Monday, September 13, 2010

Honors World History II: 14 September 2010


Current Events:

A Russian scientist claims to have created his own version of the fountain of youth. He says, when perfected, all you'll have to do is pop a pill to defy the aging process. The medicine is currently undergoing tests, but could be on sale within a few years.

Section 1 The Scientific Revolution

Sixteenth-century Europeans began to question the scientific assumptions of the ancient authorities and to develop new theories about the universe. Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Galilei revolutionized astronomy. Copernicus claimed that the sun, not the earth, was at the center of the universe—an idea considered heresy by the Catholic Church. Equally revolutionary were Isaac Newton's explanations of gravity and the movement of the planets. There were breakthroughs in medicine and chemistry, and numerous women contributed to the body of scientific research. The new view of the universe affected Western philosophy. The Frenchman Rene Descartes, the first rationalist, declared that matter could be independently investigated by reason. Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, developed the scientific method—a system for collecting and analyzing evidence.


The Scientific Revolution

In What Went Wrong?, Bernard Lewis writes of the key role of the Middle East in the rise of science in the Middle Ages, before things went wrong:

And then, approximately from the end of the Middle Ages, there was a dramatic change. In Europe, the scientific movement advanced enormously in the era of the Renaissance, the Discoveries, the technological revolution, and the vast changes, both intellectual and material, that preceded, accompanied, and followed them. In the Muslim world, independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to the veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge. There were some practical innovations — thus, for example, incubators were invented in Egypt, vaccination against smallpox in Turkey. These were, however, not seen as belonging to the realm of science, but as practical devices, and we know of them primarily from Western travelers.

Another example of the widening gap may be seen in the fate of the great observatory built in Galata, in Istanbul, in 1577. This was due to the initiative of Taqi al-Din (ca. 1526-1585), a major figure in Muslim scientific history and the author of several books on astronomy, optics, and mechanical clocks. Born in Syria or Egypt (the sources differ), he studied in Cairo, and after a career as jurist and theologian he went to Istanbul, where in 1571 he was appointed munejjim-bash, astronomer (and astrologer) in chief to the Sultan Selim II. A few years later he persuaded the Sultan Murad III to allow him to build an observatory, comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But there the comparison ends. Tycho Brahe's observatory and the work accomplished in it opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science. Taqi al-Din's observatory was razed to the ground by a squad of Janissaries, by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of Chief Mufti. This observatory had many predecessors in the lands of Islam; it had no successors until the age of modernization.

The relationship between Christendom and Islam in the sciences was now reversed. Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. They were willing enough to accept the products of infidel science in warfare and medicine, where they could make the difference between victory and defeat, between life and death. But the underlying philosophy and the sociopolitical context of these scientific achievements proved more difficult to accept or even recognize.

The Scientific Revolution

* Explain how new discoveries in astronomy changed the way people viewed the universe.
* Understand the new scientific method and how it developed.
* Analyze the contributions that Newton and other scientists made to the Scientific Revolution.

Terms, People, and Places

Nicolaus Copernicus

Pope Bans Copernicus' Theory of Sun-Centered Universe, 1:20

Ptolemy (c. AD 90 – c. 168), was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek; his influence was unprecedented in Islamic and European science and was not superseded until the Scientific Revolution.

The Catholic Church listed Copernicus' "De revolutionibus" on its Index of Prohibited Books, thus prohibiting its publication and denying the physical reality of the earth's movement around the sun. Andreas Cellarius circumvented the ban by depicting the theory in the lavish and ingenious drawings of "Harmonia macrocosmica", the most beautiful and famous Celestial Atlas.


Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Planetary Motion, 4:28

Are planets moved by angels? Kepler's book at first arose little attention. In 1618, what happened? In 1619, Harmony of the World was published. What is the Third Law?

Johannes Kepler


Galileo Galilei, 1:17

Francis Bacon

René Descartes

scientific method


Robert Boyle

Isaac Newton



The definitions of these Terms, People, and Places can be posted on the appropriate page of our Shanawiki site: Cf. Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution.

You have to go to the site first and request membership; I will approve you at:

Wikis in Plain English, 3:52

Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution


In 1609, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei heard of a new Dutch invention, the telescope. It was designed to help people see distant enemy ships. Galileo was interested for another reason—he wondered what would happen if he trained a telescope on the night sky. So he built his own telescope for this purpose. When he pointed it at the sky, he was amazed. The new telescope allowed him to see mountains on the moon, fiery spots on the sun, and four moons circling the planet Jupiter. “I did discover many particulars in Heaven that had been unseen and unheard of until this our age,” he later wrote.


Focus Question

How did discoveries in science lead to a new way of thinking for Europeans?

The Renaissance and the Reformation facilitated the breakdown of the medieval worldview. In the mid-1500s, a profound shift in scientific thinking brought about the final break with Europe’s medieval past. Called the Scientific Revolution, this movement pointed toward a future shaped by a new way of thinking about the physical universe. At the heart of the Scientific Revolution was the assumption that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe. The physical world, therefore, could be known, managed, and shaped by people.


Until the mid-1500s, Europeans’ view of the universe was shaped by the theories of the ancient writers Ptolemy and Aristotle. More than 1,000 years before the Renaissance, they had taught that Earth was the center of the universe. Not only did this view seem to agree with common sense, it was accepted by the Church. In the 1500s and 1600s, however, people began to question this view.
Copernicus Challenges Ancient Astronomy

In 1543, Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus (koh pur nih kus) published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. In it, he proposed a heliocentric, or sun-centered, model of the universe. The sun, he said, stands at the center of the universe. Earth is just one of several planets that revolve around the sun.

Most experts rejected this revolutionary theory. In Europe at the time, all scientific knowledge and many religious teachings were based on the arguments developed by classical thinkers. If Ptolemy’s reasoning about the planets was wrong, people believed, then the whole system of human knowledge might be called into question. But in the late 1500s, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (tee koh brah uh) provided evidence that supported Copernicus’s theory. Brahe set up an astronomical observatory. Every night for years, he carefully observed the sky, accumulating data about the movement of the heavenly bodies.

After Brahe’s death, his assistant, the brilliant German astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler, used Brahe’s data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun. His calculations supported Copernicus’s heliocentric view. At the same time, however, they showed that each planet does not move in a perfect circle, as both Ptolemy and Copernicus believed, but in an oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse.

Galileo’s “Heresies”

Scientists from many different lands built on the foundations laid by Copernicus and Kepler. In Italy, Galileo Galilei assembled an astronomical telescope. As you have read, he observed that the four moons of Jupiter move slowly around that planet—exactly, he realized, the way Copernicus said that Earth moves around the sun.

Views of the Moon

Galileo sketched the views of the moon he saw through his telescope in 1609. Pictures of the moon taken through a modern telescope look remarkably similar.

Galileo’s discoveries caused an uproar. Other scholars attacked him because his observations contradicted ancient views about the world. The Church condemned him because his ideas challenged the Christian teaching that the heavens were fixed in position to Earth, and perfect.

Vocabulary Builder

In 1633, Galileo was tried before the Inquisition, and for a year afterward he was kept under house arrest. Threatened with death unless he withdrew his “heresies,” Galileo agreed to state publicly in court that Earth stands motionless at the center of the universe. Legend has it that as he left the court he muttered, “And yet it moves.”

Contact info:
Shanahan: 610.518.1300 x4281
For Honors Business Economics and Honors World History II:
For World History 2:

Book references are available at:


HW or in-class work due the following day.

You may email to

1. Peruse Chapter 10 Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550-1800 (if you do not have a textbook yet; do not worry. We will cover any material you need in class): in particular, however, if reading, be familiar with the material in Section 1 The Scientific Revolution; we are covering this material in-class, and in detail, so every student has access to the same exact information.

2. On a first come, first serve basis (use your randomly generated student classroom number), accurately define the Terms, People, and Places at

Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution.


If you can add more information than you see posted please free to add to the discussion. Comments and questions on the material can be posted on the wiki page.

Honors Business Economics Chapter 1 Section 1, 14 September 2010


Current Events:

1. Will the unemployment rate be coming down any time soon (Austan Goolsbee) according to Obama's chief economic adviser?

The top White House economic adviser says the high unemployment rate will continue for some time.

There is a grim economic forecast on the horizon.

2. Who or what does the Treasury Secretary (Tim Geithner) blame?

He blames the previous Administration.

3. What does John Tamny,, state that was not brought up by the previous commentators?

Weak dollar, money is devalued, investment is high and people are reluctant to invest (and most importantly for people who want to work--hire), regulation makes it difficult for businesses to expand, higher tax rates on individuals makes it difficult for business to have access to funds for investments, the higher the rich are taxed, who have the money to hire, the fewer jobs available, the current regime is taking on the one hand from the people who could be hiring, and then, we will return part of the money we collected from you, and if not taxed, businesses will have the capital to grow.

In short, Federal policy and national politics are hindering the economy.

Chapter 1: What Is Economics?

Web Activity Lesson Plans

The Student Web Activity is based on a class lesson that we will work on at some point as a class activity. To do this activity, students should look up and define these three terms before the Activity begins (i.e., this is Homework material):

human capital


opportunity cost

In addition, students can post a definition online at our Shanawiki page:


You have to go to the site first and request membership; I will approve you at:

Wikis in Plain English, 3:52

Student Web Activity

Chapter Overview

Section 1: Scarcity and the Science of Economics

Economics is a social science that deals with the fundamental economic problem of scarcity—a condition caused by the combination of seemingly unlimited wants and limited resources. Because of this, people are forced to make choices and decisions about how they will use their resources. People have needs such as food, clothing, and shelter; people have wants, which are nonessential ways of expressing needs. The notion of TINSTAAFL, which stands for There Is No Such Thing As A Free Lunch, is often used to remind us that resources are scarce and that we must make careful economic decisions regarding WHAT, HOW, and FOR WHOM to produce. Other concepts relevant to economics are the four factors of production: land, capital, labor, and entrepreneurs. And the four key elements to this study are description, analysis, explanation, and prediction.

In addition, the Hands-On Chapter Project relates the content from each section to the Big Idea. This Chapter Project is:

Participating in the Fed Challenge

The steps in each section build on each other and culminate in the Wrap-Up Activity on the Visual Summary page (p. 27).

Definition of Economics

The first thing that we should discuss is the definition of "economics." Economists generally define economics as the study of how individuals and societies use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants. To see how this concept works, think about your own situation. Do you have enough time available for everything that you wish to do? Can you afford every item that you would like to own? Economists argue that virtually everyone wants more of something. Even the wealthiest individuals in society do not seem to be exempt from this phenomenon.

This problem of limited resources and unlimited wants also applies to society as a whole.
Can you think of any societies in which all wants are satisfied? Most societies would prefer to have better health care, higher quality education, less poverty, a cleaner environment, etc. Unfortunately, there are not enough resources available to satisfy all of these goals.

Thus, economists argue that the fundamental economic problem is scarcity. Since there are not enough resources available to satisfy everyone’s wants, individuals and societies have to choose among available alternatives. An alternative, and equivalent, definition of economics is that economics is the study of how such choices are made.

Section 1: Scarcity and the Science of Economics, p. 5

Guide to Reading

Section Preview

Content Vocabulary

Academic Vocabulary
Eventually, these vocabulary terms can be defined and posted on Shanawiki. For practice, we will only post the three terms already mentioned for the Student Web Activity exercise.

Interactive Graphic Organizers, Chapter 1, Section 1 - Reading Strategy, p. 5 (Cf. Fill-in, p. 7).

WHAT to Produce

HOW to Produce

FOR WHOM to Produce

People in the News

Teens in the Red

The Fundamental Economic Problem, p. 6

This is your in-class assignment for today: answer the questions listed below (you can email the answers with your HW for today).

Scarcity, 2:54

According to the video, why are goods and services scarce? What is in short supply? What three elements supply the economy?

This is an excellent illustration for your notebook.

Scarcity & Choice (Shhh, if the volume is too low), 4:36

According to the video, what is Economics? What is scarcity? Can you provide an example of a choice that is not rational nor is it in your self-interest?

Definition of Economics

Definition of scarcity
Needs and Wants

TINSTAAFL (There Is No Such Thing As A Free Lunch)

Reading Check


What's the difference between a need and a want?

Three Basic Questions, p. 7

WHAT to Produce

HOW to Produce

FOR WHOM to Produce

Reading Check


Why are societies faced with the three basic questions of WHAT, HOW, and FOR WHOM?

The Factors of Production, p. 8

Graphic Organizer: Chapter 1, Section 1 - Review, The (4) Factors of Production, p. 8

p. 8: Descriptions of Land, Capital, Labor, and Entrepreneurs




Entrepreneurs, p. 9

A good is said to be an economic good (also known as a scarce good) if the quantity of the good demanded exceeds the quantity supplied at a zero price. In other words, a good is an economic good if people want more of it than would be available if the good were available for free.

A good is said to be a free good if the quantity of the good supplied exceeds the quantity demanded at a zero price. In other words, a good is a free good if there is more than enough available for everyone even when the good is free. Economists argue that there are relatively few, if any, free goods.

An item is said to be an economic bad if people are willing to pay to avoid the item. Examples of economic "bads" include things like garbage, pollution, and illness.

Goods that are used to produce other goods or services are called economic resources (and are also known as inputs or factors of production). These resources are often categorized into the following groups:

1. Land,
2. Labor,
3. Capital, and
4. Entrepreneurial ability.

The category of "land" includes all natural resources. These natural resources include the land itself, as well as any minerals, oil deposits, timber, or water that exists on or below the ground. This category is sometimes described as including only the "free gifts of nature," those resources that exist independent of human action.

The labor input consists of the physical and intellectual services provided by human beings. The resource called "capital" consists of the machinery and equipment used to produce output. Note that the use of the term "capital" differs from the everyday use of this term. Stocks, bonds, and other financial assets are not capital under this definition of the term.

Entrepreneurial ability refers to the ability to organize production and bear risks.

The resource payment associated with each resource is listed in the table below:

Economic Resource Resource Payment
land rent
labor wages
capital interest
entrepreneurial ability profit

And, again here below:

Reading Check


What would happen if one of the factors of production was missing?

The Global Economy & You

Global Entrepreneurs Drive the Economy

The Scope of Economics


Analysis, p. 10



Reading Check


Why is economics considered to be a social science?

Web Activity Lesson Plans

The Student Web Activity is based on the class lesson. For example, students should look up and define these three terms before the Activity begins:

human capital


opportunity cost

Terms defined:

Student Web Activity
Chapter 1: What Is Economics?

Student Web Activity

"Learning About an Occupation"


The freedom to make our own economic decisions, including our occupations, employers, and when and where we work, is one of our most cherished freedoms. Information available on the World Wide Web makes these choices increasingly easier to explore. One useful source is the Occupational Outlook Handbook from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. It has detailed information on hundreds of occupations—from "able seamen" to "zoologists"—including job descriptions, earnings, job outlooks, and educational requirements. It is never too early to think about an occupation. The Handbook may even help you to decide which courses you want to take before you graduate. One occupation you might want to consider is that of an economist. Economists have one of the higher paying jobs in the economy and it's a career worth considering.

The class will be divided into four groups and one of the questions below will eventually be your group question. Your group is expected to find a suggested answer to each of the four questions, and then your group will answer one question for the entire class.

1. Read the description under "Nature of the Work." Then, describe several aspects of the job that appeal to you.

2. If you were to decide to become an economist, what other academic disciplines would you have to study in college? Why is this so?

3. Where do economists find employment, and what salaries can economists expect to make?

4. What are the opportunity costs that you are likely to encounter if you decide to become an economist?

Textbook site:

Economics: Principles and Practices

Economics Web Links

Games & Simulations

Stock Market Game (SMG)

"Student teams are $15 each."

Mankiw Macroeconomics Presidential Game

Please note: this game requires the Shockwave version 7.0 or higher: test page for Shockwave.

There is an abundance of economics resources for Mankiw (edition 5e) as well.

The outro video is a student project on scarcity.

Tyler Gaston - Scarcity, 4:37

ECN211 Macroeconomics Video Project
'Scarcity' - words and music by Tyler S. Gaston


When theres nothing to do, nothing to say, when nothing in life is going your way thats economics, oh, scarcity
When you want that car, that will get you far, but all youve found you got an empty penny jar thats economic, oh scarcity,

Scarcity, nothing in the world for free yeah scarcity, cause money dont grow on trees yeah scarcity just look around and see

When you want that grade, and your bed to be made, but wasted all that time tryin to hit a fade thats economics, oh scarcity,
When you want that steak, and then that cake, but give the hungry kids a break thats economics, oh scarcity

Scarcity, nothing in the world for free yeah scarcity, cause money dont grow on trees yeah scarcity just look around and see

With so many wants, and much fewer needs, its up to you what kind of life youll lead thats economics, oh scarcity,
So make the choice, and make it wise, cause you may not get another try thats economics, oh scarcity

Scarcity, nothing in the world for free yeah scarcity, cause money dont grow on trees yeah scarcity just look around and see

Textbook site:

Economics: Principles and Practices

Economics Web Links

Games & Simulations

National Geographic MapMachine and maps to illustrate areas.

Study-to-Go: download a portable version of your textbook-related materials onto your Palm or Pocket PC, including Self-Check Quizzes.


This Index page collects all of the stories that we have written about the nation’s economic and financial crisis.


Cf. Scarcity

Energy Crisis: Resource Scarcity, Oil Wars & Climate Change, 1:25:18

Participants: George Soros; Mary Kaldor; Yahia Said; Sir Nicholas Stern. Chaired by Howard Davies

Description: This event seeks to promote their political agenda and thinking about energy security, and marks the launch of the publication Oil Wars, edited by Mary Kaldor, Terry Karl and Yahia Said.

July 4, 2007 at the London School of Economics.

(Audio only unfortunately)


Answer online, email me at, or in a hard copy hand in.

1. Students should look up and define these three terms.

a. human capital

b. trade-offs

c. opportunity cost

These terms will be defined and posted as well on the Shanawiki site.

You have to go to the site first and request membership; I will approve you at:

Wikis in Plain English

2. This is your in-class assignment for today: answer the questions listed below (you can email the answers with your HW for today).


According to the video, why are goods and services scarce? What is in short supply? What three elements supply the economy?