Friday, May 07, 2010

AP Economics: Preliminary Analysis Results, Ch. 22 Mult. Choice Test

Ch. 22 Mult. Choice
Number of Grades 10
Range of Grades (42% - 92%)
Mean 63%
Median 67%
Mode 42%
Grade Distribution by Grouping

0 - 9
10 - 19
20 - 29
30 - 39
40 - 49 (2)
50 - 59 (3)
60 - 69 (1)
70 - 79 (2)
80 - 89 (1)
90 - 99 (1)
Grade Distribution of each Grade

42 (1)
48 (1)
50 (1)
54 (1)
56 (1)
64 (1)
70 (1)
74 (1)
80 (1)
92 (1)

WH II Honors: 7 April 2010

Current Events:

Students Kicked Off Campus for Wearing American Flag

Freedom of expression or cultural disrespect on Cinco de Mayo?


View more news videos at:

The kids were reprimanded by the Vice Principal for wearing patriotic garb on Cinco de Mayo, a minor holiday hardly celebrated in Mexico.

"The district does not concur with the Live Oak High School administration's interpretation of either board or district policy related to these actions," said Dr. Jay Totter of the district stated.

Immigration policy can be restrictive, one country requires people to:

Have the means to sustain themselves economically;
Not be burdens on society;
Be of economic and social benefit to society;
Be of good character and have no criminal records; and
Contribute to the general well being of the nation.

Authorities have a record of each foreign visitor;
Foreign visitors do not violate their visa status;
Foreign visitors are banned from interfering in the country’s internal politics;
Foreign visitors who enter under false pretenses are imprisoned or deported;
Foreign visitors violating the terms of their entry are imprisoned or deported;
Those who aid in illegal immigration will be sent to prison.
Welcomes only foreigners who will be useful to society:

Foreigners are admitted into the country “according to their possibilities of contributing to national progress.” (Article 32)

Immigration officials must ‘ensure’ that ‘immigrants will be useful elements for the country and that they have the necessary funds for their sustenance’ and for their dependents. (Article 34)

Foreigners may be barred from the country if their presence upsets ‘the equilibrium of the national demographics,’ when foreigners are deemed detrimental to ‘economic or national interests,’ when they do not behave like good citizens in their own country, when they have broken [national] laws, and when ‘they are not found to be physically or mentally healthy.’ (Article 37)

The Secretary of Governance may ‘suspend or prohibit the admission of foreigners when he determines it to be in the national interest.’ (Article 38)

Authorities must keep track of every single person in the country:

Federal, local and municipal police must cooperate with federal immigration authorities upon request, i.e., to assist in the arrests of illegal immigrants. (Article 73)

A National Population Registry keeps track of ‘every single individual who comprises the population of the country,’ and verifies each individual’s identity. (Articles 85 and 86)

A national Catalog of Foreigners tracks foreign tourists and immigrants (Article 87), and assigns each individual with a unique tracking number (Article 91).

Foreigners with fake papers, or who enter the country under false pretenses, may be imprisoned:

Foreigners with fake immigration papers may be fined or imprisoned. (Article 116)

Foreigners who sign government documents ‘with a signature that is false or different from that which he normally uses’ are subject to fine and imprisonment. (Article 116)

Foreigners who fail to obey the rules will be fined, deported, and/or imprisoned as felons:

Foreigners who fail to obey a deportation order are to be punished. (Article 117)

Foreigners who are deported from the country and attempt to re-enter the country without authorization can be imprisoned for up to 10 years. (Article 118)

Foreigners who violate the terms of their visa may be sentenced to up to six years in prison (Articles 119, 120 and 121). Foreigners who misrepresent the terms of their visa while in the country – such as working with out a permit – can also be imprisoned.

Under the law, illegal immigration is a felony. The General Law on Population says,
A penalty of up to two years in prison and a fine of three hundred to five thousand pesos will be imposed on the foreigner who enters the country illegally. (Article 123)

Foreigners with legal immigration problems may be deported from the country instead of being imprisoned. (Article 125)

Foreigners who ‘attempt against national sovereignty or security’ will be deported. (Article 126)

Those who help illegal aliens enter the country are themselves considered criminals under the law.

A person who marries a foreigner with the sole objective of helping the foreigner live in the country is subject to up to five years in prison. (Article 127)

Shipping and airline companies that bring undocumented foreigners into the country will be fined. (Article 132)”

These are the provisions not from the Arizona law but are current Mexican law.

Excerpts courtesy of J. Michael Waller, V.P. Information Operations at the Center for Security Policy.

The recent controversy about the Southern border began after Arizona passed a recent immigration bill. Despite the controversy that erupted, Section II of the new law, partially authored by Kris Kobach, constitutional law professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, stated that a law enforcement officer:

“may not consider race, color, or national origin” in making any stops or determining any aliens’ immigration status. The law can only apply after "lawful contact" in the performance of police duties. The Arizona bill mirrors existing federal statute. Every non-citizen in the United States has been required to carry citizen documentation since Congress passed the Alien Registration Act in 1940.

Chapter 18: Nationalism Around the World, 1919–1939

Section 3 Revolutionary Chaos in China
The Appeal of Marxism

Nationalists and Communists

Comparing Viewpoints

Who Should Lead the New China?

One Strong Leader

—Jiang Jieshi, 1933

Peasant Masses

—Mao Zedong, 1927

Mao Zedong and the Communists

The Communists in Hiding

The Long March

During the march, the Communists enforced strict discipline. Soldiers were told to treat peasants politely, pay for goods they wanted, and avoid damaging crops. Such behavior made Mao’s forces welcome among peasants, many of whom had suffered greatly at the hands of the Guomindang.

Civil War in China, 1927–1936


Primary Source
One of the most dramatic events in the conflict between the Guomindang and the Communists was the epic retreat known as the Long March. During the Long March, Mao and about 100,000 of his followers fled the Guomindang. In the next year, they trekked more than 6,000 miles, facing daily attacks as they crossed rugged mountains and mighty rivers. Only about 8,000 marchers survived the ordeal. For decades, the Long March stood as a symbol of communist heroism and inspired new recruits to follow Mao. He claimed the great retreat as a victory. As he observed:

Primary Source
“The Long March is also a seeding-machine. It has sown many seeds in eleven provinces, which will sprout, grow leaves, blossom into flowers, bear fruit, and yield a crop.”

—Mao Zedong, “On the Tactics of Fighting Japanese Imperialism”

Reading Check


Why did it seem that communism was no longer a threat to China after the Long March?

The New China of Chiang Kai-shek

Having gained control of China, Chiang Kai-shek's party remained surrounded by "surrendered" warlords who remained relatively autonomous within their own regions. On October 10, 1928, Chiang was named director of the State Council, the equivalent to President of the country, in addition to his other titles. As with his predecessor Sun Yat-sen, the Western media dubbed him "Generalissimo". According to Sun Yat-sen's plans, the Kuomintang was to rebuild China in three steps: military rule, political tutelage, and constitutional rule. The ultimate goal of the Kuomintang revolution was democracy, which was not yet feasible in China's fragmented state. Since the Kuomintang had completed the first step of revolution through seizure of power in 1928, Chiang's rule thus began a period of what his party considered to be "political tutelage" in Sun Yat-sen's name. During this so-called Republican Era, many features of a modern, functional Chinese state emerged and developed.

The decade 1928 to 1937 saw some aspects of foreign imperialism, concessions and privileges in China moderated through diplomacy. The government acted to modernize the legal and penal systems, attempted to stabilize prices, amortize debts, reform the banking and currency systems, build railroads and highways, improve public health facilities, legislate against traffic in narcotics, and augment industrial and agricultural production - though not all were successful or completed. Strides were made towards furthering education standards and, in an effort to unify Chinese society, the so-called New Life Movement was launched to enforce Confucian moral values and personal discipline. Standard Mandarin, then known as Guoyu, was promoted as an standard tongue, and the establishment of communications facilities (including radio) were used to encourage a sense of Chinese Nationalism that was not always possible due to the nation's fractured status.

Any successes that the Nationalists did make, however, were met with constant political and military upheavals. While much of the urban areas were now under the control of the KMT, the countryside remained under the influence of weakened yet undefeated warlords and Communists. Chiang often resolved issues of warlord obstinacy through military action, with one northern rebellion – against the warlords Yen Hsi-shan and Feng Yuxiang – occurring in 1930 during the Central Plains War. The war almost bankrupted the government and caused almost 250,000 casualties on both sides. In 1931 Hu Han-min, Chiang's old supporter, publicly voiced a popular concern that Chiang Kai-shek's position as both premier and president flew in the face of the democratic ideals of the Nationalist government. Chiang had Hu put under house arrest, but he was released after national condemnation, and went on to escape and establish a rival government in Guangzhou. The split resulted in military campaigns between Hu's Canton Government and its supporters, and Chiang's Nationalist Government. Chiang only won due to a shift in allegiance by the warlord Chang Hsueh-liang, who had previously supported Hu Han-min.

Throughout his rule, complete eradication of the Communist Party of China remained Chiang's dream. Having regrouped in Jiangxi and established a Chinese Soviet Republic, Chiang led his armies against them. With help from foreign military advisers, Chiang's Fifth Campaign finally surrounded the Red Army in 1934. The Communists, tipped-off that a Nationalist offensive was on the cards, retreated as part of the Long March, which saw Mao Zedong rise from a mere military official to the practical leader of the Chinese Communist Party.

Reading Check


What was the intended final stage of Chiang Kai-shek's reform program?

Section 3 References

Watch a video clip of Mao's rise to power

Chinese posters from the Cultural Revolution

A brief biography of Mao

The emergence of the People's Republic of China

Section 4 Preview

Section 4 Nationalism in Latin America
American investors directly controlled many Latin American industries beginning in the 1920s. Latin American nationalists claimed that U.S. investments propped up the regions' dictators. The Great Depression weakened regional economies and led to the creation of government-run industries, since Latin Americans could not afford many imported goods. Economic crisis and instability prompted military leaders to overthrow the elected governments—which were dominated by small elites—and to establish authoritarian regimes. Dictators sometimes gained an urban following by promising better factory conditions. Industrialization became a core government project. Fascist symbols and nationalist slogans were used amid harsh political repression. In Mexico, a single-party state dominated society. The popular Depression-era leader Lázaro Cárdenas nationalized foreign-owned oil companies and redistributed land to Mexican peasants. Artists helped build national identity in many Latin American countries.

The Latin American Economy

In the early 1900s, Latin America’s economy was booming because of exports. Latin Americans sold their plentiful natural resources and cash crops to industrialized countries. In return, they bought products made in those countries. Meanwhile, foreign investors controlled many of Latin America’s natural resources.

Stable governments helped to keep the region’s economy on a good footing. Some Latin American nations, such as Argentina and Uruguay, had democratic constitutions. However, military dictators or small groups of wealthy landowners held the real power. The tiny ruling class kept the economic benefits of the booming economy for themselves. The growing middle class and the lower classes—workers and peasants—had no say in their own government. These inequalities troubled many Latin American countries, but in Mexico the situation led to an explosive revolution.

Democracy and Market Economy in Latin America (3 of 3), 5:05

The Future of Democracy and Market Economy in Latin America. An interview to Hernando De Soto, President, Institute for Liberty and Democracy, Lima, Peru.

Role of the United States

Impact of the Great Depression

During the 1920s and 1930s, world events affected Latin American economies. After World War I, trade with Europe fell off. The Great Depression that struck the United States in 1929 spread around the world in the 1930s. Prices for Latin American exports plunged as demand dried up. At the same time, the cost of imported consumer goods rose. Latin America’s economies, dependent on export trade, declined rapidly.

A tide of economic nationalism, or emphasis on home control of the economy, swept Latin American countries. They were determined to develop their own industries so they would not have to buy so many products from other countries. Local entrepreneurs set up factories to produce goods. Governments raised tariffs, or taxes on imports, to protect the new industries. Governments also invested directly in new businesses. Following Mexico’s lead, some nations took over foreign-owned assets. The drive to create domestic industries was not wholly successful. Unequal distribution of wealth held back economic development.

Vocabulary Builder
assets—(as ets) n. things of value

The Great Depression also triggered political changes in Latin America. The economic crisis caused people to lose faith in the ruling oligarchies and the ideas of liberal government.

Liberalism, a belief in the individual and in limited government, was a European theory actually only really successful as applied in the United States.

People began to feel that it did not work in Latin America. However, ideas about what form a new type of government should take varied.

Reading Check


How did the United States's method investing in Latin American differ from that of Britain?

The Move to Authoritarianism



Good Neighbor Policy, 3:58

FDR's support for dictator Getulio Vargas, Brazil, Carmen Miranda

In the Second World War, the U.S. is virtually isolated from its former trading partners in Asia and Europe. The war is raging in the world, and moreover, the U.S. needed to match the firepower of the Germans. Looking for Raw Material, the alternative was to approach its neighbors, including Brazil.

The Americans propagated the "good neighbor policy" in the Americas. And in time of War 2 was followed as part of this policy of friendship, three Pan American Conference, a council of continental defense held in Panama in 1939, Havana, Cuba in 1940 and Rio de Janeiro - Brazil in 1942. All countries that hosted these meetings during the war Geographical have high strategic value. The Panama Canal provides access to the Pacific Ocean and the island of Cuba positioned ahead of the U.S. coasts and in addition, the Brazil that is five hours of flight bombing of Dakar, Africa.

At this time the film industry came into its heyday and how part of this project was cultural partnership through film, the filmmaker Walt Disney and Orson Welles, came steadily for Brazil and the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Relations, Aranha played magnificently its diplomatic role. Celebrities such as Joe Carioca appeared as part of this project, the ELF symbol of the snake smoke created by the Brazilians in Italy, won a version designed by Disney. Products such as Coca-Cola, were brought by the Americans to Brazil.

In 1942, as a result of cultural reciprocity between American nations, a Brazilian muse came to prominence in Hollywood, Carmen Miranda, who was carrying in his luggage Brazilian culture to the home of Uncle Sam.

During and after World War I, investments by the United States in the nations of Latin America soared. British influence declined. The United States continued to play the role of international policeman, intervening to restore order when it felt its interests were threatened.

Vocabulary Builder
intervening—(in tur veen ing) vi. coming between two arguing factions

During the Mexican Revolution, the United States stepped in to support the leaders who favored American interests. In 1914, the United States attacked the port of Veracruz to punish Mexico for imprisoning several American sailors. In 1916, the U.S. army invaded Mexico after Pancho Villa killed more than a dozen Americans in New Mexico. This interference stirred up anti-American feelings, which increased throughout Latin America during the 1920s. For example, in Nicaragua, Augusto César Sandino led a guerrilla movement against United States forces occupying his country.

In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt took a new approach to Latin America and pledged to follow “the policy of the good neighbor.” Under the Good Neighbor Policy, the United States pledged to lessen its interference in the affairs of Latin American nations. The United States withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua. It lifted the Platt Amendment, which had limited Cuban independence. Roosevelt also supported Mexico’s nationalization of its oil companies. The Good Neighbor policy strengthened Latin American nationalism and improved relations between Latin America and the United States.


This Mexican peasants’ song from the early 1900s reflected many Mexicans’ desire for change under the rule of the dictator Porfirio Díaz:

“Our homes and humble dwellings

always full of sadness

living like animals

in the midst of riches.

On the other hand, the haciendados,

owners of lives and lands,

appear disinterested

and don’t listen to our complaints.”

By 1910, the dictator Porfirio Díaz had ruled Mexico for almost 35 years, winning reelection as president again and again. On the surface, Mexico enjoyed peace and economic growth. Díaz welcomed foreign investors who developed mines, built railroads, and drilled for oil. However, underneath the surface, discontent rippled through Mexico. The country’s prosperity benefited only a small group. Most Mexicans were mestizos or Indian peasants who lived in desperate poverty. Most of these peasants worked on haciendas, or large plantations, controlled by the landowning elite. Some peasants earned meager wages in factories and mines in Mexico’s cities. Meanwhile, the growing urban middle class wanted democracy and the elite resented the power of foreign companies. All of these groups opposed the Diáz dictatorship.

The unrest boiled over in 1910 when Francisco Madero, a liberal reformer from an elite family, demanded free elections. Faced with rebellion in several parts of the country, Díaz resigned in 1911. Soon a bloody, complex struggle engulfed Mexico.

In 1917, voters elected Venustiano Carranza president of Mexico. That year, Carranza reluctantly approved a new constitution that included land and labor reform. With amendments, it is still in force today.

The Constitution of 1917 addressed three major issues: land, religion, and labor. The constitution strengthened government control over the economy. It permitted the breakup of large estates, placed restrictions on foreigners owning land, and allowed nationalization, or government takeover, of natural resources. Church land was made “the property of the nation.” The constitution set a minimum wage and protected workers’ right to strike.

Although the constitution gave suffrage only to men, it did give women some rights. Women doing the same job as men were entitled to the same pay. In response to women activists, Carranza also passed laws allowing married women to draw up contracts, take part in legal suits, and have equal authority with men in spending family funds.

Fighting continued on a smaller scale throughout the 1920s, including Carranza’s overthrow in 1920. In 1929, the government organized what later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The PRI managed to accommodate many groups in Mexican society, including business and military leaders, peasants, and workers. The PRI did this by adopting some of the goals of these groups, while keeping real power in its own hands. It suppressed opposition and dissent. Using all of these tactics, the PRI brought stability to Mexico and over time carried out many desired reforms. The PRI dominated Mexican politics from the 1930s until the free election of 2000.

At first, the Constitution of 1917 was just a set of goals to be achieved in the future. But in the 1920s and 1930s, as the government finally restored order, it began to carry out reforms.

In the 1920s, the government helped some Indian communities regain lands that had been taken from them. In the 1930s, under President Lázaro Cárdenas, millions of acres of land were redistributed to peasants under a communal land program. The government supported labor unions and launched a massive effort to combat illiteracy. Schools and libraries were set up. Dedicated teachers, often young women, worked for low pay. While they taught basic skills, they spread ideas of nationalism that began to bridge the gulf between the regions and the central government. As the revolutionary era ended, Mexico became the first Latin American nation to pursue real social and economic reforms for the majority of its people.

The government also took a strong role in directing the economy. In 1938, labor disputes broke out between Mexican workers and the management of some foreign-owned petroleum companies. In response, President Cárdenas decreed that the Mexican government would nationalize Mexico’s oil resources. American and British oil companies resisted Cárdenas’s decision, but eventually accepted compensation for their losses. Mexicans felt that they had at last gained economic independence from foreign influence.

Reading Check


Culture in Latin America

By the 1920s, Latin American writers, artists, and thinkers began to reject European influences in culture as well. Instead, they took pride in their own culture, with its blend of Western and native traditions.

In Mexico, cultural nationalism, or pride in one’s own culture, was reflected in the revival of mural painting, a major art form of the Aztecs and Maya. In the 1920s and 1930s, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco (oh rohs koh), David Alfaro Siqueiros (see keh rohs), and other muralists created magnificent works. On the walls of public buildings, they portrayed the struggles of the Mexican people for liberty. The murals have been a great source of national pride ever since.

Diego Rivera, 4:50

Reading Check


How did Diego Rivera use his artistic talent as a political tool?

Los Lobos 'One Time, One Night' 1992

Songwriter: Bob Dylan

A wise man was telling stories to me
About the places he had been to
And the things that he had seen

A quiet voice is singing something to me
An age old song about the home of the brave
In this land here of the free
One time one night in America

A lady dressed in white with the man she loved
Standing along the side of their pickup truck
A shot rang out in the night
Just when everything seemed right
Another headline written down in America

The guy that lived next door in #305
Took the kids to the park and disappeared
About half past nine
Who will ever know
How much she loved them so
That dark night alone in America

A quiet voice is singing something to me
An age old song about the home of the brave
In this land here of the free
One time one night in America

Four small boys playing ball in a parking lot
A preacher, a teacher, and the other became a cop
A car skidded into the rain
Making the last little one a saint
One more light goes out in America

A young girl tosses a coin in the wishing well
She hopes for a heaven while for her
There's just this hell
She gave away her life
To become somebody's wife
Another wish unanswered in America

People having so much faith
Die too soon while all the rest come late
We write a song that no one sings
On a cold black stone
Where a lasting peace will finally bring

The sunlight plays upon my windowpane
I wake up to a world that's still the same
My father said to be strong
And that a good man could never do wrong
In a dream I had last night in America

A wise man was telling storie to me
About the places he had been to
And the things that he had seen

A quiet voice is singing something to me
An age old song about the home of the brave
In this land here of the free
One time one night in America

Lyrics reproduced for educational purposes only; copyright remains in the hands of the legitimate owner.

Ritchie Valens - La Bamba

Wall Of Voodoo - Mexican Radio, 1982 Capitol Records, LLC. All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is a violation of applicable laws. Manufactured by IRS Catalog,


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Friday: p. 560, Preview of Events, #1-2
Reading Check
How did the Japanese government change from the 1920s to the 1930s?