsh elements. By 1941, however, German leaders had devised plans for the “Final Solution of the Jewish problem”—the genocide of all European Jews.
To accomplish this goal, Hitler had six special “death camps” built in Poland. The Nazis shipped “undesirables” from all over occupied Europe to the camps. There, Nazi engineers designed the most efficient means of killing millions of men, women, and children.
As the prisoners reached the camps, they were stripped of their clothes and valuables. Their heads were shaved. Guards separated men from women and children from their parents. The young, elderly, and sick were targeted for immediate killing. Within a few days, they were herded into “shower rooms” and gassed. The Nazis worked others to death or used them for perverse “medical” experiments. By 1945, the Nazis had massacred some six million Jews in what became known as the Holocaust. Nearly six million other people were killed as well.
Jewish people resisted the Nazis even though they knew their efforts could not succeed. In July 1942, the Nazis began sending Polish Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to the Treblinka death camp at a rate of about 5,000 per day. In the spring of 1943, knowing that their situation was hopeless, the Jews took over the ghetto and used a small collection of guns and homemade bombs to damage the Nazi forces as much as possible. On May 16, the Nazis regained control of the ghetto and eliminated the remaining Warsaw Jews. Still, their courage has inspired many over the years.
Warsaw Ghetto, 4:59
In some cases, friends, neighbors, or strangers protected Jews. Italian peasants hid Jews in their villages. Denmark and Bulgaria saved almost all their Jewish populations. Many people, however, pretended not to notice what was happening. Some even became collaborators and cooperated with the Nazi’s. In France, the Vichy government helped ship thousands of Jewish people to their deaths. Strict immigration policies in many Western countries as well as conscious efforts to block Jewish immigration prevented many Jews from gaining refuge elsewhere.
The scale and savagery of the Holocaust are unequaled in history. The Nazis deliberately set out to destroy the Jews for no reason other than their religious and ethnic heritage. Today, the record of that slaughter is a vivid reminder of the monstrous results of racism and intolerance.
Slave Labor in Germany
At the concentration camps, very young children and the elderly were immediately sent to the gas chambers. Older children and young adults were kept for slave labor. The conditions in these labor camps were deplorable including malnutrition, poor protection from the elements, and hard labor. The work that the people at the camps were forced into ranged from electrical work to carrying heavy stones for construction to burying the dead. The laborers were kept in the camps until they reached a point where they could no longer work at which time they were exterminated.
In order to survive these conditions, the young people in the camps formed very close ties with each other. Oftentimes they had become separated from their family members and developed new relationships within their barracks. Despite this tenuous support, all of these children suffered emotionally from the horrible conditions and treatment they endured and witnessed.
People in History
Anne Frank (13 years old when the family enters the Annex)
Why Go Into Hiding? 2:47
Anne Introduces the Secret Annex, 4:29
What was Hitler's vision for the residents of eastern Europe?
Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) became the chief of the SD. His more notorious achievements included the establishment of ghettos in Poland, his leadership of the Einsatzgruppen, and the convening of the Wannsee Convention. His assassination in 1942 caused merciless German reprisals, continuing after his death the terror and intimidation that characterized his life.
The Death Camps
Self-Pronouncing Map of the Nazi Camp System. Click on this interactive map for descriptions and pronunciations of the major camps.
Starting early in 1942, the Jewish genocide (sometimes called the Judeocide) went into full operation. Auschwitz 2 (Birkenau), Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibór began operations as death camps. There was no selection process; Jews were destroyed upon arrival.
Ultimately, the Nazis were responsible for the deaths of some 2.7 million Jews in the death camps. These murders were done secretly under the ruse of resettlement. The Germans hid their true plans from citizens and inhabitants of the ghettos by claiming that Jews were being resettled in the East. They went so far as to charge Jews for a one-way train fare and often, just prior to their murder, had the unknowing victims send reassuring postcards back to the ghettos. Thus did millions of Jews go unwittingly to their deaths with little or no resistance.
The total figure for the Jewish genocide, including shootings and the camps, was between 5.2 and 5.8 million, roughly half of Europe's Jewish population, the highest percentage of loss of any people in the war. About 5 million other victims perished at the hands of Nazi Germany.
The Death Toll
Approximately 11 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy. It was the explicit aim of Hitler's regime to create a European world both dominated and populated by the "Aryan" race. The Nazi machinery was dedicated to eradicating millions of people it deemed undesirable. Some people were undesirable by Nazi standards because of who they were,their genetic or cultural origins, or health conditions. These included Jews, Gypsies, Poles and other Slavs, and people with physical or mental disabilities. Others were Nazi victims because of what they did. These victims of the Nazi regime included Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, the dissenting clergy, Communists, Socialists, a-socials, and other political enemies.
Those believed by Hitler and the Nazis to be enemies of the state were banished to camps. Inside the concentration camps, prisoners were forced to wear various colored triangles, each color denoting a different group. The letters on the triangular badges below designate the prisoners' countries of origin.
Cf. references in: wh.mt.glencoe.com, Student Web Activity
Children in the War
During the Holocaust, children were subjected to many injustices and cruelties. At first, Jewish and Gypsy children were restricted from going to school, and German children were taught that the Jews and Gypsies were racially inferior. One of the methods used to teach Gentile children about this inferiority was to have Jewish children come to the front of the classroom while the teacher pointed out their distinguishing features. Shortly, restrictions were placed on the Jews and later they were forbidden to go to German schools at all.
Interactive Quiz about Children
What was the job of the Einsatzgruppen?
The New Order in Asia
How did the Japanese treat the native people in occupied lands?
Preview: Section 4 The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
Section 4 The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
World War II reached almost every area of the world, and mobilization for war brought widespread suffering and even starvation. The war caused 20 million civilian deaths. The United States, which did not fight the war on its own territory, sent its forces to fight and produced much of the military equipment for the Allies. Segregation in the U.S. military led African Americans to demand civil rights. Racism and suspicion led to the war-time detention of more than 100,000 Japanese Americans. The bombing of cities by the Allied and Axis powers cost thousands of lives, but probably did nothing to weaken the morale of either side. After the war, ideological conflict between the West and the Soviet Union resulted in the Cold War. The Cold War centered around the status of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe.
The Mobilization of Peoples: Four Examples
The Soviet Union
The United States
How did World War II contribute to racial tensions in the United States?
Front line Civilians: The Bombing of Cities
p. 615, "The ferocious bombing of Dresden from February 13 to 15, 1945, created a firestorm that may have killed as many as a hundred thousand inhabitants and refugees. . . . Germany suffered enormously from the Allied bombing raids. Millions of buildings were destroyed, and possibly half a million civilians died."
Bombing of Dresden in World War II, 3:06
Science, Technology & Society, p. 616
"Of the city's [Hiroshima] 350,000 inhabitants, 140,000 had died by the end of 1945. By the end of 1950, another 50,000 had died from the effects of radiation."
Why were civilian populations targeted in bombing raids?
Peace and a New War
The Tehran Conference
The Yalta Conference
The Potsdam Conference
War Crimes Trails
A New Struggle
Why did Stalin want to control Eastern Europe after World War II?
Ch. 19 Resources
Online guide to the Holocaust
Colonel Paul Tibbets describes dropping the A-Bomb on Hiroshima August 6, 1945.
See the war through the eyes of soldiers, secret agents, pilots and evacuees.
Life for children during the war.
Listen to an air raid warning.
The blitz and the home front in the UK.
Churchill and the bombing of Dresden
Audio file of the death dive of a Kamikaze.
London, England during World War II
SONGS OF WORLD WAR TWO: MEDLEY 2, 9:52
p. 628ff, Ch. 20 Cold War and Postwar Changes 1945-1970
Confrontation of the Superpowers
p. 632, The Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine, 2:31
p. 632, The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan, 1:40
p. 635, The Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy addresses the nation on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 3:05
p. 635, Vietnam and the Domino Theory
Domino Theory, Eisenhower to Nixon, 1:11
p. 638, Picturing History, Sputnik
Sputnik beeps overhead, Americans in awe, including a young John Glenn, 3:23
John F. Kennedy's Moon Speech to Congress - May 25, 1961, America on the Moon, July 20, 1969, 1:36
p. 644, Economic Miracles: Germany and Japan
p. 646, Youth Protest in the 1960s, "The Times They Are A-Changin'"
Mario Savio: Sproul Hall Steps, December 2, 1964, 1:26
Campus Unrest in late 1960s & early 1970s at UCLA, Inauguration, Communist professor teaching, Angela Davis, 6:31
p. 646, The United States in the 1960s
p. 646, John F. Kennedy
Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You: the inaugural address of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 5:37
p. 646, The Johnson Administration
McGovern Warns Obama of LBJ Legacy, 3:40
In 1964, President Johnson said of Vietnam that I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think that we can get out. Its just the biggest damn mess I ever saw.'' Yet Johnson escalated the conflict and America became bogged down in Southeast Asia for more than a decade. Former Senator George McGovern recently sat down with ANP and said that President Obama runs the risk, like Johnsons Great Society, of hobbling his ambitious domestic goals if he continues to send troops into Afghanistan.
pp. 647, 651, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream"
I have a Dream Speech, 2:18
p. 648, The Emergence of a New Society
Ch. 21 The Contemporary Western World 1970-Present
p. 656, "Tear Down This Wall"
Ronald Reagan- "Tear Down This Wall," 4:00
p. 661, Revolutions in Eastern Europe
p. 661, Poland, Lech Walesa, Roman Catholic Church
p. 668, The U.S. Domestic Scene
p. 668, Nixon and Watergate
Watergate Scandal, 3:29
p. 669, The Carter Administration
"Crisis of Confidence" Speech July 15, 1979, 2:08
p. 669, The Reagan Revolution
Ronald Reagan 1984 TV Ad: "Its morning in America again," 1:00
Revisiting the Reagan Revolution -- A Book Release Party Featuring Dr. Steven Hayward, 4:08
p. 672, The Growth of Terrorism
p. 672, 9/11
Michael Scheuer on "Inside 9/11," 4:27
p. 675, Popular Culture
p. 675, Elvis, Beatles
Elvis Presley - Sun Records History, 2:08
Sun Studio was opened by rock pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 3, 1950. It was originally called Memphis Recording Service, sharing the same building with the Sun Records label business. Reputedly the first rock-and-roll single, Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' "Rocket 88" was recorded there in 1951 with song composer Ike Turner on keyboards, leading the studio to claim status as the birthplace of rock & roll. Blues and R&B artists like Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Little Milton, B.B. King, James Cotton, Rufus Thomas, and Rosco Gordon recorded there in the early 1950s.
Rock-and-roll, country music, and rockabilly artists, including unknowns recording demos and others like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Charlie Feathers, Ray Harris, Warren Smith, Charlie Rich, and Jerry Lee Lewis, signed to the Sun Records label recorded there throughout the latter 1950s until the studio outgrew its Union Avenue location. Sam Phillips opened the larger Sam C. Phillips Recording Studio, better known as Phillips Recording, in 1959 to take the place of the older facility. Since Sam had invested in the Holiday Inn Hotel chain earlier, he also recorded artist starting in 1963 on the label Holiday Inn Records for Kemmons Wilson.
In 1969, Sam Phillips sold the label to Shelby Singleton, and there was no recording-related or label-related activity again in the building until the September 1985 Class of '55 recording sessions with Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash, produced by Chips Moman.
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