Wednesday, September 07, 2016

PHI 210 Week 10 Summer 2016

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9 pm. I will take roll early and we will have our Discussion before you are dismissed at 10:00 pm.


10:00 Discussion: 10:15 Dismiss

When Nietsche Wept Trailer, 1:58

105 minutes

Viennese doctor Josef Breuer meets with philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche to help him deal with his despair. Starring Ben Cross and Armand Assante. Written and directed by Pinchas Perry.

https://youtu.be/lk-vjBRtsx8



What’s Your Definition of Success? | The Success Series, 2:36

http://youtu.be/ulShj4keKNw



Chapter 10: Case Study
10.1 Introduction to the Case Study
10.2 Exploring the Context
10.3 Taking Sides
10.4 Debating Whether to Act
Chapter 10: Case Study
10.1 Introduction to the Case Study
Review Notes
Arguments
premise
conclusion
Common Fallacies
Begging the Question
Appeal to popularity
Post hoc ergo propter hoc--"after this, therefore because of this"
Appeal to ignorance
Appeal to emotion
Unqualified authority
Ad hominem
False dichotomy
Straw Man
Red herring
Slippery slope
Weak analogy
Evaluating Claims and Sources
Expertise
Limits of Expertise
Questions to Ask When Evaluating Websites
Examples of Rhetorical Techniques Used to Persuade
Emotive Language
Innuendo
Loaded Questions
10.2 Exploring the Context
Global warming
10.3 Taking Sides
How do you convince people?
Do any of the arguments contain fallacies?
Are the persuasive techniques always logical, or are some emotional?
10.4 Debating Whether to Act
This Week
"No Need to Panic About Global Warming," 27 January 2012
"Check with Climate Scientists for Views on Climate," January 2012
Chapter 10: Case Study

Woolmark - Fashion by Feelings Social Media campaign case study, 2:47

Is there a logical, rational appeal that is used in this campaign?





If not, what is appealed to in this ad?

How does this ad get people to act? 

How to engage a new generation of wool consumer with a social media campaign by circul8.com.au Have a look at the results! http://www.fashionbyfeelings.com

http://youtu.be/J5R1s8lrKuQ




Is there a logical, rational appeal that is used in this campaign?

If not, what is appealed to in this ad?

How does this ad get people to act?

Hillary Clinton on China & Climate Change (Dec. 1, 2015) | Charlie Rose, 1:17

"They're gonna be the clean energy solar power of the 21st century -- unless we get there first." Hillary Clinton describes China's changing stance on climate change and what she hopes will result from the UN's Climate Change Conference in Paris this year.

https://youtu.be/mQLjshDvGDw



Climate Change: What Do Scientists Say? 5:04





Climate change is an urgent topic of discussion among politicians, journalists and celebrities...but what do scientists say about climate change? Does the data validate those who say humans are causing the earth to catastrophically warm? Richard Lindzen, an MIT atmospheric physicist and one of the world's leading climatologists, summarizes the science behind climate change.

You can support PragerU by clicking here: https://www.classy.org/checkout/donat.... Free videos are great, but to continue producing high-quality content, contributions--even small ones--are a must!

Do you shop on Amazon? Click http://smile.amazon.com/ch/27-1763901 and a percentage of every Amazon purchase will be donated to PragerU. Same great products. Same low price. Shopping made meaningful.

What three groups are engaged in the climate change debate?

Who is in groups 1 & 2, and who is in group 3?

Group 1 states that climate change comes as a result of what?

What goes group 2 attribute climate change to?

What points do group 1 and 2 agree on?

According to the scientists, are there reliable long-term predictions about climate change?

Why are so many people worried and panic-stricken?
 

https://youtu.be/OwqIy8Ikv-c



What three groups are engaged in the climate change debate?

Who is in groups 1 & 2 and who is in group 3?

Group 1 states that climate change comes as a result of what?

What goes group 2 attribute climate change to?

What points do group 1 and 2 agree on?

According to the scientists, are there reliable long-term predictions about climate change?

Why are so many people worried and panic-stricken?


True News: The Case Against Climate Change, 21:57

http://youtu.be/UNRW5qMRnIU



10.1 Introduction to the Case Study
10.2 Exploring the Context
10.3 Taking Sides
10.4 Debating Whether to Act
Chapter 10: Case Study
10.1 Introduction to the Case Study
Review Notes
Arguments
premise
conclusion
Common Fallacies

Handout

Types of Logical Fallacies
http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/using_types.pdf

Handout

"Logical Fallacies"

Matching and Making Up Fallacies

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/using_logicalfallacies.pdf

Begging the Question

Begging the Question, 3:20

Logical Fallacy: Begging the Question-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.

https://youtu.be/M80C4hJH6Zs



Appeal to popularity

Fallacies: Appeal to Popular Belief, 4:24

This video introduces the fallacies known as "appeal to popular belief" and "appeal to popular practice".

https://youtu.be/NvBjMO8RAWs



Handout

Bandwagon/Appeal to Popularity

Post hoc ergo propter hoc--"after this, therefore because of this"

CRITICAL THINKING - Fallacies: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc [HD], 5:41

In this video, Paul Henne (Duke University) explains the post-hoc-ergo-propter-hoc fallacy. This is an informal fallacy committed when a person reasons that because one event happened after another event, the first event caused the second. He also discusses why it is sometimes hasty to conclude that your cat scratch caused your fever.

https://youtu.be/5A7hSaoRv0g



Appeal to ignorance

Fallacy: Appeal to Ignorance

Critical Thinking: Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy Example, 1:38

https://youtu.be/2Ra8_gyY9R8


Description of appeal to ignorance, 5:06

Appeal to ignorance fallacy explanation recorded 26 September 2013

You Can't Explain That! A Creationist Argument From Ignorance. Feat Bill O'Reilly and the Tides, 3

https://youtu.be/iZMzxV2V60Y



Handout

Appeal to emotion

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_emotion.pdf

Handout

"Appeal to Authority" 

Faulty Appeal to Authority, 2:47 

Video made by Katie Liu for her 5th period English AP class. For the music: http://www.youtube.com/user/bmuff#p/u For commercials: http://www.youtube.com/user/Pantene http://www.youtube.com/user/sonyelect... 

https://youtu.be/k7zT4m0MYjA 






Unqualified authority 

False Authority Fallacy, 3:52 

Here is a definition and some video examples for the False Authority Fallacy. Please enjoy. 

https://youtu.be/xa_hbfXhsEQ 






http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_authority.pdf

Handout

The Voice of Authority

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/using_voice.pdf

Handout

Endorsement or Testimonial

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_testimonial.pdf

Ad hominem

False dichotomy

Fallacy Friday - False Dichotomy, 5:29

https://youtu.be/6IZKVFTDri4



Straw Man (related to Card Stacking) 

CRITICAL THINKING - Fallacies: Straw Man Fallacy [HD], 5:58 

In this Wireless Philosophy video, Joseph Wu (University of Cambridge) introduces you to the straw man fallacy. This fallacy is committed whenever someone misrepresents an opponent's claim in arguing against it. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/1vz5fK9 More on Joseph Wu: http://bit.ly/1RHIOuV ---- Wi-Phi @ YouTube: http://bit.ly/1PX0hLu Wi-Phi @ Khan Academy: http://bit.ly/1nQJcF7 Twitter: https://twitter.com/wirelessphi Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1XC2tx3 Instagram: @wiphiofficial ---- Help us caption & translate this video! http://amara.org/v/ILA9/ 

https://youtu.be/hfil34ayaEU 






Handout

Card Stacking

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_card.pdf

Red herring

If You Don't Identify as a Feminist Are You a Bigot? A False Dichotomy Feat. Gloria Allred, 3:33

What is a false dichotomy (false Dilemma)? This video is a quick crash course on that question exactly. We also look at Gloria Allred's controversial Big Think video claiming that if you aren't a feminist you are a bigot. The issue with this being they aren't the only two options, it is possible to not identify with a social moment and advocate for women's rights or if you wanted to identify with a social movement you could easily identify as a equalist or egalitarian. Only a Sith deals in absolutes! Here's a link to the original video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dddgk... What do you think? Let us know in the comments. Subscribe to our channel and like this video! Find us on Facebook and Twitter (links on our channel page) Thanks for watching! -R and J

https://youtu.be/zow5dR2_8jc



Anchor Pushes Back Against Clinton Email: "Red Herring."
Watch the tense segment below (the tense moments begin at around the 7-minute mark):
http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2016/05/29/no-anchor-chris-wallace-fiercely-pushes-back-against-democrats-clinton-email-claim-during-tense-interview/
Slippery slope

Slippery Slope Fallacy, 4:50

Dual Credit English Slippery Slope Project

https://youtu.be/_cY_vyWieAs



Weak analogy

Weak Analogy Project- "Raymond" 2:53

In my philosophy 57 class we had to remake a commercial explaining why this ad was a weak analogy fallacy. Enjoy!

https://youtu.be/ZC8slJ1UWRI



Evaluating Claims and Sources

How to Know If a Source Is Reliable by Shmoop, 5:47

No, this does not involve tracking authors down and grilling them on their credentials. You are not Liam Neeson, and this is not Taken 3. You're sleuthing methods will need to be a bit more covert.

http://www.shmoop.com/help/cite-shmoop/ Learn more about writing on our website:

http://www.shmoop.com/essay-lab/

https://youtu.be/m_EAxomGhNY



Expertise

Bill Gates on Expertise: 10,000 Hours and a Lifetime of Fanaticism, 3:08

Bill Gates responds to Malcolm Gladwell's theory that it takes 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to master a skill. Apart from acknowledging luck, timing and an open mind, Gates suggests that a successful person survives many cycles of attrition to make it to 10,000 hours of experience. "You do have to be lucky enough, but also fanatical enough to keep going," explains Gates. ----- Microsoft founder Bill Gates leads a conversation with his father Bill Gates Senior, titled "A Conversation with My Father," in which the pair talk about parenting, philanthropy, commerce and citizenship. Bill Gates Sr. was an attorney who co-founded his own firm and was on the board of Planned Parenthood.

Since retiring from law in 1998, he has served as the co-chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and as director for Costco Wholesale. He's also the author of Showing Up for Life: Thoughts on the Gifts of a Lifetime as well as Wealth and Commonwealth: Why America Should Tax Accumulated Fortunes. Bill Gates III is chairman of Microsoft Corporation, the worldwide leader in software, services and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. In July 2008, Gates transitioned out of a day-to-day role in the company to spend more time on his global health and education work at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Gates continues to serve as Microsoft's chairman and an advisor on key development projects.

https://youtu.be/CsGihiSE6sM



Limits of Expertise

Questions to Ask When Evaluating Websites
Examples of Rhetorical Techniques Used to Persuade
Emotive Language
Innuendo
Loaded Questions
10.2 Exploring the Context
Global warming
10.3 Taking Sides

How do you convince people?

How To Convince People To Do Whatever You Want, 4:31

http://www.powerfulpersuaders.com/ins... Warning! Amazing secret revealed used by the most devastating experts on psychological persuasion techniques.


http://youtu.be/t7dINpMdMRA



Do any of the arguments contain fallacies?

Are the persuasive techniques always logical, or are some emotional?

Handout

Amazon Rain Forest--Persuasive Comparison

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/amazon.pdf

Change My Mind: Appeal to Emotion, 9:02

Students are bombarded with persuasive techniques in all aspects of their life. They need to recognize the persuasive techniques that are being used to manipulate their thinking and how they can use these same techniques to influence others. Video 1: Appeal to Emotion considers the effects of emotional pleas on the audience. Whether using powerful new images or words in text or speech, appeals to emotion are powerful. Produced in 2008. Get lesson plans for Change My Mind at http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/

http://youtu.be/bgVTo4K2kRg



10.4 Debating Whether to Act

This Week

"No Need to Panic About Global Warming," 27 January 2012

"Check with Climate Scientists for Views on Climate," January 2012

Gore Wrong, More Ice and Thicker

Ice

We have have "Deceiving" Exercise. For each group check off what techniques you hear or note them at the bottom.

Handout

Persuasive Techniques: Checklist

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/using_checklist.pdf

REFERENCES

Exam: Week 11

Exam 2

This exam consists of 25 multiple choice questions and covers the material in Chapters 6 through 10. There are five questions from each chapter. Each question is a possible 4 out of 4 points.

Question 1
A scientist is hired to do research for a tobacco company. Anyone reading the scientist’s conclusions should be aware that the scientist may be:

Question 2
While scientific explanations provide compelling evidence for claims and produce verifiable insights, they are also:

Question 3
Statistics come from gathering and ________data.

Question 4
Many accepted explanations begin as:

Question 5
An explanation is a statement that provides a _________ for why or how something became the way it is.

Question 6
Another term for semantic meaning is:

Question 7
Is the following statement a demonstration in the use of a euphemism?
Your boss tells you are fired from your job during an impromptu meeting.

Question 8
What terms are often used as qualifiers or “weasel words”?

Question 9
To Albert, the word “love” brings up positive feelings about his son; to Raj, it brings up negative feelings about a previous relationship; and to Anthony, it refers to the warm feeling he gets during family gatherings. Which category of meaning are these statements describing?

Question 10
A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?

Question 11
A top official of the government is presenting a case for the continued use of drone airplanes in military conflicts. The official states “Using drones during military surveillance missions is the right course of action because it saves soldiers’ lives.” Which statement is the enthymeme in the official’s argument?

Using drones reduces the number of soldiers needed to conduct surveillance.
The right course of action is to save soldiers’ lives.

Question 12
Which theory is characterized by doing what is best for others instead of oneself?

Question 13
In order to pay for tuition for collegiate studies, a student chooses to sell illegal drugs to finance his education. He understands the implications of his actions, from the destruction of families for those addicted, to the breaking laws preventing the sales of controlled substances. Which theory is he using to justify his actions?
Is it Utilitarianism or is it Ethical Egoism?

Question 14
Consider the following argument:
Premise: Michael took an apple from the farm stand.
Premise: Stealing is wrong.
Conclusion: Therefore, Michael was wrong for stealing the apple.
The statement, “stealing is wrong” is an example of what?

Question 15
A fellow coworker takes someone else’s food from the community refrigerator and eats it. When confronted about the offense, the coworker stated that someone else took his food the previous month. This is an example of a(n) _______________.
Justification, or excuse?

Question 16
Putting in the effort to adequately define the problem is:

Question 17
What is the correct order to decision making and problem solving?

Question 18
If you see a couple of viable options among your top choices, you may benefit from making a(n):

Question 19
What is something that can lead to making good decisions?

Question 20
A good practice when making a decision involves:

Question 21
The two parts of an argument are _______ and _______.

Question 22
When debating solutions to problems related to climate change on a national level, what problem related to climate change has a prominent amount of conflicting political opinions?

Question 23
When listening to people debating a topic, a critical thinker should ignore:

Question 24
The false dichotomy fallacy is a fallacy in which the arguer:

Question 25
A claim and an argument are similar in that they both _____________, however, an argument specifically ____________.

Euphemism

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_euphemism.pdf

Exaggeration/Hyperbole

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_exaggeration.pdf

Glittering Generalities

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_glittering.pdf

Plain Folks

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_plain.pdf

Repetition

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_repetition.pdf

Rhetorical Question

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_rhetorical.pdf

Selective Connotation and Word Choice

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_connotation.pdf

Sex Appeal

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_sexappeal.pdf

Snob Appeal

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_snob.pdf

Something for Nothing

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_nothing.pdf

Urgency or Call to Action

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/learning_urgency.pdf

Hooking the Audience (can be used for the Deceiving exercise)

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/using_hooking2.pdf

Ditto: Creating a Commercial

http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/images/using_creating.pdf



RESOURCES

Constitution vs. Police State

Constitution

Conditioning

http://www.infowars.com/homeland-security-feds-swarm-small-town-in-bizarre-unannounced-show-of-force/

11 July 2014

The charge: child pornography, http://www.bnd.com/2014/07/11/3298235/federal-raid-near-alhambra-results.html

Killed ISIS Islamist Passed Security Check, Worked at Airport: TSA for the Americans

No security.

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), (Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية‎ ad-Dawlah al-ʾIslāmiyyah), formerly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is an unrecognized jihadist state in the heart of Middle East, widely regarded as a terrorist organisation by western governments and their allies. In its self-proclaimed status as a caliphate, it claims religious authority over all Muslims across the world and aspires to bring much of the Muslim-inhabited regions of the world under its direct political control.

“ISIL speaks for no religion. Their victims are overwhelmingly Muslim, and no faith teaches people to massacre innocents." Barack Obama

State Department Spokesperson Denies ISIS is Islamist

The "I" stands for what?

21 August 2014

1:51

State Department Spokesperson

State Department: Beheading, War, or Something

James Rosen questions State Dept Spokesman Jen Psaki, 3:04

http://youtu.be/4B0pRl2cOco



State Department Won't Confirm If Passports of Americans Fighting With ISIS Have Been Revoked
CIA Expert, Clare Lopez: Obama Switched Sides to Back the Islamists

Obama Switched Sides

Clare Lopez spent two decades in the field as a CIA operations officer; was an instructor for military intelligence and special forces students; has been a consultant, intelligence analyst and researcher within the defense sector; and has published two books on Iran. Lopez currently manages the counter-jihad and Shariah programs at the Center for Security Policy, run by Frank Gaffney, former assistant secretary of defense for international security policy during the Reagan administration. Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2014/08/cia-expert-obama-switchedsides-in-war-on-terror/#dLZEWyJeE3I3jv2O.99

Clare Lopez on Obama's "New Beginning Speech", 5:42

http://youtu.be/D54FLD-Yeks



Ex-CIA Agent: Obama Switched Sides In War On Terror, 20:45

http://youtu.be/8yPbL7c71Xg



Maher, Liberalism, Islam

Maher

Infidel Churches Graffiti in Columbus

Pro-Islam Graffitti

My search of the Internet identified no Muslim organization willing to condemn the acts although there are numerous mosques in the Columbus area.

Islamist Palestinians on the Holocaust

Question

Derrick Bell

Increasing Poverty

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/11/kiss-gene-simmons-immigrants-learn-goddamn-english_n_5669913.html

Gene Simmons: Bloodspitting Through The Years (HD Upgrade)

Blood

Temple University Student Thugs Walk-Out During Speech, 4:42

http://youtu.be/6_ncNokPnfA



Judicial Reform

http://www.freedomworks.org/judicial-reform?source=063014IMG14dayHobbyLobby

Jersey Jihad

http://pamelageller.com/2014/08/american-muslim-murdered-teen-three-others-says-killings-act-jihad-vengeance-us.html/

Critical Thinking and the Media

Creating critical thinkers through media literacy: Andrea Quijada at TEDxABQED
REFERENCES

MUSLIMS ATTACK CHRISTIANS IN AMERICA OVER SHARIA LAW.mp4, 11:23

https://youtu.be/dPoOj0Qcnys



The Kominas Sharia Law in the U S A, 3:45

https://youtu.be/_M1cijnO4nA





Peshmerga (Kurdish: پێشمەرگە Pêşmerge, Kurdish pronunciation [pɛʃmærˈɡæ]) are the military forces of the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan. Peshmerga means "one who confronts death" or "one who faces death". "Pesh" means to stand in front of (loosely translated as to confront or face) while "merga" means death.[3][4] The overall formal head of the peshmerga is the President of Iraqi Kurdistan. The peshmerga force itself is largely divided and controlled separately by the Democratic Party of Kurdistan and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, although both pledge allegiance to the Kurdistan Regional Government. Efforts are under way to gather the entire force under the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs.[5] Peshmerga forces are responsible for defending the land, people and institutions of the Kurdistan Region.[6]

Because the Iraqi Army is forbidden by law from entering Iraqi Kurdistan,[7][8] the peshmerga, along with other Kurdish security subsidiaries, are responsible for the security of the Kurdish Region.[9][10][11] These subsidiaries include Asayish (official intelligence agency), Parastin u Zanyarî (assisting intelligence agency) and the Zeravani (military police).

In 2003, during the Iraq War, peshmerga are said to have played a key role in the mission to capture Saddam Hussein.[12][13] In 2004, Kurdish anti-terror forces captured al Qaeda key figure Hassan Ghul, who revealed the identity of Osama Bin Laden's messenger, which eventually led to Operation Neptune Spear and the death of Osama Bin Laden.[14][15]

Following an unexpected large-scale ISIS offensive against Iraqi Kurdistan in August 2014, peshmerga and other Kurdish forces from neighboring countries have been waging war against ISIS in both Iraq and Syria.


The Kurds (Kurdish: کوردKurd) also the Kurdish people (Kurdish: گەلێن کوردیGelê Kurdî) are an ethnic group[47] in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of eastern and southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).[48] The Kurds are culturally and linguistically closely related to the Iranian peoples[49][50][51] and, as a result, are often themselves classified as an Iranian people.[52] Many Kurds consider themselves descended from the ancient Medes, and even use a calendar dating from 612 B.C., when the Assyrian capital of Nineveh was conquered by the Medes[53] (Medes being another Iranian people[54]). The claimed Median descent is reflected in the words of the Kurdish national anthem: "we are the children of the Medes and Kai Khosrow".[55] The Kurdish languages form a subgroup of the Northwestern Iranian languages.[56][57]

The Kurds are estimated to number, worldwide, around 30–32 million, possibly as high as 37 million,[58] with the majority living in West Asia; however there are significant Kurdish diaspora communities in the cities of western Turkey, in particular Istanbul. A recent Kurdish diaspora has also developed in Western countries, primarily in Germany. The Kurds are the majority population in the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan and in the autonomous region of Rojava, and are a significant minority group in the neighboring countries Turkey and Iran, where Kurdish nationalist movements continue to pursue greater autonomy and cultural rights.

As a whole, the Kurdish people are adherents to a large number of different religions and creeds, perhaps constituting the most religiously diverse people of West Asia. Traditionally, Kurds have been known to take great liberties with their practices. This sentiment is reflected in the saying "Compared to the unbeliever, the Kurd is a Muslim".[223]

Today, the majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslim, belonging to the Shafi school.

The Shafi'i (Arabic: شافعي‎‎ Shāfiʿī ) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.[1][2] It was founded by the Arab scholar Al-Shafi‘i, a pupil of Malik, in the early 9th century.[3][4]

The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali.[1][2]

The Shafi school predominantly relies on the Quran and the Hadiths for Sharia.[3][5] Where passages of Quran and Hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from Ijma – the consensus of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions).[6] If there was no consensus, the Shafi'i school relies on individual opinion (Ijtihad) of the companions of Muhammad, followed by analogy.[3]
The Shafi'i school was, in the early history of Islam, the most followed ideology for Sharia.

However, with the Ottoman Empire's expansion and patronage, it was replaced with the Hanafi school in many parts of the Muslim world.[5] One of the many differences between the Shafi'i and Hanafi schools is that the Shafi'i school does not consider Istihsan (the personal preference of Islamic legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law.[7] 

The Shafi'i school is now predominantly found in Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, eastern Egypt, the Swahili coast, Yemen, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Dagestan, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus, Palestine, Lebanon, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, some coastal parts of Sri Lanka, India, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines.[8]


Hozan Alin - Peshmerga Song 2014, 3:46

Tekoshin stands on a mountain in north Iraq with a rifle slung over her shoulder and a grenade tucked into her belt, facing extremists in "a struggle to liberate women". Women have been fighting alongside men in the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to wrest Mount Makhmur in northern Iraq back from Islamic State (IS) extremists, whose treatment of women makes the fight especially personal for the dozens of female fighters on the mountain. IS-led militants have overrun large areas of Iraq, and the group also controls significant territory in neighbouring Syria, enacting its harshly restrictive and brutal interpretation of Islamic law in both countries. Tekoshin, 27, says she and other women are fighting the group not only because of the threat it poses to Kurds but because it "is against women's liberation". "They don't allow women in areas under their control to go to the market" and force them to wear headscarves, she says. "Our struggle against (the IS) is to defend women from them and from that kind of thinking." Some 50 women are among the fighters on the mountain from the PKK, which launched an insurgency for self-rule in Turkey in 1984 and has been listed as a terrorist group by countries including the United States, but began peace talks in 2012. At the entrance to the mountain town of Makhmur, "The Islamic State" was scrawled on a one-storey concrete house, but hastily painted over since the PKK took it back. Tekoshin says women fought side by side with the men in the battle to force out the extremists. "We usually organise ourselves in groups of four women, and I command one of the groups," she explained, wearing traditional Kurdish clothing usually seen on men. "But when it comes to fighting, we break up and we and the men deploy together on different fronts." Kurdish women have fought alongside men for years in the PKK, its Syrian offshoot the People's Protection Units (YPG), and to a lesser extent, the Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga forces.

https://youtu.be/mGvbx2q1yf0



Helly Luv - Revolution, 7:19, Peshmerga vs. Islamic State

Peshmerga

Kurdish

Pat Condell, First Amendment, 5:48

American Muslim Leader states: Islam to dominate.