Monday, February 15, 2010

WH II Honors: 16 February 2010

Current Events (none today because of the Test):

Put your name on both the Scantron and the Test. You may write on the Test. You should have taken good notes, read the textbook, and lastly, considered the Ch. 13 Test Prep page. If you finish early, you may take out non-History materials.

Ch. 14 The Height of Imperialism 1800-1914

Section 3 British Rule in India

The Sepoy Mutiny


The Sepoy Rebellion

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2441

Colonial Rule

Benefits of British Rule

Costs of British Rule

After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India called the British Raj. A British viceroy in India governed in the name of the queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army. Indians filled most other jobs. With their cooperation, the British made India the “brightest jewel” in the crown of their empire.

British policies were designed to incorporate India into the overall British economy. At the same time, British officials felt they were helping India to modernize. In their terms, modernizing meant adopting not only Western technology but also Western culture.

Vocabulary Builder

overall—(oh vur awl) adj. total

An Unequal Partnership

Britain saw India both as a market and as a source of raw materials. To this end, the British built roads and an impressive railroad network. Improved transportation let the British sell their factory-made goods across the subcontinent and carry Indian cotton, jute, and coal to coastal ports for transport to factories in England. New methods of communication, such as the telegraph, also gave Britain better control of India. After the Suez Canal opened in 1869, British trade with India soared. But it remained an unequal partnership, favoring the British. The British flooded India with inexpensive, machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.

Britain also transformed Indian agriculture. It encouraged nomadic herders to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops, such as cotton and jute, that could be sold on the world market. Clearing new farmlands led to massive deforestation, or cutting of trees.

Population Growth and Famine

The British introduced medical improvements and new farming methods. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. The rising numbers, however, put a strain on the food supply, especially as farmland was turned over to growing cash crops instead of food. In the late 1800s, terrible famines swept India.

On the positive side, British rule brought some degree of peace and order to the countryside. The British revised the legal system to promote justice for Indians regardless of class or caste. Railroads helped Indians move around the country, while the telegraph and postal system improved communication. Greater contact helped bridge regional differences and develop a sense of national unity.

The upper classes, especially, benefited from some British policies. They sent their sons to British schools, where they were trained for posts in the civil service and military. Indian landowners and princes, who still ruled their own territories, grew rich from exporting cash crops.


How did British colonial rule affect Indian agriculture?

Reading Check


How was British rule degrading to Indians?

An Indian Nationalist Movement

During the years of British rule, a class of Western-educated Indians emerged. In the view of Macaulay and others, this elite class would bolster British power. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, Western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. Schooled in Western ideals such as democracy and equality, they dreamed of ending imperial rule.

Indian National Congress

In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress, which became known as the Congress party. Its members believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends. They called for greater democracy, which they felt would bring more power to Indians like themselves. The Indian National Congress looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization.

Muslim League

At first, Muslims and Hindus worked together for self-rule. In time, however, Muslims grew to resent Hindu domination of the Congress party. They also worried that a Hindu-run government would oppress Muslims. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals. Soon, they were talking of a separate Muslim state.


How are the origins of Indian nationalism linked to British rule?

Reading Check


What were the two goals of Mohandas Gandhi?

Colonial Indian Culture

Reading Check


How did the nationalist movement parallel cultural developments in India?

Section 4 Nation Building in Latin America

Nationalist Revolts

Prelude to Revolution

Reading Check


How did Napoleon's wars affect Latin America?

Revolt in Mexico

Revolts in South America

Reading Check


How did the French Revolution affect Mexico?

Difficulties of Nation Building

Rule of the Caudillos

A New Imperialism

Persistent Inequality

Reading Check


What were some of the difficulties faced by the new Latin American republics?

The United States in Latin America

Revolution in Mexico

Reading Check


What was the United States' role as a colonial power?

Economic Change in Latin America

Reading Check


What caused the growth of a middle class in Latin America?

Chapter 15 East Asia Under Challenge 1800-1914

Take a virtual tour of the Forbidden City.
Fascinating facts about the Forbidden City.

Timeline of China's dynasties.

See treasures from the Ming dynasty.

Timeline of Chinese dynasties.

Section 1 The Decline of the Qing Dynasty

Causes of Decline

Reading Check


What factors led to the decline of the Qing dynasty?

The Opium War

Reading Check


What did the British do to adjust their trade imbalance with China?

The Tai Ping Rebellion

Reading Check


What social reforms did the Tai Ping Rebellion demand?

Efforts at Reform

Reading Check


What was China's policy of "self-strengthening?"?

The Advance of Imperialism

Mounting Pressures

Internal Crisis

Reading Check


What countries claimed Chinese lands between 1880 and 1900?1880 and 1900? Cf. Browse a photo archive of China during the 1890s.

Opening the Door to China

Reading Check


Why did the United States want an Open Door policy in China?

The Boxer Rebellion
Reading Check


How did the Boxers get their name?
Section 2 Revolution in China

The Fall of the Qing

The Rise of Sun Yat-sen

The Revolution of 1911

Reading Check


What changes did the Revolution of 1911 actually produce in China?

An Era of Civil War

Reading Check


Why were there rebellions in China after General Yuan Shigai became president?

Chinese Society in Transition

Reading Check


How did the arrival of Westerners affect China?

China's Changing Culture

Reading Check


What effects did Western culture have on China?

Section 3 Rise of Modern Japan

Examine samurai objects
Take a tour of the Japanese city of Edo

Interactive tour of Osaka Castle

Zoom in on a painting of the siege of the castle

Find out more about Hideyoshi.

Timeline of Japanese history

This is the trailer for what is acclaimed as one of the greatest films ever made, Akira Kurosawa's Seven Samurai. Warning: Language, do not view if you are offended by a bit more than PG-13 language.

Kurosawa's film was the inspiration for a classic Western: "The Magnificent 7" (1960), 3:10.

Film trailer for this classic Western starring Yul Brynner, Steve McQueen, James Coburn, Robert Vaughn, Charles Bronson, Horst Buchholz, Brad Dexter and Eli Wallach.

An End to Isolation

Reading Check


What benefits did the Treaty of Kanagawa grant the United States?

Resistance to the New Order

Reading Check


What events led to the collapse of the shogunate system in Japan?

The Meiji Restoration

Transformation of Japanese Politics

Meiji Economics

Building a Modern Social Structure

Daily Life and Women's Rights

Reading Check


How was Japan's government structured under the Meiji constitution?

Joining the Imperialist Nations

Beginnings of Expansion

War with Russia

U.S. Relations

Reading Check


Why did Japan turn itself into an imperialist power?

Culture in an Era of Transition

Reading Check


What effect did Japanese culture have on other nations?

Empire Builders

Lord Frederick Lugard, a British empire builder, tried to justify imperialism in Africa with these words:

“There are some who say we have no right to Africa at all, that ‘it belongs to the natives.’ I hold that our right is the necessity that is upon us to provide for our ever-growing population—either by opening new fields for emigration, or by providing work and employment . . . and to stimulate trade by finding new markets.”

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes As you read the section, make a chart like the one below showing the multiple causes of imperialism in the 1800s.

Critical of British Rule

In 1871, Indian nationalist Dadabhai Naoroji (dah dah by now roh jee) criticized British rule in India:

“[Indians] call the British system ‘Sakar ki Churi’ (sa kur kee choo ree), the knife of sugar. That is to say, there is no oppression, it is all smooth and sweet, but it is the knife notwithstanding.”


Focus Question

How did Britain gradually extend its control over most of India, despite opposition?

Ch. 14 Resources

Take a virtual tour of the Forbidden City.

Fascinating facts about the Forbidden City.

Timeline of China's dynasties.

Timeline of Chinese dynasties.
Interactive time line of 20th century China
Examine samurai objects
Take a tour of the Japanese city of Edo

Interactive tour of Osaka Castle

Zoom in on a painting of the siege of the castle

Find out more about Hideyoshi.

Timeline of Japanese history

The Clash, performing their song, "The Magnificent Seven," live on the Tom Synder Show 1981; this is the first public performance of the song, 5:00.

"The Magnificent Seven" is a song and single by the English punk rock band The Clash. It was the third single from their fourth album Sandinista!. It reached number 34 on the UK singles chart.

The song was inspired by raps by old school hip hop acts from New York City, like the Sugarhill Gang and Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five. Rap was still a new and emerging music genre at the time and the band, especially Mick Jones, was very impressed with it, so much so that Jones took to carrying a boombox around and got the nickname 'Whack Attack'. The song was recorded in April 1980 at Electric Lady Studios in New York City, built around a bass loop played by Norman Watt-Roy of the Blockheads. Joe Strummer wrote the words on the spot, a technique that was also used to create Sandinista!'s other rap track, "Lightning Strikes (Not Once But Twice)". "The Magnificent Seven" represents the first attempt by a rock band to write and perform original rap music, and one of the earliest examples of hip hop records with political and social content. It is the first major white rap record, predating the recording of Blondie's "Rapture" by six months.

The song is viewed as a critique of excessive consumption which includes a nod to the inexpensive goods produced in Asia.

Thematically, "The Magnificent Seven" is somewhat similar to the punkier "Career Opportunities", in that it takes the drudgery of the working life as its starting point. Unlike "Career Opportunities", however, in stream of consciousness fashion it also deals with consumerism, popular media, historical figures, and addresses these subjects with great exuberance and humor. The first verses of "The Magnificent Seven" follow a nameless worker (narrated in the second person) as he wakes up and goes to work, not for personal advancement but to buy his girlfriend consumer goods:

Working for a rise to better my station / Take my baby to sophistication / She's seen the ads, she thinks it's nice / Better work hard, I seen the price

The nameless worker then goes off for a cheeseburger lunch-break, and the lyrics devolve into a blur of fleeting images from television, movies and advertising:

Italian mobster shoots a lobster / Seafood restaurant gets out of hand / A car in the fridge or a fridge in the car? / Like cowboys do in TV land!

Finally, the song takes historical figures, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Martin Luther King, Mahatma Gandhi, Richard Nixon and Socrates, and places them in modern America, before asking sarcastically whether "Plato the Greek" or Rin Tin Tin is more famous to the masses.

An exclaimed "newsflash" near the end of the song, "Vacuum Cleaner Sucks Up Budgie!", was in fact a headline in the News of the World newspaper at the time of the song's mixing in England, according to Joe Strummer.

Gimme Honda, Gimme Sony
So cheap and real phony
Hong Kong dollars and Indian cents
English pounds and Eskimo pence. . . .

Karlo Marx and Friedrich Engels
Came to the checkout at the 7-11
Marx was skint - but he had sense
Engels lent him the necessary pence

What have we got? Yeh-o, magnificence!!

Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi
Went to the park to check on the game
But they was murdered by the other team
Who went on to win 50-nil
You can be true, you can be false
You be given the same reward
Socrates and Milhous Nixon
Both went the same way - through the kitchen
Plato the Greek or Rin Tin Tin
Who's more famous to the billion millions?
News Flash: Vacuum Cleaner Sucks Up Budgie

Lyrics reproduced here for educational purposes only; copyright remains in the hands of the copyright holder.

HW email to

The Sepoy Mutiny


The Sepoy Rebellion

Go Online
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2441

1. How was the Sepoy Rebellion a clash of cultures?

2. Which regions were most greatly affected by the Sepoy Rebellion?

Growing Discontent

In the 1850s, the East India Company made several unpopular moves. First, it required sepoys (see poyz), or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas. For high-caste Hindus, however, overseas travel was an offense against their religion. Second, the East India Company passed a law that allowed Hindu widows to remarry. Hindus viewed both moves as a Christian conspiracy to undermine their beliefs.

Then, in 1857, the British issued new rifles to the sepoys. Troops were told to bite off the tips of cartridges before loading them into the rifles. The cartridges, however, were greased with animal fat—either from cows, which Hindus considered sacred, or from pigs, which were forbidden to Muslims. When the troops refused the order to “load rifles,” they were imprisoned.

AP Economics: 16 February 2010

Prayer (alphabetical):

Current Events:

Feb. 15 (Bloomberg) -- Nick Maroutsos, co-founder of Kapstream Capital, talks about Greece's fiscal situation and the Australian economy. Maroutsos speaks with Bloomberg's Linzie Janis from Sydney.

We will pick up where we left off: Ch. 18 Keynesian Macroeconomics

The Ch. 17 material (below) we are reviewing as pre-Test material. You will have Quizzes and a Test on Ch. 17.

Ch. 18 Keynesian Macroeconomics

Chapter Outline 18 Keynesian Macroeconomics

The construction of this chapter takes students from aggregate expenditures and its components (and the determinants for each), through a simple Keynesian model and the multiplier, and then completes the model adding government and the foreign sector. At this point recessionary and inflationary gaps are examined. It is worth noting that the extension of the simple Keynesian model to the complete model (i.e., the addition of government and net exports) is illustrated using the Savings and Investment graph, while the illustration of the recessionary and inflationary gaps employ the complete aggregate expenditure figures (similar to those used earlier in the chapter). The chapter concludes with a section on the Great Depression and Keynesian analysis.

Average Propensities to Consume and Save, p. 477, 11:37

An interview with John Quelch, Professor, Harvard Business School. In a tough economy, companies can succeed if they understand their customers' evolving consumption patterns and fine-tune their marketing strategies accordingly.

Marginal Propensities to Consume and Save, p. 478, 3:25

Senior Lecturer in Politics, Economics, and Statistics Dr. John "Jack" Emens talks about about what the marginal propensity to Consume (MPC) is and how it effects the flow of currency through the economy.

Other Determinants of Consumption and Saving, p. 479

Investment, p. 480, 9:51

The difference between investment and consumption.

Investment Demand, p. 481

Other Determinants of Investment Demand, p. 481

Aggregate Investment Schedule, p. 482

Checkpoint: Aggregate Expenditures, p. 483

The Simple Keynesian Model, p. 483

Macroeconomic Equilibrium in the Simple Model, p. 484, 5:33

Just as demand & supply yield the price and quantity of a particular product, Aggregate Demand (AD) & Aggregate Supply (AS) determine the macroeconomic equilibrium - price level (telling whether we have inflation), quantity of goods and services (real GDP), and, indirectly, unemployment.

The Fiscal policy and the multiplier effect Multiplier Effect, p. 485, 9:11

The Multiplier, p. 486, 3:48

Australia leading global National Broadband Network developments

The decision from the Australian government to launch a $43 billion national FttH broadband network is a clear indication that they believe broadband is essential infrastructure. It fulfills a national purpose as its trans-sector multiplier effect delivers massive social and economic benefits in health care, education, energy and the environment. A digital economy requires an open broadband infrastructure, and for that to work it can only be built by a utility (NBN Co). While there certainly are questions regarding the business model and the investment plan, there is widespread support for the visionary plan. During 2010 the business model needs to be developed, which will take into account the socio-economic benefits the infrastructure can deliver to the country.

The Multiplier Works in Both Directions, p. 487

Checkpoint: The Simple Keynesian Model, p. 488

The Full Keynesian Model, p. 488

Adding Government Spending and Taxes, p. 488

Tax Changes and Equilibrium, p. 489

The Balanced Budget Multiplier, p. 490, 10:39

Balance budget multiplier in Germany discussing Keynes.

This film examines the multiplier effects of balanced budget expenditure in Germany, where the government has increased taxes in the West to fund development of the East.

Adding Net Exports, p. 490

Recessionary and Inflationary Gaps, p. 491

Recessionary Gap, p. 491

Inflationary Gap, p. 492

Checkpoint: The Full Keynesian Model, p. 493

The Great Depression and Keynesian Analysis, p. 493


If we consider numerous sites that exist with photos of bread lines and other scenes typical of the time we will understand better the economic devastation.

Oral history may be helpful in this regard as well. Some students may have grandparents who remember the Great Depression.

Macro in microcosm. Students may share information about where they
work. Ask students employed in service locations like restaurants if they’ve ever
been told not to come in because the “place is not busy.” We can relate the impact on your earnings and spending, and in turn the effects on others, to show in a simple way the roots of the multiplier process.

Chapter Checkpoints
Aggregate Expenditures, p. 494

Question: Figure 3 earlier illustrated that investment spending is much more
volatile than consumption spending. Why is this?

The point is to check that students can: apply their knowledge of the determinants of consumption spending and investment to help evaluate the relative volatility of each component of aggregate expenditures.

The Simple Keynesian Model, p. 495

Question: Business journalists, pundits, economists, and policymakers all pay
attention to the results of the Conference Board’s monthly survey of 5,000 households called the Consumer Confidence Index.

When the index is rising, this is good news for the economy and when it is falling concerns are often heard that it portends a recession. Why is this survey important as a tool in forecasting where the economy is headed in the near future?

The point is to check that students can: synthesize their knowledge of the multiplier effect of a decrease in consumer spending with the importance of consumer spending as the major portion of aggregate expenditures in order to see the potential for a decrease in consumer spending to provide impetus for a recession.

The Full Keynesian Model, p. 495

Question: If the government is considering reducing taxes to stimulate the economy
does it matter if the MPS is .25 or .33?

The point is to check that students can: understand how changes in the size of the MPS affect the value of the multiplier and so influence the impact of a policy change. By extension, students should appreciate that the government needs to estimate factors such as the multiplier in planning policy changes.

Extended Examples in the Chapter

The Great Depression and the Keynesian Analysis

This section provides data that can help capture the magnitude of the Great
Depression: the stock market lost 90% of its value compared to the beginning of the 1930s, unemployment soared from 3.2% in 1929 to nearly 25%. Moreover, the Great Depression lasted for roughly a decade. The Keynesian model can be used to illustrate the situation of the time and to explain Keynes’s reasoning that an “injection” of government spending was needed.

For more about the Great Depression, including a timeline and some photos, see the PBS Web site at

Important points to note: the distrust of the government and banks, the resentment of foreign workers, the persistence of the belief in the classical model (as illustrated in President Herbert Hoover’s remarks at the beginning of the period), the need to banish fear as expressed by President Franklin Roosevelt (another term for a severe lack of consumer confidence).

Examples Used in the End--of--Chapter Questions

For Further Analysis

Illustrating the Keynesian Model

This example can be used as an in-class small group exercise or as an individual in-class exercise. It is designed to complement the text’s material on the Keynesian model by requiring students to draw the graphs that illustrate the analysis. The student handout provides graphical illustration of the analysis behind the answers to end-of-chapter Questions and Problems 8, 12, and 14.

Web-Based Exercise

Keynesian Policy in Japan

This example can be used as a small group exercise or as an individual exercise.
The exercise provides an opportunity to see the Keynesian model and policies
applied to a recent example, Japan since the 1990s. This overcomes a student’s tendency to view this material as irrelevant because it is discussed in terms of the 1930s. Requiring additional research can turn this exercise into a more extensive assignment.

Read the essay “Explaining Japan’s Recession,” by Benjamin Powell (posted on
11/19/2002 on the Web site of the Ludwig von Mises Institute: and answer the following:

1) What is the Keynesian explanation for the economic downturn in Japan?

2) What Keynesian policies have been tried? How successful have they been?

3) What does the author suggest should be done in Japan?

One challenge in this topic is to separate business investment in real plant and
equipment from people’s financial investment in stocks, bonds, etc. Students will
likely be able to grasp the importance of consumer confidence, understanding what
amounts to a “self-fulfilling prophecy;” that is, if consumers are fearful of a recession and don’t spend then that (multiplied) decrease in spending can cause a recession.

A good analogy for the Keynesian view is to liken the economy to a car with a
low battery that needs a boost to get running again.



"Mankiw's 10 principles of economics, translated for the uninitiated", by Yoram Bauman, . Presented at the AAAS humor session, February 16, 2007. For the record, the talk contains two unattributed quotes ("9 out of 5" is adapted from a line attributed to Paul Samuelson---although apparently he said it about Wall Street indices, not macroeconomists---and "wrong about things" is paraphrased from P.J. O'Rourke's Eat the Rich) and, of course, the Einstein "simple" quote is an intentional misquote. The talk is based on a published article in Annals of Improbable Research (see ), which sponsored my talk and to which you should subscribe ( ). In the paper you can see the "constructive example" of how trade can make everyone worse off (or you can just wait 50 years to see what happens with climate change). More info and other clips on my website ( ), and please sign up for my email list.

William Baumol. - Air date: 06-12-99

William Jack Baumol (born February 26, 1922) is a New York University economics professor (although he is also affiliated with Princeton University) who has written extensively about labor market and other economic factors that affect the economy. He also made valuable contributions to the history of economic thought. He is among the 500 best economists in the world according to IDEAS/RePEc.
Among his better-known contributions are the theory of contestable markets, the Baumol-Tobin model of transactions demand for money, Baumol's cost disease, which discusses the rising costs associated with service industries, and Pigou taxes.[1]
The 2006 Annual Meetings of the American Economic Association held a special session in his name, and honoring his many years of work, where 12 papers on entrepreneurship were presented.
The British magazine, The Economist published an article about William Baumol and his lifelong work to develop a place in economic theory for the entrepreneur (March 11, 2006, pp 68), much of which owes its genesis to Joseph Schumpeter. They note that traditional microeconomic theory holds a place for 'prices' and 'firms' but not for that (seemingly) important engine of innovation, the entrepreneur. Baumol is given credit for helping to remedy this shortcoming: "Thanks to Mr. Baumol's own painstaking efforts, economists now have a bit more room for entrepreneurs in their theories."

Baumol is a trustee of the Economists for Peace and Security.

Email HW to

1. Be sure to study for subsequent Ch. 16 (Quizzes and Test, TBA).

2. Read Ch. 17 (we will have Quizzes and a Test on Ch. 17, TBA).

3. Predict the Answers to the Checkpoint Questions, Ch. 18; check your answers with the suggestions at the end of the Chapter in the textbook.

4. Ch. 15 Questions and Problems, p. 423, #1-5.