Friday, February 25, 2011

Honors World History II: 25 February 2011

Beyond the Sound Bites (delayed until after the class information):
The Chapter 12 Make-up Test is today.

In a partial translation by the Middle East Media Research Center MEMRI Al-Qaradhawi asked the Egyptian army to open wide the Rafah crossing and to pray for the re-conquest of Jerusalem by the Muslims, so that he and the Muslims could pray at the Al-Aqsa Mosque built over the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. This part of his sermon was cheered and applauded by the crowd.

As previously noted by historian Niall Ferguson, a professor of history at Harvard, Reuters notes that "The Voice of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood" advocates establishing a "United Muslim Nations" as a contemporary form of the caliphate.

Links to MEMRI's extensive research on Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi, the Muslim Brotherhood, and "moderate" Islamic preachers.
MEMRI: Leading Sunni Scholar Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi Issues Fatwa to Army to Kill Libyan Leader Mu'ammar Al-Qadhafi

The Ch. 12 Sec. 4 Quiz Make-up is today.


The Ch. 12 Sec. 3 Quiz Make-up is today.



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ABCya! Cf.




Ch. 14 The Height of Imperialism 1800-1914


By the time the British arrived, India was a rich, industrialized nation that had largely been conquered by Islam (later mostly reverted back to Hinduism).
The Sepoy (from sipahi, soldier in Persian, the official language of the conquering Islamic Mogul Empire, War Made New, Boot, p. 89) Mutiny
The success of the British in India is largely a result of the first Industrial Revolution. "After the Indian [Sepoy] mutiny, one British colonial minister exclaimed, `The telegraph saved India'" (War Made New, Boot, p. 157). Along with impressive advances in transportation, as a result of the laying down of railroad tracks, the British improved their communications which resulted in the quick deployment of troops and the means to understand where they were needed most critically.

In the early 1600s, the British East India Company won trading rights on the fringe of the Mughal (also spelled Mogul) empire. The conquering Mughal/Mogul Empire was a Muslim dynasty founded by Baber that ruled India until 1857. As Mughal power declined, the company’s influence grew.

The transference of India from a Muslim dominated region to a British colony is clear with the onset of the gunpowder revolution (War Made New, Boot, Ch. 3, Flintlocks and Forbearance, pp. 77-102). With the battle of Assaye, "the Maratha Confederacy was the last major power that could challenge the British for mastery of India" (War Made New, Boot, p. 78). Nonetheless, if all the assembled forces, both in manpower and in artillery--Maratha vs. British were taken into account--the British were outnumbered 10-1.
Major General Wellesley (mounted) commanding his troops at the Battle of Assaye (J.C. Stadler after W.Heath); this is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.

A map of the engagement at Assaye on 24th September 1803.

Empire Total War: The Battle of Assaye (soundtrack version 1) by crisfire, 9:06
Warning: this video contains simulated violence; do not view if you object.

The Maratha and British armies meet between the river Juah and the river Kaitna. British casualties mount as the Maratha artillery turns its attention to the infantry. The future Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley decides the only way to get his men off the killing fields is to march into the mouth of the artillery barrage. Wellesley orders his cannons abandoned and bayonets fixed.

The British though held the advantage in leadership, a young major general named Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, and eventual victor at the Battle of Waterloo over Napoleon, commanded the troops. The British, though greatly outnumbered brought superior tactics and discipline to the fight.

Wellesley outflanked his Maratha opponents (War Made New, Boot, p. 96) while his orderly had his head blown off in the maneuver. Wellesley formed his infantry into two mile long parallel front lines while holding his cavalry in a third reserve line. The British charged straight at the Marathas and fighting was brutal but largely over by nightfall at 6 p.m. The British were victorious but too exhausted and with heavy losses could not pursue the fleeing Marathas. The overall British loss was estimated at 35% (War Made New, Boot, p. 99).

The battle had been won by Wellesley with a heavy cost and he needed to pursue the Marathas for an additional three months to finish the job. For his efforts at quadrupling the British holdings in India Wellesley was awarded knighthood War Made New, Boot, pp. 98-99).

By the mid-1800s, the British East India Company controlled three fifths of India.

Exploiting Indian Diversity

The British were able to conquer India by exploiting its diversity. Even when Mughal power was at its height, India was home to many people and cultures. As Mughal power crumbled, India became fragmented. Indians with different traditions and dozens of different languages were not able to unite against the newcomers. The British took advantage of Indian divisions by encouraging competition and disunity among rival princes. Where diplomacy or intrigue did not work, the British used their superior tactics, discipline, and weapons to overpower local rulers.

Why the Marathas Could Not Win

The British had mastered the gunpowder revolution while the Marathas had attempted it and found wanting (War Made New, Boot, p. 99). The Marathas had not updated their hit-and-run tactics with disciplined and sustained headlong infantry charges as the British had. The separate Indian chiefs issued contradictory orders while Wellesley commanded the entire British effort. The intellectual freedom and scientific pursuit of truth in battle was unknown to the tribal Marathas. Political liberalism was unknown and viewed as a threat to traditional, tribal structures in India; this proved to be their undoing (War Made New, Boot, pp. 101-102).

Implementing British Policies

The East India Company’s main goal in India was to make money, and leading officials often grew rich. At the same time, the company did work to improve roads, preserve peace, and reduce banditry.
1st - 8th

The Sepoy Rebellion

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2441

By the early 1800s, British officials introduced Western education and legal procedures. Missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity, which they felt was superior to Indian religions. The British also pressed for social change. They worked to end slavery and the caste system and to improve the position of women within the family. One law banned sati (suh tee), a Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes. It called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire.

Growing Discontent

In the 1850s, the East India Company made several unpopular moves. First, it required sepoys (see poyz), or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas. For high-caste Hindus, however, overseas travel was an offense against their religion (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 73). Second, the East India Company passed a law that allowed Hindu widows to remarry. Hindus viewed both moves as a Christian conspiracy to undermine their beliefs (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 75).

Then, in 1857, the Bengal Army rebelled for a variety of reasons but one particularly troublesome point was the introduction of a new gun using animal fat that offended both Muslims and Hindus. Indian officers sentenced the rebels to ten years of hard labor (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 71).
The British East India Company had decided to equip the sepoys "with the new Enfield rifle in place of the smooth-bored `Brown Bess' musket" (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, pp. 71-72).
1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket

The musketry books also recommended that “Whenever the grease around the bullet appears to be melted away, or otherwise removed from the cartridge, the sides of the bullet should be wetted in the mouth before putting it into the barrel; the saliva will serve the purpose of grease for the time being" (Cf. Instruction of Musketry, 1856).

This image is a work of the Smithsonian Institution, taken or made during the course of an employee's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.
"The rifle barrel of the new weapon required the cartridges to be greased so that the bullet that was placed in the base of each cartridge could be rammed home easily" (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 72). Troops were told to bite off the tips of cartridges before loading them into the rifles. The cartridges, however, were greased with animal fat—either from cows, which Hindus considered sacred, or from pigs, which were forbidden to Muslims (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 72). When the troops refused the order to “load rifles,” they were imprisoned.

Rebellion and Aftermath

Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers. The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northern and central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi, the old Mughal capital. There, they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader.

In some places, the sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. But the British soon rallied and crushed the revolt. They then took terrible revenge for their earlier losses, torching villages and slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.

The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides. It also brought major changes in British policy. In 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East India Company and put India directly under the British crown. It sent more troops to India, taxing Indians to pay the cost of these occupying forces. While it slowed the “reforms” that had angered Hindus and Muslims, it continued to develop India for Britain’s own economic benefit.


What were the causes of the Sepoy Rebellion in northern and central India?

Colonial Rule

Benefits of British Rule

Costs of British Rule

After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India called the British Raj. A British viceroy in India governed in the name of the queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army. Indians filled most other jobs. With their cooperation, the British made India the “brightest jewel” in the crown of their empire.

British policies were designed to incorporate India into the overall British economy. At the same time, British officials felt they were helping India to modernize. In their terms, modernizing meant adopting not only Western technology but also Western culture.

An Unequal Partnership

Britain saw India both as a market and as a source of raw materials. To this end, the British built roads and an impressive railroad network. Improved transportation let the British sell their factory-made goods across the subcontinent and carry Indian cotton, jute, and coal to coastal ports for transport to factories in England. New methods of communication, such as the telegraph, also gave Britain better control of India. After the Suez Canal opened in 1869, British trade with India soared. But it remained an unequal partnership, favoring the British. The British flooded India with inexpensive, machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.

Britain also transformed Indian agriculture. It encouraged nomadic herders to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops, such as cotton and jute, that could be sold on the world market. Clearing new farmlands led to massive deforestation, or cutting of trees.

Population Growth and Famine

The British introduced medical improvements and new farming methods. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. The rising numbers, however, put a strain on the food supply, especially as farmland was turned over to growing cash crops instead of food. In the late 1800s, terrible famines swept India.

On the positive side, British rule brought some degree of peace and order to the countryside. The British revised the legal system to promote justice for Indians regardless of class or caste. Railroads helped Indians move around the country, while the telegraph and postal system improved communication. Greater contact helped bridge regional differences and develop a sense of national unity.

The upper classes, especially, benefited from some British policies. They sent their sons to British schools, where they were trained for posts in the civil service and military. Indian landowners and princes, who still ruled their own territories, grew rich from exporting cash crops.


How did British colonial rule affect Indian agriculture?

An Indian Nationalist Movement

During the years of British rule, a class of Western-educated Indians emerged. In the view of Macaulay and others, this elite class would bolster British power. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, Western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. Schooled in Western ideals such as democracy and equality, they dreamed of ending imperial rule.

Indian National Congress

In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress, which became known as the Congress party. Its members believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends. They called for greater democracy, which they felt would bring more power to Indians like themselves. The Indian National Congress looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization.

Muslim League

At first, Muslims and Hindus worked together for self-rule. In time, however, Muslims grew to resent Hindu domination of the Congress party. They also worried that a Hindu-run government would oppress Muslims. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals. Soon, they were talking of a separate Muslim state.


How are the origins of Indian nationalism linked to British rule?

Colonial Indian Culture
Section 4 Nation Building in Latin America

After the Napoleonic Wars, Spanish and Portuguese authority in Latin America became weak. A slave revolt in Hispaniola was the first of many successful bids for independence. Many Europeans favored the restoration of Spanish control, but the American Monroe Doctrine and British naval power discouraged European intervention. Caudillos, or strong leaders backed by military force, took power throughout Latin America. American settlers in the Mexican state of Texas gained independence and, later, American statehood. Great Britain, and later the United States, became the dominant foreign power. In the Spanish-American War, the United States gained control of Cuba and Puerto Rico. American investment and military intervention in Latin America grew. Revolution in Mexico produced a new reformist constitution. However, the new professional sector in Latin American society was generally conservative and allied itself with landholding elites.

European Colonies in Latin America


Nationalist Revolts

Prelude to Revolution

In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following.

Reading Check


How did Napoleon's wars affect Latin America?

Revolt in Mexico

Revolts in South America

In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following.

Reading Check


How did the French Revolution affect Mexico?

Difficulties of Nation Building

Rule of the Caudillos

A New Imperialism

Persistent Inequality

In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following.

Reading Check


What were some of the difficulties faced by the new Latin American republics?

The United States in Latin America

Revolution in Mexico

In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following.

Reading Check


What was the United States' role as a colonial power?

Economic Change in Latin America

In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the following.

Reading Check


What caused the growth of a middle class in Latin America?
Chapter 15 East Asia Under Challenge 1800-1914

Section 1 The Decline of the Qing Dynasty

Causes of Decline
By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang valley. The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created hardship for China’s peasants. An extravagant imperial court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. As poverty and misery increased, peasants rebelled. The Taiping Rebellion (ty ping), which lasted from 1850 to 1864, was probably the most devastating peasant revolt in history. The leader, Hong Xiuquan (hong shyoo chwahn), called for an end to the hated Qing dynasty. The Taiping rebels won control of large parts of China and held out for 14 years. However, with the help of loyal regional governors and generals, the government crushed the rebellion.

Reading Check


What factors led to the decline of the Qing dynasty?

The Opium War

Reading Check


What did the British do to adjust their trade imbalance with China?

The Tai Ping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion almost toppled the Qing dynasty. It is estimated to have caused the deaths of between 20 million and 30 million Chinese. The Qing government survived, but it had to share power with regional commanders. During the rebellion, Europeans kept up pressure on China, and Russia seized lands in the north.

Reading Check


What social reforms did the Tai Ping Rebellion demand?

Imperialism in China

For: Audio Guided Tour
Web Code: nap-2451

Efforts at Reform
By the mid-1800s, educated Chinese were divided over the need to adopt Western ways. Most saw no reason for new industries because China’s wealth and taxes came from land. Although Chinese merchants were allowed to do business, they were not seen as a source of prosperity.

Scholar-officials also disapproved of the ideas of Western missionaries, whose emphasis on individual choice challenged the Confucian order. They saw Western technology as dangerous, too, because it threatened Confucian ways that had served China successfully for so long.

By the late 1800s, the empress Ci Xi (tsih shih) had gained power. A strong-willed ruler, she surrounded herself with advisors who were deeply committed to Confucian traditions.

Reading Check


What was China's policy of "self-strengthening?"?

In the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement.” They imported Western technology, setting up factories to make modern weapons. They developed shipyards, railroads, mining, and light industry. The Chinese translated Western works on science, government, and the economy. However, the movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it.

The Advance of Imperialism

Mounting Pressures

Internal Crisis

Reading Check


What countries claimed Chinese lands between 1880 and 1900?1880 and 1900? Cf. Browse a photo archive of China during the 1890s.

Opening the Door to China

Meanwhile, the Western powers and nearby Japan moved rapidly ahead. Japan began to modernize after 1868. It then joined the Western imperialists in the competition for a global empire.

In 1894, Japanese pressure on China led to the Sino-Japanese War. It ended in disaster for China, with Japan gaining the island of Taiwan.

Carving Spheres of Influence

The crushing defeat revealed China’s weakness. Western powers moved swiftly to carve out spheres of influence along the Chinese coast. The British took the Chang River valley. The French acquired the territory near their colony of Indochina. Germany and Russia gained territory in northern China.

The United States, a longtime trader with the Chinese, did not take part in the carving up of China. It feared that European powers might shut out American merchants. A few years later, in 1899, it called for a policy to keep Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis. The imperial powers accepted the idea of an Open Door Policy, as it came to be called. No one, however, consulted the Chinese.

Reading Check


Why did the United States want an Open Door policy in China?

The Boxer Rebellion

Anti-foreign feeling finally exploded in the Boxer Uprising. In 1899, a group of Chinese had formed a secret society, the Righteous Harmonious Fists. Westerners watching them train in the martial arts dubbed them Boxers. Their goal was to drive out the “foreign devils” who were polluting the land with their un-Chinese ways, strange buildings, machines, and telegraph lines.

In 1900, the Boxers attacked foreigners across China. In response, the Western powers and Japan organized a multinational force. This force crushed the Boxers and rescued foreigners besieged in Beijing. The empress Ci Xi (tsih shih) had at first supported the Boxers but reversed her policy as they retreated.

Reading Check


How did the Boxers get their name?
Section 2 Revolution in China

The Fall of the Qing

The Rise of Sun Yat-sen
Although the Boxer Uprising failed, the flames of Chinese nationalism spread. Reformers wanted to strengthen China’s government. By the early 1900s, they had introduced a constitutional monarchy. Some reformers called for a republic.

A passionate spokesman for a Chinese republic was Sun Yixian (soon yee shyahn), also known as Sun Yat-sen. In the early 1900s, he organized the Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People.” The first principle was nationalism, or freeing China from foreign domination. The second was democracy, or representative government. The third was livelihood, or economic security for all Chinese.

The Revolution of 1911

When Ci Xi (tsih shih) died in 1908 and a two-year-old boy inherited the throne, China slipped into chaos.

The Last Emperor - Trailer

In 1911, uprisings in the provinces swiftly spread. Peasants, students, local warlords, and even court politicians helped topple the Qing dynasty.

In December 1911, Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) was named president of the new Chinese republic. The republic faced overwhelming problems and was almost constantly at war with itself or foreign invaders.

Reading Check


What changes did the Revolution of 1911 actually produce in China?

An Era of Civil War

Reading Check


Why were there rebellions in China after General Yuan Shigai became president?

Chinese Society in Transition

Reading Check


How did the arrival of Westerners affect China?

China's Changing Culture

Reading Check


What effects did Western culture have on China?

Section 3 Rise of Modern Japan
Brady, Mathew
Portrait of Perry (detail)
ca. 1854 Graphic source: Library of Congress
Very common views of Perry were prints and paintings that rendered Perry and his fellow Americans conspicuously hirsute. In several such portraits, we find him paired with Commander Henry A. Adams, his second-in-command.

Adams (left) and Perry

Graphic source: Ryosenji Treasure Museum
Examine samurai objects
Black Ships and Samurai. Comodore Perry and the Opening of Japan
Take a tour of the Japanese city of Edo

Interactive tour of Osaka Castle

Zoom in on a painting of the siege of the castle

Find out more about Hideyoshi.

Timeline of Japanese history
This is the trailer for what is acclaimed as one of the greatest films ever made, Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai. Warning: Language, do not view if you are offended by a bit more than PG-13 language.

Kurosawa's film was the inspiration for a classic Western: "The Magnificent 7" (1960), 3:10.

Film trailer for this classic Western starring Yul Brynner, Steve McQueen, James Coburn, Robert Vaughn, Charles Bronson, Horst Buchholz, Brad Dexter and Eli Wallach.

These scenes from a History Channel documentary provides basic information on Japanese history and culture, particularly the importance of bushido, 7:21.
An End to Isolation

Reading Check


What benefits did the Treaty of Kanagawa grant the United States?

Resistance to the New Order

Reading Check


What events led to the collapse of the shogunate system in Japan?

The Meiji Restoration

Transformation of Japanese Politics

Meiji Economics

Building a Modern Social Structure

Daily Life and Women's Rights

Reading Check


How was Japan's government structured under the Meiji constitution?

Joining the Imperialist Nations

Beginnings of Expansion

War with Russia

U.S. Relations

Reading Check


Why did Japan turn itself into an imperialist power?

Culture in an Era of Transition

Reading Check


What effect did Japanese culture have on other nations?

Ch. 14 Resources
Examine samurai objects
Black Ships and Samurai. Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan
Take a virtual tour of the Forbidden City.

Fascinating facts about the Forbidden City.

Timeline of China's dynasties.

Timeline of Chinese dynasties.
Interactive time line of 20th century China
Examine samurai objects
Take a tour of the Japanese city of Edo

Interactive tour of Osaka Castle

Zoom in on a painting of the siege of the castle

Find out more about Hideyoshi.

Timeline of Japanese history
The Clash, performing their song, "The Magnificent Seven," live on the Tom Synder Show 1981; this is the first public performance of the song, 5:00.

"The Magnificent Seven" is a song and single by the English punk rock band The Clash. It was the third single from their fourth album Sandinista!. It reached number 34 on the UK singles chart.

The song was inspired by raps by old school hip hop acts from New York City, like the Sugarhill Gang and Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five. Rap was still a new and emerging music genre at the time and the band, especially Mick Jones, was very impressed with it, so much so that Jones took to carrying a boombox around and got the nickname 'Whack Attack'. The song was recorded in April 1980 at Electric Lady Studios in New York City, built around a bass loop played by Norman Watt-Roy of the Blockheads. Joe Strummer wrote the words on the spot, a technique that was also used to create Sandinista!'s other rap track, "Lightning Strikes (Not Once But Twice)". "The Magnificent Seven" represents the first attempt by a rock band to write and perform original rap music, and one of the earliest examples of hip hop records with political and social content. It is the first major white rap record, predating the recording of Blondie's "Rapture" by six months.

The song is viewed as a critique of excessive consumption which includes a nod to the inexpensive goods produced in Asia.

Thematically, "The Magnificent Seven" is somewhat similar to the punkier "Career Opportunities", in that it takes the drudgery of the working life as its starting point. Unlike "Career Opportunities", however, in stream of consciousness fashion it also deals with consumerism, popular media, historical figures, and addresses these subjects with great exuberance and humor. The first verses of "The Magnificent Seven" follow a nameless worker (narrated in the second person) as he wakes up and goes to work, not for personal advancement but to buy his girlfriend consumer goods:

Working for a rise to better my station / Take my baby to sophistication / She's seen the ads, she thinks it's nice / Better work hard, I seen the price

The nameless worker then goes off for a cheeseburger lunch-break, and the lyrics devolve into a blur of fleeting images from television, movies and advertising:

Italian mobster shoots a lobster / Seafood restaurant gets out of hand / A car in the fridge or a fridge in the car? / Like cowboys do in TV land!

Finally, the song takes historical figures, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi, Richard Nixon and Socrates, and places them in modern America, before asking sarcastically whether "Plato the Greek" or Rin Tin Tin is more famous to the masses.

An exclaimed "newsflash" near the end of the song, "Vacuum Cleaner Sucks Up Budgie!", was in fact a headline in the News of the World newspaper at the time of the song's mixing in England, according to Joe Strummer.

Gimme Honda, Gimme Sony
So cheap and real phony
Hong Kong dollars and Indian cents
English pounds and Eskimo pence. . . .
Karlo Marx and Friedrich Engels
Came to the checkout at the 7-11
Marx was skint - but he had sense
Engels lent him the necessary pence

What have we got? Yeh-o, magnificence!!

Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi
Went to the park to check on the game
But they was murdered by the other team
Who went on to win 50-nil
You can be true, you can be false
You be given the same reward
Socrates and Milhous Nixon
Both went the same way - through the kitchen
Plato the Greek or Rin Tin Tin
Who's more famous to the billion millions?
News Flash: Vacuum Cleaner Sucks Up Budgie
Lyrics reproduced here for educational purposes only; copyright remains in the hands of the copyright holder.


Self-check Quiz on Chapter

Vocabulary eFlashcards

Academic Vocabulary


Content Vocabulary

People, Places and Events

President Roosevelt on being an American, 1:52

Rockwell, Somebody's Watching Me, 3:37

HW: email (or hard copy) me at

Friday HW
1. p. 447 Answer ONE of three questions (your pick)

Honors Business Economics: 25 February 2011

Beyond the Sound Bites (if time after the Test):
You are taking a new version of the Chapter 5 Test today.
This is a Short Answers/Essays type of Test; we may not have time to take the scheduled Ch. Sec. 1 Quiz, if not, we will re-schedule the Quiz for Monday.

Clear your desk except for a pencil. Once everyone is quiet, and no talking during the Test, we can begin. Be sure to put your name on the Test.

You may answer on the Test itself.

If you finish early, you may take out non-class materials; once everyone is finished, put away the non-class materials. Then, I will collect the Test.

Be sure your name is on the Test.

If your name is not on the Test it will not be returned.

A recent Economic Report with Greg Gumbel featured a spotlight on Mr. Clean Car Wash. With 15 locations (and counting) in Georgia and Ohio, this concept from the Procter & Gamble family of companies is now franchising across the country. Visit for more information.

The Chapter 6 Section 1 Quiz Prep Page is available for Friday.

The Ch. 5 Sec. 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

The Ch. 5 Sec. 2 Make-up Quiz is today.

The Ch. 5 Sec. 1 Quiz Make-up is today.

Skip #16 and #35; do not answer on the Test.

The Chapter 4 Test Make-up is today.


The Ch. 4 Sec. 3 Quiz Make-up is today.

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Chapter 8: Employment, Labor, and Wages

Chapter 8 - The American Labor Force


Section 1: The Labor Movement

A description is given of the growth of the labor movement from its roots in craft unions to industrial unions. Organized labor was generally unpopular until the Great Depression, but labor made great strides during the 1930s and did not lose public favor again until after the end of World War II when the Taft-Hartley Act was passed in 1947. During early development of union, the two types of unions are the craft or trade union and the industrial union, and their actions consisted of striking, picketing, and boycotting. In today’s society, the union arrangements consist of closed shop, union, shop, modified union shop, and agency shop.

Student Web Activity

"Labor Unions and the AFL-CIO"

The American Federation of Labor (AFL) began in 1886 as an organization of craft unions. Later, it added several industrial unions. The trade and industrial unions did not always agree over the future of the union movement. Consequently, eight of the AFL industrial unions formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) in 1935. In 1955, after almost twenty years of disagreement, the AFL and CIO finally settled most of their differences and joined to form the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). In this activity you will learn more about the AFL-CIO and its role in our modern economy.

Destination Title: AFL-CIO

Start at the AFL-CIO home page.

* Click on "About Us" for information about this labor organization
* Browse through the various categories and then answer the following questions.

1. What are the goals described in the AFL-CIO's mission statement?

2. What are some of the accomplishments of the AFL-CIO?

3. Select the "Union facts" link and read through the text on the page. What reasons are given for why people join unions?

4. Next, select the link "State and Local Union Movements" from the menu on the left. Select your state from the map. List at least two labor councils active in your state.

Section 1 The Labor Movement

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary

craft union

trade union

industrial union





company union

Great Depression

right-to-work law

Right to Work - Real Facts About Right to Work Laws, 4:00

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.

What is a right to work state?
What does it allow?
Does it undermine unions?
Are wages lower in right to work states?
Is there less health care available in those states?
In a strong union state, such as Michigan, do the professors advocate unions?

independent union

closed shop

union shop

modified union shop

agency shop

civilian labor force

Chapter 8, Section 1 - Reading Strategy

In-class assignment: with a partner, fill in the graphic organizer.

Note major events in the history of the U.S. labor movement by completing the time line.

Issues in the News

Restaurant Fined Over Youth Program

Colonial Times to the 1930sLabor Since the 1930sOrganized Labor Today

In-class assignment: with a partner, fill in the graphic organizer.

Chapter 8, Section 1 - Review

Use the graphic organizer to describe the different types of union arrangements.

Profiles in Economics

Cesar Chavez

Cesar Chavez: Embrace the Legacy, 5:21

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.

Section 2: Wages and Labor Disputes

Different occupations and levels of training are rewarded with different wages. Economists divide labor into four non-competing labor grades based on a worker's education, training, and skills. These categories include unskilled labor, semiskilled labor, skilled labor, and professional labor. In addition, there are many negotiation methods: collective bargaining, mediation, arbitration, fact-finding, injunction, and seizure. Finally, the president may intervene in a labor-management dispute.

Figure 8.5 Market Theory of Wage Determination, p. 209


Chapter 8, Section 2 - Reading Strategy

In-class assignment: with a partner, fill in the graphic organizer.
Complete the graphic organizer that describes the different ways labor disputes are resolved.


Chapter 8, Section 2 - Review

In-class assignment: with a partner, fill in the graphic organizer.

Describe the four approaches to wage determination.

Section 3: Employment Trends and Issues

There are several trends and issues in today's economy. The first is the continuing decline of union membership and influence since the end of World War II. The second is the income gap between men and women, and policies such as set-aside contracts, which are designed to remedy it. The last is the issue of the minimum wage, which is measured in current dollars, inflation-adjusted dollars, and as a percent of the average manufacturing wage.

Chapter 8, Section 3 - Reading Strategy

In-class assignment: with a partner, fill in the graphic organizer.

Explain why women face an income gap.


Chapter 8, Section 3 - Review

In-class assignment: with a partner, fill in the graphic organizer.

List three ways firms renegotiate union contracts.


Chapter 8 Crossword Puzzle


Vocabulary Flashcard


Self-check Quiz


Ch. 6 Prep

Chapter 6: Prices and Decision Making
Multiple Choice Quiz


ePuzzle Concentration


Academic, Glossary, People/Places/Events


Chapter 7 Resources



Unit 3: Economic Institutions and Issues

Chapters 8-11


Deadline for Action: Labor Unions & Corporate Influence on the U.S. Congress (1/3) (1946), 10:08

John Llewellyn Lewis (1880--1969) was the autocratic president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960, and the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Using UMW organizers the new CIO established the United Steel Workers of America (USWA) and organized millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. A powerful speaker and strategist, Lewis did not hesitate to shut down coal production—the nation's main energy and heating source—to achieve his goals.

Lewis threw his support behind Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) at the outset of the New Deal. After the passage of the Wagner Act in 1935, Lewis traded on the tremendous appeal that Roosevelt had with workers in those days, sending organizers into the coal fields to tell workers that "The President wants you to join the Union." His UMW was one of FDR's main financial supporters in 1936, contributing over $500,000.

Lewis expanded his base by organizing the so-called "captive mines," those held by the steel producers such as U.S. Steel. That required in turn organizing the steel industry, which had defeated union organizing drives in 1892 and 1919 and which had resisted all organizing efforts since then fiercely. The task of organizing steelworkers, on the other hand, put Lewis at odds with the AFL, which looked down on both industrial workers and the industrial unions that represented all workers in a particular industry, rather than just those in a particular skilled trade or craft.

Lewis was the first president of the Committee of Industrial Organizations. Lewis, in fact, was the CIO: his UMWA provided the great bulk of the financial resources that the CIO poured into organizing drives by the United Automobile Workers (UAW), the USWA, the Textile Workers Union and other newly formed or struggling unions. Lewis hired back many of the people he had exiled from the UMWA in the 1920s to lead the CIO and placed his protégé Philip Murray at the head of the Steel Workers Organizing Committee. Lewis played the leading role in the negotiations that led to the successful conclusion of the Flint sit-down strike conducted by the UAW in 1936-1937 and in the Chrysler sit-down strike that followed.

The CIO's actual membership (as opposed to publicity figures) was 2,850,000 for February 1942. This included 537,000 members of the UAW, just under 500,000 Steel Workers, almost 300,000 members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, about 180,000 Electrical Workers, and about 100,000 Rubber Workers. The CIO also included 550,000 members of the United Mine Workers, which did not formally withdraw from the CIO until later in the year. The remaining membership of 700,000 was scattered among thirty-odd smaller unions. (Galenson, p. 585)

The war mobilization dramatically expanded union membership, from 8.7 million in 1940 to over 14.3 million in 1945, about 36% of the work force. For the first time large numbers of women factory workers were enrolled. Both the AFL and CIO supported Roosevelt in 1940 and 1944, with 75% or more of their votes, millions of dollars, and tens of thousands of precinct workers. However, Lewis opposed Roosevelt on foreign policy grounds in 1940. He took the Mine Workers out of the CIO and rejoined the AFL. All labor unions strongly supported the war effort after June 1941 (when Germany invaded the Soviet Union). Left-wing activists crushed wildcat strikes. Nonetheless, Lewis realized that he had enormous leverage. In 1943, the middle of the war, when the rest of labor was observing a policy against strikes, Lewis led the miners out on a twelve-day strike for higher wages; the depth of public dismay—even hatred—of Lewis was palpable. In November 1943 the Fortune poll asked, "Are there any prominent individuals in this country who you feel might be harmful to the future of the country unless they are curbed?" 36% spontaneously named Lewis. (Next came 3% who named Roosevelt.) As a result the Conservative coalition in Congress was able to pass anti-union legislation, leading to the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947.

American Free Enterprise System: Your Town - A Story of America (1940), 10:57

Santana - Oye Como Va - Tanglewood - 1970/08/18, 4:38

Carlos Santana - guitar, vocals
Gregg Rolie - keyboards, piano, lead vocals
Neal Schon - guitar
David Brown - bass
Michael Shrieve - drums
Jose Chepito Areas - percussion, conga, timbales
Mike Carabello - percussion, conga, vocals
Thomas Coke Escovedo - percussion

The original Santana line-up and at this concert is the same one that plays on the first two albums ("Santana" and "Abraxas").

Email (or hand in hard copy) to

Friday HW
1. p. 189, #4