Monday, April 19, 2010

WH II Honors: 20 April 2010

Current Events:

German Chancellor Angela Merkel Visits Stanford

German Chancellor Angela Merkel met with students, faculty, and staff; she then toured Stanford's Volkswagen Automotive Innovation Lab and dedicated the new building that houses the facility.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Thursday that she remains committed to the war in Afghanistan but recognizes many people in her country doubt whether the military mission is necessary or right. (April 15)

Die luft der freiheit weht.

The air of freedom is blowing.

Chapter 17 The West Between the Wars 1919-1939

The Rise of Dictators

Read a detailed account of the life of Hitler


Test yourself on how Hitler came to power


Nazi propaganda posters: Election, Sower of peace, 'One People, One Nation, One Leader,' Saving for a Volkswagen, Jews, Anti-Bolshevism.


Hitler and His Views Cf.

Rise of Nazism
Victory of Nazism

With help from the Western powers, the government did bring inflation under control. In 1924, the United States gained British and French approval for a plan to reduce German reparations payments. Under the Dawes Plan, France withdrew its forces from the Ruhr, and American loans helped the German economy recover. Germany began to prosper. Then, the Great Depression hit, reviving memories of the miseries of 1923. Germans turned to an energetic leader, Adolf Hitler, who promised to solve the economic crisis and restore Germany’s former greatness.

After less than a year, Hitler was released from prison. He soon renewed his table-thumping speeches. The Great Depression played into Hitler’s hands. As unemployment rose, Nazi membership grew to almost a million. Hitler’s program appealed to veterans, workers, the lower middle classes, small-town Germans, and business people alike. He promised to end reparations, create jobs, and defy the Versailles treaty by rearming Germany.

With the government paralyzed by divisions, both Nazis and Communists won more seats in the Reichstag, or lower house of the legislature. Fearing the growth of communist political power, conservative politicians turned to Hitler. Although they despised him, they believed they could control him. Thus, with conservative support, Hitler was appointed chancellor in 1933 through legal means under the Weimar constitution.

Within a year, Hitler was dictator of Germany. He and his supporters suspended civil rights, destroyed the socialists and Communists, and disbanded other political parties. Germany became a one-party state. Like Stalin in Russia, Hitler purged his own party, brutally executing Nazis he felt were disloyal. Nazis learned that Hitler demanded unquestioning obedience.

For assistance in understanding this section, refer to the graphic,

Why did Hitler become Chancellor?

Reading Check


Why was the Enabling Act important to Hitler's success in controlling Germany?

The Nazi State

The State and Terror

Once in power, Hitler and the Nazis moved to build a new Germany. Like Mussolini, Hitler appealed to nationalism by recalling past glories. Germany’s First Reich, or empire, was the medieval Holy Roman Empire. The Second Reich was the empire forged by Bismarck in 1871. Under Hitler’s new Third Reich, he boasted, the German master race would dominate Europe for a thousand years.

To achieve his goals, Hitler organized an efficient but brutal totalitarian rule. Nazis controlled all areas of German life—from government to religion to education. Elite, black-uniformed system of troops, called the SS, enforced the Führer’s will. His secret police, the Gestapo (guh stah poh), rooted out opposition. The masses, relieved by belief in the Nazis’ promises, cheered Hitler’s accomplishments in ending unemployment and reviving German power. Those who worried about Hitler’s terror apparatus quickly became its victims or were cowed into silence in fear for their own safety.

Economic Policies

To combat the Great Depression, Hitler launched large public works programs (as did Britain and the United States). Tens of thousands of people were put to work building highways and housing or replanting forests. Hitler also began a crash program to rearm Germany and schemed to unite Germany and Austria. Both measures were a strong repudiation, or rejection, of the hated Versailles treaty.

Spectacles and Organizations

To build for the future, the Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideology. In passionate speeches, the Führer spewed his message of racism. He urged young Germans to destroy their so-called enemies without mercy. On hikes and in camps, the “Hitler Youth” pledged absolute loyalty to Germany and undertook physical fitness programs to prepare for war. School courses and textbooks were rewritten to reflect Nazi racial views.

Triumph of the Will - Hitler Youth Rally 2

Fr Joseph Ratzinger, a priest amidst the Nazis

When Joseph Ratzinger was a child, Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber of Munich visited his parish. Young Joseph was so impressed that he set out to become either an artist or a Cardinal when he grew up.

Those first impressions led to playing with the idea of becoming priest.

Monsignor Georg Ratzinger
Popes brother
"We had a small house altar, which our uncle had made for us. We also had paraments, albs that is, and tunicals. The seamstress who sowed the dresses for my mother and my sister, sewed these paraments, practically tunicals for us. It was great fun. And we paid attention to how it is done in church, to be able to re-enact it as accurately as possible."

The age of fun and games was over and soon the time came for big decisions. In 1939, at the age of only 12, Joseph Ratzinger entered the Freising seminary.

There he lived through the most difficult years of World War II. One of the consequences of the war was the interruption of the school year.

In 1943, 16-year-old Joseph was called up to duty, like all his fellow classmates and friends, and assigned tasks in Munichs anti-aircraft defense.

One night, an SS official woke everyone up in the barracks where the soldiers were sleeping. Playing on their fear and fatigue, the official tried to convince them to enroll as volunteers in the SS. Joseph said no because he wanted to become a priest. The official humiliated and made fun of him.

Monsignor Thomas Frauenlob
Former dean, Minor Seminary, Traunstein, Germany
"He always said that his calling to become priest came very early. But it was in this confrontation with National Socialism, this huge lie which took hold, that he moved to becoming a priest."

When we returned to Freising after the war in January 1946, his seminary was in ruins. Thats why the first task for future priests was to rebuild it.

Monsignor Georg Ratzinger
Popes brother
"Rebuild is saying too much. It was very seriously damaged, run-down and dirty. But there my brother and I helped rebuild it."

They studied hard in the seminary in Freising and later at the University of Munich until June 29, 1951, when Cardinal Faulhaber, the same man that so impressed Ratzinger as a child, ordained him a priest in the cathedral of Freising.

It was an unforgettable moment that Joseph Ratzinger remembers as the most important day of his life.

The Nazis also sought to purge, or purify, German culture. They denounced modern art, saying that it was corrupted by Jewish influences. They condemned jazz because of its African roots. Instead, the Nazis glorified old German myths such as those re-created in the operas of Richard Wagner (vahg nur).

Hitler despised Christianity as “weak” and “flabby.” He sought to replace religion with his racial creed. To control the churches, the Nazis combined all Protestant sects into a single state church. They closed Catholic schools and muzzled the Catholic clergy. Although many clergy either supported the new regime or remained silent, some courageously spoke out against Hitler.

Women and Nazism

Like Fascists in Italy, Nazis sought to limit women’s roles. Women were dismissed from upper-level jobs and turned away from universities. To raise the birthrate, Nazis offered “pure-blooded Aryan” women rewards for having more children. Still, Hitler’s goal to keep women in the home and out of the workforce applied mainly to the privileged. As German industry expanded, women factory workers were needed.

To understand this material, refer to the Women in Nazi Germany diagram.

Anti-Semitic Policies

In his fanatical anti-Semitism, Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany. In 1935, the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws, which deprived Jews of German citizenship and placed severe restrictions on them. They were prohibited from marrying non-Jews, attending or teaching at German schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine, or publishing books. Nazis beat and robbed Jews and roused mobs to do the same. Many German Jews fled, seeking refuge in other countries.

On November 7, 1938, a young Jew whose parents had been mistreated in Germany shot and wounded a German diplomat in Paris. Hitler used the incident as an excuse to stage an attack on all Jews. Kristallnacht (krih stahl nahkt), or the “Night of Broken Glass,” took place on November 9 and 10. Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany, Austria, and the annexed portions of Czechoslovakia. Before long, Hitler and his henchmen were making even more sinister plans for what they called the “Final Solution”—the extermination of all Jews.

To understand this material, refer to the
Jews in Nazi Germany diagram.

Reading Check


What steps did Hitler take to establish a Nazi totalitarian state in Germany?

Ch. 17 References

The Great Depression

Photo Essay on the Great Depression


Diaries of people who lived during the Depression


People and events of the Dust Bowl


Original photographs from the times


Cf. Click on links to view original documents from Mussolini's life and times.






Click on "Germany Image Gallery" for the slideshow.


Read a detailed account of the life of Hitler


Test yourself on how Hitler came to power


Nazi propaganda posters: Election, Sower of peace, 'One People, One Nation, One Leader,' Saving for a Volkswagen, Jews, Anti-Bolshevism.


Soviet Russia

Stalin and Industrialization of the USSR
See original documents and learn more about Stalin's methods.


View Soviet posters


Review Stalin's takeover of power from the BBC:


Find out more about jazz


Hitler Youth Anthem: Es zittern die morschen Knochen

This is the official song of the youth wing of the NSDAP, the Hitler Youth.

How To Take Effective Notes
Email to

Tuesday: p. 550

Reading Check


What factors helped the Nazi Party to gain power in Germany?

Reading Check


Why was the Enabling Act important to Hitler's success in controlling Germany?

AP Economics: 20 April 2010

Current Events:

Obama and Free Trade: Q&A With Jagdish Bhagwati

ReasonTV — April 09, 2010 — Free trade is never more necessary - or vulnerable - than in times of economic distress. The current global downturn is no exception. Protectionist barriers have shot up all over the world, including the United States.

Last year, Congress killed a pilot program allowing Mexican trucks to transport goods across America and included Buy America provisions in the stimulus bill banning foreign steel and iron from infrastructure projects funded by the legislation.

More disturbingly, President Barack Obama, after chiding Congress for flirting with protectionism, initiated his own ill-advised affair by imposing a 35 percent tariff on cheap Chinese tires.

If the world manages to avoid an all-out trade war of the kind that helped trigger the Great Depression after the U.S. imposed the Smoot-Hawley tariffs in 1930, it will be in no small part due to the efforts of one man: Jagdish N. Bhagwati, an ebullient and irreverent 76-year-old professor of economics at Columbia University.

Bhagwati has done more than perhaps any other person alive to advance the cause of unfettered global trade. A native of India, Bhagwati immigrated to the United States in the late 60s after a brief stint on the Indian Planning Commission, where he learned first-hand the insanity of an economic approach that tried to modernize a country by cutting it off from world trade.

Since then, he has devoted his efforts, both in academia and in the popular press, to showing that there is no better way of improving the lot of both advanced countries and the developing world than through free trade. His path-breaking contributions to trade theory have put him on the short list for a Nobel Prize in economics.

Though a dogged trade advocate, Bhagwati is anything but dogmatic. He is a free spirit who draws intellectual inspiration from many disparate ideological camps. A self-avowed liberal, he is also something of a Gandhian social progressive, though Gandhi himself supported economic autarky. Bhagwati works with numerous Third World NGOs on a host of human rights issues. Yet he has no problem taking on these groups - or his famous student, Nobel laureate Paul Krugman - when they question the benefits of trade.

In fact, he devoted his 2004 magnum opus, In Defense of Globalization, to a point-by-point rebuttal of these critics. Although he doesn't vote Republican because he dislikes the party's nationalistic jingoism, he readily declares that Democrats pose a far bigger threat to international exchange than Republicans.

Last summer, Shikha Dalmia, a senior analyst at the Reason Foundation, interviewed Bhagwati in his New York office. For a transcript of that interview, go to

This video interview was filmed on the same day and conducted by Dalmia, Reason Associate Editor Damon W. Root, and's Dan Hayes, who shot and edited the video.

The 50 Question Ch. 20 Multiple Choice Test will be Wednesday, the 21st.

We will pick up where we began in Chapter 25.

Chapter Overview
This chapter presents the analysis of absolute and comparative advantage and employs supply and demand analysis to explain the determination of the terms of trade. Arguments regarding free trade and globalization are discussed. The chapter concludes with a section on the dynamics of trade as illustrated by trade in cashmere.
Chapter Outline

National Defense Argument
Globalization Concerns

Globalization and Inequality (, 2:10

Nancy Birdsall, President of the Center for Global Development gives a brief overview of the issues and concerns surrounding the growing global Inequality resulting from Globalization.

Milton Friedman - Free to Choose 1990 - 1 of 5 The Power of the Market PL 2/5

Trade and Domestic Employment
Trade and the Environment
Trade and Its Effect on Working Conditions in Developing Nations
Checkpoint: Arguments Against Free Trade
The Dynamics of Trade: Cashmere
Ideas for Capturing Your Classroom Audience

Chapter Checkpoints

The Terms of Trade
Question: When the government imposes a quota on a specific imported product,
who benefits and who loses?

The point is to check that students can: understand the costs and benefits of
restraints on trade and compare the effects of tariffs and quotas.
Arguments Against Free Trade
Question: “The biggest gains in export, imports, employment, and wages all
occurred during the 1990s, which was one of our greatest periods of economic
growth. Thus it is clear that trade benefits both consumers and the economy.”
Evaluate this statement.

The point is to check that students can: understand that trade benefits some and
imposes costs to others. This discussion also highlights the importance of context
in evaluating situations and policies (meaning, what gets attention in a recession
may not get attention when the economy is stronger).
Extended Examples in the Chapter

Examples Used in the End-of-Chapter Questions
Question 4 references a study by Scott C. Bradford, Paul L. Grieco, and Gary Clyde
Hufbauer titled “The Payoff to America from Global Integration,” in C. Fred
Bergsten and the Institute for International Economics, The United States and the
World Economy (Washington: Institute for International Economics, 2005), Chapter
2. A follow-up article is available on the Institute’s site at http://www.petersoninstitute.
For Further Analysis
Comparing the Welfare Effects of Tariffs and Quotas
This example, as presented in the student handout at the end of this chapter, can be used as a small group exercise or as an individual exercise. It is designed to complement the text’s material on the effects of tariffs and quotas. It requires students to employ the welfare analysis used in previous chapters (you may want to assign the review from Chapter 13 in conjunction with this assignment. The handout focuses on calculating changes in consumer surplus but it is not difficult to extend it to calculations of producer surplus and deadweight losses if you wish.
Web-Based Exercise
The following assignment sends students to the Web site of the World Trade
Organization to learn more about it, particularly its functions. You can choose
whether or not to include the third part of the assignment depending on how extensive you would like the assignment to be.
Learn more about the World Trade Organization (WTO). Visit its Web site (at and answer the following:
1) What is the WTO?
2) Who belongs to the WTO and when was it started?
3) Choose a dispute in which the WTO was involved. Explain the issue, the
steps involved, and whether or not the issue was resolved.

Tips from a Colleague
Students tend to want simple statements like “free trade is a good thing,” and
sometimes are frustrated with having to weigh the costs and benefits. They also
may not appreciate that the degree of “protectionism” in the United States waxes
and wanes with changing circumstances, particularly having to do with jobs. You
may wish to have students investigate the positions on trade of different members
of Congress by way of making comparisons depending on the interests of the
states they represent.


Milton Friedman - Free to Choose 1990 - 1 of 5 The Power of the Market PL 2/5

Email HW to

1. Be sure to review Chapters 20-24 (we will have Tests on this material as well, TBA). Some students have asked to be tested as close as possible after covering the material.

2. Ch. 25

The following assignment sends students to the Web site of the World Trade
Organization to learn more about it, particularly its functions. You can choose
whether or not to include the third part of the assignment depending on how extensive you would like the assignment to be.
Learn more about the World Trade Organization (WTO). Visit its Web site (at and answer the following:
1) What is the WTO?
2) Who belongs to the WTO and when was it started?
3) Choose a dispute in which the WTO was involved. Explain the issue, the
steps involved, and whether or not the issue was resolved.

3. As review for HW, typical questions that you may encounter on the actual AP Economics Macro Test are included daily:

Review Questions (Princeton):
9. If an X (Inflation Rate %) Y (Unemployment Rate %) graph slopes down and to the right, the figure illustrates a

a) demand curve
b) Phillips curve
c) production possibilities frontier
d) aggregate supply curve
e) Lorenz curve

10. The aggregate demand curve is

a) a horizontal summation of market demand curves
b) a horizontal summation of firm demand curves
c) a simple aggregation of demand curves for individual goods
d) a vertical summation of firm demand curves
e) not found by adding product demand curves horizontally or vertically

11. Assuming there is no statistical discrepancy, a trade surplus must be offset elsewhere in the

a) current-account balance only
b) capital-account balance only
c) current-account or capital-account only
d) current-account or capital-account only
e) merchandise balance of trade or current-account only

1st HW Report of 4th Quarter

Thus far, as of mid-April and the new Quarter, the following data lists the HW completion breakdown by class.

AP Economics
1st Period
13/19 students did no HW.

The remainder of the classes are WH II Honors:

3rd Period
16/28 students did no HW.

4th Period
22/35 students did no HW.

5th Period
21/35 students did no HW.

7th Period
18/35 students did no HW.