Tuesday, January 31, 2017

HUM 111 Week 5 Winter 2017

One 15-minute break at 8:00; roll taken before dismissal at 10:00 pm.


Week 5 Explore


Muslim Structures and Pilgrimage
Christian Structures and Pilgrimage

HUM111 Music for Week 5

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In this week's readings (chaps. 9-10), there are several musical compositions mentioned.  These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.   Watch and give them a listen.   Here below is some background and description of each--and the link to the YouTube (and sometimes other helps).
  1. Traditional: Sunjata (chap. 9, pp. 302-304)
  
Traditional music of West Africa, and a traditional epic of West Africa:  Read carefully in Chapter 9 (pp. 302-304) about the importance of the epic story of Sunjata (=Sundiata or Sundjata), a hero of the Mandinka people and founder of the Mali empire in the 1200s AD.  His deeds have been widely told and sung by griots in West Africa for many centuries. Sunjata had been crippled as a child and his mother cruelly ridiculed because of it. Sunjata overcame these burdens to become a great hero and leader. See summary at http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/CoursePack/coursepackpast/sundjata.htm#Summary .  For the story in English translation, see http://www.bu.edu/africa/files/pdf/SUNDIATA1.pdf   .  Most in Mali in this time, including Sunjata himself, practiced indigenous West African religions, but Islam was starting to spread.  Sunjata’s grandson, Mansa Musa (p. 302), would be Muslim and become Mali’s most renowned ruler.

  1. Andalusian music from Nuba ‘al’istihlal (chap. 9, p. 308). This music is from Muslim Spain.  Signficant parts of spain were under Muslim rule (pp. 304, 307, 679) from 711 CE until the last Muslim stronghold of Granada fell in 1492, and chapter 9 describes some of the rich musical developments there. On p. 308 you read a description of the word oud and also of the development of the “guitar” (the word “guitar goes back to India’s Sanskrit language as well as to Persian and Greek--an ancient Greek stringed instrument was the kithara ).  But the modern instrument of the guitar seems to have evolved through a line of stringed instruments developed in North Africa and Spain.  See and hear at: 
                 ----------------------------- 
  1. Listen to a traditional Gregorian chant, a neumatic chant as described on p. 336 (chap. 10):  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FS_AjMPqy04 .  This is traditionally called Psalm 109 (the Latin Vulgate has slightly different numbering; in Protestant Bibles it is Psalm 110).  See full text of the Latin lyrics with english transaltion at:  http://www.artemusica.us/repertoire/handels-dixit-dominus/lyrics-of-dixit-dominus/. 
Here is a similar chant of the same type: 
      Alleluia Pascha Nostrum
Read carefully chapter 10 (pp. 335-336) about neumatic chant and then give a listen to this musical chant. (Alleluia Pascha Nostrum= Hallelujah, Christ our Passover; based on 1 Cor. 5:7).  This is an adaptation of plainchant or neumatic chant from the medieval church. 

  1. Kyrie Eleison, Cunctipotens genitor Deus (chap. 10, p. 336)
Read p. 336 (in chap. 10) carefully and then listen to this.  This is an example of a melismatic chant in which some syllables are extended and sung with many notes. Kyrie Eleison Cunctipotens genitor Deus ("Lord, have mercy, all-powerful Father, God") is sung here in melismatic form.
  1. O successores (chap. 10, p. 336)  Hildegard of Bingen
Read p. 336 (in chap. 10) carefully.  Then give this a listen; the composition of this chant  is attributed to the great Hildegard of Bingen (see pp. 333-5), who lived ca. AD 1098-1179) and was renowned as a writer, composer, and scholar. This chant, as described on p. 336, is more complex in form than those in the previous two music selections above.

  1. Alleluia, Dies Sanctificatus (chap. 10, p. 347; compare  chap. 12, p. 417)  Leonin (this selection was also in Week 6; it is discussed in both chapters 10 and 12)
Read p. 347 (in chap. 10) carefully; also glance ahead at p. 417 (in chap. 12).  Then consider the term polyphony (two or more lines of melody) as you listen to this, as well as the other terms suggested. This selection is a partricular form called “melismatic”.  The composer (Leonin) worked in the Notre Dame Cathedral (Paris) in the late 1100s AD.  Alleluia, Dies Sanctificatus (="Hallelujah, A Holy Day") is a chant normally sung at Christmas. This was one of the polyphonic chants in Léonin’s Magnus Liber Organi (his “Big Book of Polyphony”!).  You can see how chant is developing even further from those examples in the earlier works above.
  
  1.     Can Vei La Lauzeta Mover (chap. 10, pp. 350-351)  = "When I see the skylark beating..."
Read pp. 350-351 in chap. 10. This is a secular troubador song about a romantic love but now lost in rejection. The troubador who originally composed this in the late 1100s AD was Bernard de Ventadour.  Can Vei La Lauzeta Mover (="When I see the skylark beating" its wings) is here done in a traditional style for a sad song such as this.

  1. A chantar http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4NACeUqS2D4  (chap. 10, p. 351) Beatriz de Dia (for original language, see: http://www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=46209;  see English translation at http://el-hydra.blogspot.com/2011/03/chantar-mer.htm; added note: Reading 10.8 on p. 351 is a translation of lyrics of a different song by Beatriz, one for whom the music does not survive, though some have tried anyway)
Read p. 351 in chap. 10. The title A chantar simply means "A Song".  This one was done by a female troubadour (Beatriz de Dia) of the late 1100s AD.


Click the image below to learn more about the Pillars of Islam.

Muhammad recites, the 5 pillars are established. Islam's dynamic spread in the 7th Century.

Click the image below to learn more about Charles Martel and the Carolingian Dynasty.

The 7-Day Stare: Charles Martel defends Christian Europe and starts a dynasty.
Click the image below to learn more about the Norman Conquest.

William the Conqueror and the bloody scramble for England.
Click the image below to learn more about the Crusades.

Why did the crusades begin, and what did they achieve?

Islam FisherBriefPPT_Ch10.ppt

List of Killings Ordered or Supported by Muhammad

http://wikiislam.net/wiki/List_of_Killings_Ordered_or_Supported_by_Muhammad

Islam Notes

Islam Notes.jpg

Imam vs. Religious Scholar: http://youtu.be/LfyXUszMyOk

London Imam and Robert Spencer




  • Qur’an
In Search of the Original Koran: The True History of the Revealed Text by Mondher Sfar, Other authors: Emilia Lanier (Translator), Prometheus Books (2008), Hardcover, 152 pages: http://www.librarything.com/work/5277730/summary/56079606
References on the Qur'an: http://www.librarything.com/catalog/gmicksmith&collection=-1&deepsearch=Quran+Koran
  • Spread of Islam
"Contrary to the conventional wisdom, it is the Middle East where the institution of empire not only originated (for example, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Iran, and so on) but where its spirit has also outlived its European counterpart. . . . The birth of Islam, by contrast [to Christianity], was inextricably linked with the creation of a world empire and its universalism was inherently imperialist. It did not distinguish between temporal and religious powers, which were combined in the person of Muhammed, who derived his authority directly from Allah and acted at one and the same time as head of the state and head of the church. This allowed the prophet to cloak his political ambitions with a religious aura and to channel Islam's energies into `its instrument of aggressive expansion, there [being] no internal organism of equal force to counterbalance it'" (pp. 2, 6).

Islamic Imperialism: A History by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press (2007), Edition: Updated Ed, Paperback, 304 pages: http://www.librarything.com/work/837890/summary/33242772
References on the spread of Islam: http://www.librarything.com/catalog/gmicksmith&collection=-1&deepsearch=Jihad

The Kaaba

In her book, Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba was at some point dedicated to Hubal, a Nabatean deity, and contained 360 idols that probably represented the days of the year.

In the history of religions, Mircea Eliade developed the notion of the axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, columna cerului, center of the world, world tree), and in religion or mythology, it is the world center or the connection between Heaven and Earth. As the celestial pole and geographic pole, it expresses a point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet. At this point travel and correspondence is made between higher and lower realms. Communication from lower realms may ascend to higher ones and blessings from higher realms may descend to lower ones and be disseminated to all. The spot functions as the omphalos (navel), the world's point of beginning. Numerous sites have been noted in Africa, the Middle East, Australia, The Americas, Europe, and Asia. The Kaaba is one such site.

The Iran Nuke Documents that Obama Doesn't Want You to See

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/07/30/the-iran-nuke-documents-obama-doesn-t-want-you-to-see.html

28 October 2016




Congress: Attorney General
Lynch ‘Pleads Fifth’ on Secret Iran ‘Ransom’ Payments

Obama admin blocking congressional probe into cash payments to Iran

http://freebeacon.com/national-security/attorney-general-lynch-pleads-fifth-secret-iran-ransom-payments/




9 The Rise and Spread of Islam A NEW RELIGION 289

    The Prophet Muhammad 291


THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD

    What are the principal tenets of the Muslim faith?

Born in Mecca in about 570 to a prominent family that traced its ancestry back to Ismael, son of Abraham, Muhammad was orphaned at age six and received little formal education. He worked in the desert caravan trade, first as a camel driver for his uncle, and then, after marrying a wealthy widow 15 years his senior, as head of his wife’s flourishing caravan firm. At the age of 40, in 610, he heard a voice in Arabic—the archangel Gabriel’s, as the story goes—urging him, “Recite!” He responded, “What shall I recite?” And for the next 22 years, he claimed to receive messages, or “recitations,” from God through the agency of Gabriel. These he memorized and dictated to scribes, who collected them to form the scriptures of Islam, the Qur’an (or Koran), which means “recitations.” Muhammad also claimed that Gabriel commanded him to declare himself the “Seal of the Prophets,” that is, the messenger of the one and only Allah (the Arab word for God) and the final prophet in a series of prophets extending from Abraham and Moses to Jesus.

At the core of Muhammad’s revelations is the concept of submission to God—the word Islam, in fact, means “submission” or “surrender.” God, or Allah, is all—all-powerful, all-seeing, all-merciful. Because the universe is his creation, it is necessarily good and beautiful, and the natural world reflects Allah’s own goodness and beauty. To immerse oneself in nature is thus to be at one with God. But the most beautiful creation of Allah is humankind, which God made in his own image. Like Christians, Muslims believe that human beings possess immortal souls and that they can live eternally in heaven if they surrender to Allah and accept him as the one and only God.

Muslims, or practitioners of Islam, dedicate themselves to the “five pillars” of the religion:

    Witness (Shahadah): The repetition of the shahadah, or “witness,” which consists of a single sentence, “There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.”

    Prayer (Salat): The practice of daily prayer, recited facing Mecca, five times each day, at dawn, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset, and nightfall, and the additional requirement for all men to gather for a noon prayer and sermon on Fridays.

    Alms (Zakat): The habit of giving alms to the poor and needy, consisting of at least one-fortieth of a Muslim’s assets and income.

    Fasting (Sawm): During the lunar month of Ramadan (which, over a 33-year period, will occur in every season of the year), the ritual obligation to fast by abstaining from food, drink, medicine, tobacco, and sexual intercourse from sunrise to sundown each day.

    Pilgrimage (Hajj): At least once in every Muslim’s life, in the twelfth month of the Muslim calendar, the undertaking of a pilgrimage to Mecca.

The five pillars are supported by the teachings of the Qur’an, which, slightly shorter than the New Testament, consists of 114 surahs, or chapters, each numbered but more commonly referred to by their titles. Each begins, as do most Muslim texts, with the bismillah, the first word of the sacred invocation bismillah al-rahman al-rahim, which can be translated “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, Ever-Merciful” (see Closer Look, pages 294–295). When, after Muhammad’s death in 632, the Qur’an’s text was established in its definitive form, the 114 surahs were arranged from the longest to the shortest. Thus, the first surah contains 287 ayas, or verses, while the last consists of only 3. The mandatory ritual prayer (salat) that is performed five times a day consists of verses from Surahs 2, 4, and 17.


Carson Muslim president would need to reject tenets of Islam, 5:56

Published on Sep 27, 2015

https://youtu.be/9UXfTym4MiQ



Separation of Mosque and state: Gov't school teaches Islamic tenets, 2:31

https://youtu.be/JuSR1XaHJso

     

The Qur’an 292

As the direct word of God, the beauty of the Qur’an’s poetry rises above what any worldly poet might create, even though in pre-Islamic Arabia, poetry was considered the highest form of art. The beauty of the poetry inspired the creation of many beautiful editions of the work (Fig. 9.4) and, as we shall see, the art of calligraphy. But unfortunately, the beautiful, melodic qualities of the Arabic language are completely lost in translation, a fact that has helped to inspire generations of non-Arabic-speaking Muslims to learn the language. Almost all Muslims regularly read the Qur’an in Arabic, and many have memorized it completely. Translations of the Qur’an are problematic on another, more important level. Since the Qur’an is believed to be the direct word of God, it cannot be modified, let alone translated—a translation of the Qur’an is no longer the Qur’an. Nevertheless, something of the power of the poem’s imagery can be understood in translation. Consider a passage describing paradise from the Surah 76, known as “Time” (Reading 9.1a):

Stop 4:40

https://youtu.be/C-XUwD9XFuU



The Quran Reloaded: Atheists Read the Quran #1, 21:22

It's finally here! Hugo and Jake take their first steps in their newest attempt to get themselves killed. Donate- www.patreon.com/tbr Hugo's Twitter- @HugoReloaded Jake's Twitter- @BibleReloaded TBR Logo Created By- Chris Cheape aka CheapeOne Front End/Back End Logos and Buttons Created by- Iskander Aminov aka @Izzy_IRA Theme Song- "Hugo and Jake" Written, performed, and sung by- Dorian Silk Download the Theme Song Here- https://soundcloud.com/mcityhoods/hug... Lyrics- https://www.evernote.com/shard/s85/sh... Dorian's Twitter- @DorianSilk

https://youtu.be/y_qd__gTNWU





        The Hadith 293

In addition to the Qur’an, another important source of Islamic tradition are collections of hadith, meaning “narratives” or “reports,” which consist of sayings of Muhammad and anecdotes about his life. The story of Muhammad and the Black Rock of the Kaaba comes from the hadith. The hadith literature was handed down orally, as was common in Arab society until about 100 years after Muhammad’s death, when followers began to write the sayings down (Reading 9.2).

African American slavery and Islam, the truth not told, 8:47
Slave trade of black Africans by Moslems, the untold history and story. Islamic history is the world's primary driving force behind black African slavery. The Islamic black slave trade engendered brutality, sexual concubine of women, and elicited an extremely high death toll during the slave transports. The Islamic slave trade comprehensively dwarfs any other slave trade in recorded human history.

https://youtu.be/idqJ1hn76Ek



Quran

Quran (33:50) - "O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those (slaves) whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee" This is one of several personal-sounding verses "from Allah" narrated by Muhammad - in this case allowing a virtually unlimited supply of sex partners. Other Muslims are restricted to four wives, but they may also have sex with any number of slaves, following the example of their prophet.
Quran (23:5-6) - "..who abstain from sex, except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, or (the captives) whom their right hands possess..." This verse permits the slave-owner to have sex with his slaves. See also Quran (70:29-30). The Quran is a small book, so if Allah used valuable space to repeat the same point four times, sex slavery must be very important to him. He was relatively reticent on matters of human compassion and love.
Quran (4:24) - "And all married women (are forbidden unto you) save those (captives) whom your right hands possess." Even sex with married slaves is permissible.
Quran (8:69) - "But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good" A reference to war booty, of which slaves were a part. The Muslim slave master may enjoy his "catch" because (according to verse 71) "Allah gave you mastery over them."
Quran (24:32) - "And marry those among you who are single and those who are fit among your male slaves and your female slaves..." Breeding slaves based on fitness.
Quran (2:178) - "O ye who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female." The message of this verse, which prescribes the rules of retaliation for murder, is that all humans are not created equal. The human value of a slave is less than that of a free person (and a woman's worth is also distinguished from that of a man).
Quran (16:75) - "Allah sets forth the Parable (of two men: one) a slave under the dominion of another; He has no power of any sort; and (the other) a man on whom We have bestowed goodly favours from Ourselves, and he spends thereof (freely), privately and publicly: are the two equal? (By no means;) praise be to Allah.' Yet another confirmation that the slave is is not equal to the master. In this case, it is plain that the slave owes his status to Allah's will. (According to 16:71, the owner should be careful about insulting Allah by bestowing Allah's gifts on slaves - those whom the god of Islam has not favored).
Hadith and Sira Sahih Bukhari (80:753) - "The Prophet said, 'The freed slave belongs to the people who have freed him.'"
Sahih Bukhari (52:255) - The slave who accepts Islam and continues serving his Muslim master will receive a double reward in heaven.
Sahih Bukhari (41.598) - Slaves are property. They cannot be freed if an owner has outstanding debt, but they can be used to pay off the debt.
Sahih Bukhari (62:137) - An account of women taken as slaves in battle by Muhammad's men after their husbands and fathers were killed. The woman were raped with Muhammad's approval.
Sahih Bukhari (34:432) - Another account of females taken captive and raped with Muhammad's approval. In this case it is evident that the Muslims intend on selling the women after raping them because they are concerned about devaluing their price by impregnating them. Muhammad is asked about coitus interruptus.
Sahih Bukhari (47.765) - A woman is rebuked by Muhammad for freeing a slave girl. The prophet tells her that she would have gotten a greater heavenly reward by giving her to a relative (as a slave).
Sahih Bukhari (34:351) - Muhammad sells a slave for money. He was thus a slave trader.
Sahih Bukhari (72:734) - Some contemporary Muslims in the West (where slavery is believed to be a horrible crime) are reluctant to believe that Muhammad owned slaves. This is just one of many places in the Hadith where a reference is made to a human being owned by Muhammad. In this case, the slave is of African descent.
Sahih Muslim 3901 - Muhammad trades away two black slaves for one Muslim slave.
Sahih Muslim 4345 - Narration of a military raid against a hapless tribe trying to reach their water hole. During the slaughter, the women and children attempt to flee, but are cut off and captured by the Muslims. This story refutes any misconception that Muhammad's sex slaves were taken by their own volition.
Sahih Muslim 4112 - A man freed six slaves on the event of his death, but Muhammad reversed the emancipation and kept four in slavery to himself. He cast lots to determine which two to free.
Sahih Bukhari (47:743) - Muhammad's own pulpit - from which he preached Islam - was built with slave labor on his command.
Sahih Bukhari (59:637) - "The Prophet sent Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus (of the booty) and I hated Ali, and Ali had taken a bath (after a sexual act with a slave-girl from the Khumus). I said to Khalid, 'Don't you see this (i.e. Ali)?' When we reached the Prophet I mentioned that to him. He said, 'O Buraida! Do you hate Ali?' I said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumlus.'" Muhammad approved of his men having sex with slaves, as this episode involving his son-in-law, Ali, clearly proves. This hadith refutes the modern apologists who pretend that slaves were really "wives." This is because Muhammad had forbidden Ali from marrying another woman as long as Fatima (his favorite daughter) was living.
Abu Dawud (2150) - "The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the Companions of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives in the presence of their husbands who were unbelievers. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Qur’anic verse: (Quran 4:24) 'And all married women (are forbidden) unto you save those (captives) whom your right hands possess.'" This is the background for verse 4:24 of the Quran. Not only does Allah give permission for women to be captured and raped, but allows it to even be done in front of their husbands. (See also Muslim 3432 & Ibn Kathir/Abdul Rahman Part 5 Page 14)
Abu Dawud (1814) - "...[Abu Bakr] He then began to beat [his slave] him while the Apostle of Allah (pbuh) was smiling and saying: Look at this man who is in the sacred state (putting on ihram), what is he doing?" The future first caliph of Islam is beating his slave for losing a camel while Muhammad looks on in apparent amusement.
Ibn Ishaq (734) - A slave girl is given a "violent beating" by Ali in the presence of Muhammad, who does nothing about it.
Abu Dawud 38:4458 - Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: “A slave-girl belonging to the house of the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) committed fornication. He (the Prophet) said: Rush up, Ali, and inflict the prescribed punishment on her. I then hurried up, and saw that blood was flowing from her, and did not stop. So I came to him and he said: Have you finished inflicting (punishment on her)? I said: I went to her while her blood was flowing. He said: Leave her alone till her bleeding stops; then inflict the prescribed punishment on her. And inflict the prescribed punishment on those whom your right hands possess (i.e. slaves)”. A slave girl is ordered by Muhammad to be beaten until she bleeds, and then beaten again after the bleeding stops. He indicates that this is prescribed treatment for slaves ("those whom your right hand possesses").
Ibn Ishaq (693) - "Then the apostle sent Sa-d b. Zayd al-Ansari, brother of Abdu'l-Ashal with some of the captive women of Banu Qurayza to Najd and he sold them for horses and weapons." Muhammad trades away women captured from the Banu Qurayza tribe to non-Muslim slave traders for property. (Their men had been executed after surrendering peacefully without a fight).
Umdat al-Salik (Reliance of the Traveller) (o9.13) - According to Sharia, when a child or woman is taken captive by Muslims, they become slaves by the mere fact of their capture. A captured woman's previous marriage is immediately annulled. This would not be necessary if she were widowed by battle, which is an imaginary stipulation that modern apologists sometimes pose.
Video of Islamic State members at one of the caliphate's sex slave markets in November, 2014. A price list was released setting the rate Yazidi and Christian girls between ages 10 and 20 at $130. Women between the ages of 20 and 30 were being sold for $86; a 30 to 40 year was being sold for $75 and 40 to 50 year old women were listed for sale at a price of $43. The price list began with these words: "In the name of Allah, most gracious and merciful. We have received news that the demand in women and cattle markets has sharply decreased and that will affected Islamic State revenues as well as the funding of the Mujaheddin in the battlefield. We have made some changes. Below are the prices of Yazidi and Christian women."
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2818598/Footage-shows-ISIS-fighters-attending-slave-girl-market.html#v-3872042561001
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2818598/Footage-shows-ISIS-fighters-attending-slave-girl-market.html


        The Hijra and Muslim Practice 293

In 622, Muhammad was forced to flee Mecca when its polytheistic leadership became irritated at his insistence on the worship of only one God. In a journey known as the hijra (or hegira, “emigration”), he and his followers fled to the oasis of Yathrib, 200 miles north, which theyrenamed al-Medina, meaning “the city of the Prophet.” Here Muhammad created a community based not on kinship, the traditional basis of Arab society, but on common submission to the will of God. Such submission did not need to be entirely voluntary. Muslims were obligated to pursue the spread of their religion, and they did so by means of the jihad, the impassioned religious struggle that could take either of two forms: a lesser form, holy war; or a greater form, self-control over the baser human appetites. In order to enforce submission, Muhammad raised an army of some 10,000 men and returned to Mecca, conquering the city and destroying the idols in the Kaaba, with the exception of the Black Stone. Confronted by a Muslim army defined by both piety and zealotry, soon the entire western region of Arabia came under Muslim sway.

The community of all Muslims would come to be known as the Umma. This represented such a departure from tradition that its creation required a new calendar. Based on lunar cycles, the Muslim year is about 11 days shorter than the Christian year, resulting in a difference of about three years per century. The calendar began in 622 ce. Thus, in the year 2013, the Muslims celebrated the start of their year 1434. 

Hijra to Europe
 
Ayaan Hirsi on the Islamization of Europe, Immigration Jihad and the Impotence of the West, 3:15
Ayaan Hirsi Ali, ardent defender of Western civilization against Islamic supremacism, New York Times bestselling author, former Dutch MP and recipient of The New Criterion’s fourth annual Edmund Burke Award for Service to Culture & Society argues that Islamic supremacists are using immigration or the Islamic concept of the ‘hijra’ as a means of Islamizing Europe while Europeans refuse to assimilate Muslims or defend their culture against those purposefully seeking to destroy it, during an in-depth interview for The New Criterion by Ben Weingarten, commentator and Founder & CEO of ChangeUp Media. For more from The New Criterion’s April 2016 ‘Edmund Burke Award’ gala and other compelling content, check out The New Criterion’s YouTube channel at http://www.youtube.com/user/TheNewCri....

https://youtu.be/U2gNs_w3tZQ



Clinton to Resettle One Million Muslim Migrants During First Term Alone

http://www.breitbart.com/2016-presidential-race/2016/07/14/clinton-resettle-one-million-muslim-migrants-first-term-alone/


    The Spread of Islam 298

    Why did Islam spread so rapidly?

Following the death of the Prophet in 632, the caliphs, or successors to Muhammad, assumed political and religious authority. The first two caliphs were Abu Bakr (r. 632–34) and Umar (r. 634–44), both of whom were fathers to two of Muhammad’s wives. Waiting in the wings was Ali, the Prophet’s cousin, second convert to Islam (after the prophet’s wife Khadija), and husband of Fatima, Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter. But when Umar died in 644, disciples responsible for choosing the new caliph, among them the two leading candidates for caliph, Ali and Uthman, a member of the Ummayad clan of Mecca, passed over Ali and selected the 70-year-old Uthman (r. 644–56). When Uthman was assassinated in 656, victim of an Egyptian revolt, Ali (r. 656–61) was finally named caliph, but over the objections of the Umayyad clan. In 661, Ali was assassinated by a rival faction, led by Muawiya, Uthman’s cousin, that opposed Ali’s rise to power, blaming him for refusing to avenge Uthman’s death. A more conservative group, the Kharijites, supported the assassination of Ali on grounds of his moral weakness. Muawiya (r. 661–80) became caliph, establishing the Umayyad dynasty, and moving the Caliphate from Medina in Arabia to Damascus in Syria. (This tension between Ali’s followers and the Ummayad caliphs exists to this day. Those who believe that only descendants of Ali should rule are known as Shiites [Shi’a, or “followers of Ali”], and they live largely in Iran and Iraq. Another group, known as Sunnis, who today represent the vast majority of Muslims, believe that religious leaders should be chosen by the faithful. These two groups continue to vie for power in present-day Islam, especially in Iraq. The more conservative Kharijites still survive in Oman and North Africa.)

Early Arab Conquests | 3 Minute History, 4:52

Covering the conquests during the Rashidun Caliphate. I will probably do a separate video on the First Fitna. Thanks for the 15,000 subs. And thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons. If you want to help out - https://www.patreon.com/Jabzy?ty=h

https://youtu.be/cXm0D63QepE



How many times Muslims invaded Europe vs. Europeans invaded Muslim countries? 3:43

Historical facts and Comparisons: How many times Muslims invaded Europe vs. Europeans invaded Muslim countries. Islamics Launched their Crusades in 630 A.D. Western Crusades started in 1095 A.D. to Stop Muslim Invasion. Crusades were a defensive action against the forcible expansion of Islam into territories that had been part of Christendom for centuries. The Crusades were started by the Muslims in the year 630 A.D. when Muhammad invaded and conquered Mecca. Later on, Muslims invaded Syria, Iraq, Jerusalem, Iran, Egypt, Africa, Spain, Italy, France, etc. The Western Crusades started around 1095 to try to stop the Islamic aggressive invasions. Islamic Crusades continued even after the Western Crusade. Islam has killed about 270 million people: 120 million Africans*, 60 million Christians, 80 million Hindus, 10 million Buddhists, etc. http://factreal.wordpress.com/2010/02...

https://youtu.be/c7y2LRcf4kc



        Works of the Umayyad Caliphs: The Great Mosque of Damascus 299

The departure of the Umayyad caliphs from Medina to Damascus required them to build a new mosque in Damascus (Fig. 9.8). Originally, the Muslim community in Damascus shared the site with the Christian community, who worshiped in a Byzantine church enclosed inside a walled compound. But by 705, the Muslim community had grown so large that radical steps had to be taken to accommodate it. During the reign of Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705), the Dome of the Rock (see Fig. 9.1) had been completed, and his son, al-Walid (r. 705–15), was responsible for the construction and decoration of the Great Mosque in Damascus. One large section of the original interior decoration survives—a glass mosaic landscape in the covered walkway surrounding the courtyard. The mosaics were probably the work of Christian Byzantine artisans brought to Damascus by al-Walid. Rising in improbable scale above the walkway is an expanse of colonnaded pavilions, towering trees, and arched bridges (Fig. 9.9). It has been suggested that this is the Paradise promised by the Prophet in Surah 76 of the Qur’an (see Reading 9.1a, pages 292–293), but it may be, instead, that this landscape was designed as simply an attractive decorative addition.

The Umayyad Mosque - Great Mosque of Damascus filmed by a drone, 1:41

 The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus, located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. It is considered by some Muslims to be the fourth-holiest place in Islam.

https://youtu.be/Y0-THsw4RLc



        Images in Muslim Art 300

 It is worth noting that human figures are notably absent in the Great Mosque’s mosaic decoration. Neither are there any animals. In fact, Muslim religious architecture is so notably free of figurative decoration that many people, even some Muslims, assume that representations of “living beings” are forbidden in Islam. The Byzantine emperor Leo III (see Chapter 8) attributed the successes of the Muslim armies to their ban on human figures in their mosques. The following admonition from the Qur’an (5:92) is often cited by Muslims who worry about the role of image-making in Muslim art and decoration: “O believers, wine and arrow-shuffling idols and divining arrows are an abomination, / some of Satan’s work; then avoid it.” But, it can be argued, “idols” here refers to pagan idols of the kind the Prophet eliminated from the Kaaba in Mecca. Also, at the time, Muhammad had allowed a painting of Mary and the infant Jesus to remain in the building. The hadiths, however, also supported those who opposed image-making. There the Prophet is reported to have warned, “An angel will not enter a house where there is a dog or a painting.” Likewise, the Prophet claimed that “those who make these pictures will be punished on the Day of Judgment by being told: Make alive what you have created.”

Some religious scholars believed that the ban on representation applied only to “living” things. Thus, the depiction of Paradise, as on the walls of the Great Mosque of Damascus, was acceptable, because Paradise is “beyond the living.” Such thinking would also lead the Muslim owner of a Persian miniature representing a prince feasting in the countryside to erase the heads of all those depicted (Fig. 9.10). Such an act is closely related to Byzantine iconoclasm, as no one could presume to think that figures without heads could possibly be “alive.” In fact, as we will see, Muslim artists in Persia took great delight in illustrating literary texts, creating scene after scene depicting people in various forms of action, including lovemaking. Their freedom to do so is partly explained by their distance from more conservative brands of Arabian Islam, but also by their belief that they were not illustrating “living beings” so much as fictive characters.

Why Are Pictures of Muhammad Forbidden In Islam? 3:27

The French offices of Charlie Hebdo were recently attacked by extremists over the magazine's controversial illustrations of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad. Why are depictions of the spiritual figure prohibited in Islam? Learn More: What Muslims Really Believe About Cartoons Of Muhammad http://thinkprogress.org/world/2015/0... Q&A: Depicting the Prophet Muhammad http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4674864.stm "Why the depictions have caused such offence." The Story of a Picture: Shiite Depictions of Muhammad https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bits... "In spite of the relative prohibition of graphic representation of living beings, especially members of the Prophet's family,1 as expressed by religious authorities in the Islamic world, colourful paper prints showing Ali, son-in- law of Muhammad, and his sons Hassan and Hussayn, even the Prophet himself, are not rare in contemporary Iran." Egypt Bans Movie 'Exodus' http://www.cnn.com/2014/12/27/world/m... The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of NY: A History of the Courthouse https://www.nycourts.gov/history/lega... Placement of the original 1955 exterior sculptures. Images of Muhammad, Gone for Good http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/12/wee... 1955, 1974, and 1977 incidents explained. Why Islam Does (Not) Ban Images of the Prophet http://www.faithstreet.com/onfaith/20... "Contrary to popular belief, Muslim artists over the centuries produced works of devotion, illuminated by faith, and imbued with a deep sense of love." Watch More: What's the Difference Between Sunni and Shia Muslims? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KLvj... Subscribe to TestTube Daily! http://bitly.com/1iLOHml _________________________ TestTube's new daily show is committed to answering the smart, inquisitive questions we have about life, society, politics and anything else happening in the news. It's a place where curiosity rules and together we'll get a clearer understanding of this crazy world we live in. Watch more TestTube: http://testtube.com/testtubedailyshow/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... TestTube on Twitter https://twitter.com/TestTube Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/TraceDominguez

https://youtu.be/O2P7cUYFwoc



    Islam in Africa and Spain 300

    How would you characterize Islam in both Africa and Spain?

Scholars once believed that the rapid expansion of Islam was entirely due to the determination of the faithful to convert new followers to the faith, but overpopulation of the Arabian peninsula probably also played a role. If faith offered the excuse, the practical result of Islamic expansion was the acquisition of new territories and the wealth they brought with them.


        Islamic Africa 301

The Muslim impact on the culture of North Africa cannot be overstated. Beginning in about 750, not long after Muslim armies had conquered most of North Africa, Muslim traders, following the trade routes created by the Saharan Berber peoples, began trading for salt, copper, dates, and especially gold with the sub-Saharan peoples of the Niger River drainage. Gradually they came to dominate the trans-Saharan trade routes (Map 9.3), and Islam became the dominant faith of West Africa. By the ninth century, a number of African states existed in the broad savanna south of the Sahara desert known as the Sudan (which literally means “land of the blacks”). These states seemed to have formed in response to the prospects of trade with the Muslim and Arab world. Ghana, which means “war chief,” is an early example, and its name suggests that a single chieftain, and later his family, exerted control over the material goods of the region, including gold, salt, ivory, iron, and particularly slaves. Muhammad accepted slavery as the just spoils of war, although no Muslim was ever to enslave another Muslim. Between the ninth and twelfth centuries, the slave trade grew from 300,000 enslaved to over a million, and it was so lucrative that the peoples of the Sudan, all eager to enslave each other for profit, were constantly at war. (There is some reason to believe that many African converts to Islam were initially attracted to the religion as a way to avoid becoming slaves, since the faithful were exempt from servitude.) Finally, the empire of the Mali people subsumed Ghana under the leadership of the warrior-king Sunjata (r. 1230–55) and gained control of the great trade routes north out of the savanna, through Timbuktu, the leading trading center of the era.

Islam Tricks Africa Into Slavery - Dr. John Henrik Clarke, 1:59

https://youtu.be/2sXBSm-j4tk



        Islamic Spain 304

Like Islamic Africa, Islamic Spain maintained its own indigenous traditions while it absorbed Muslim ones, thus creating a distinctive cultural and political life. In 750, the Abbasids, a large family that claimed descent from Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. The Abbasids shifted the center of Islamic power from Damascus, where the Umayyads had centered their power, to a magnificent new capital in Iraq popularly known as Baghdad. In the middle of the ninth century, they moved again, to the complex at Samarra (see Fig. 9.5), 60 miles farther up the Tigris, probably in an attempt to seek more space to build palaces and mosques. Meanwhile, Spain remained under Umayyad control, initially under the leadership of Abd ar-Rahman (r. 756–88), who had escaped the Abbasid massacre of Umayyads in Syria in 750, arriving in Córdoba in 756. For over three centuries, the Spain he encountered had been controlled politically by a Germanic tribe from the north, the Visigoths, who had become Christian. But some 45 years earlier, in about 711 or 712, these Christian Visigoths had been defeated in southern Spain by a force of invading Muslim Arabs and Berbers. Gradually, Abd ar-Rahman solidified Muslim control of the region, first in Córdoba, then in Seville, Toledo (the former Visigothic capital), and Granada.

Under Siege? Spain Resists Islamic 'Invasion' - CBN.com, 5:00

The Koran instructs Muslims to conquer the whole world for Islam. It happened 1,300 years ago in Spain -- and some say it's happening again... The Christian Broadcasting Network CBN http://www.cbn.com

https://youtu.be/b4_lRpXjMmg



    The Arts of the Islamic World 308

    How do Islamic music, book design, narrative, and poetry reflect calligraphy’s emphasis on abstract rhythms of pattern and repetition?

Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries, the Islamic world, from Baghdad in the east to Córdoba in the west, developed artistic traditions and practices compared to which the arts in Western Europe simply paled. With the same technical virtuosity that the architects at the Alhambra employed, Islam’s musicians, bookmakers, illustrators, and poets crafted beautiful works of complex abstract design. Calligraphy, as we have seen (see Closer Look, pages 294–295), was perhaps the highest form of artistic expression, but by its very emphasis on abstract rhythms of pattern and repetition, it greatly influenced music, book design, narrative, and poetry.

Promoting Arts of the Islamic World Reinstallation BrooklynMuseum, 1:50

A quick tour of the behind-the-scenes goings on at the Brooklyn Museum as we work to reinstall the Arts of the Islamic World. The gallery re-opens on June 6, 2009.

https://youtu.be/3_c-0t6UgUU



        Music in the Islamic World 308

Music was central to Islamic culture. Though Muhammad and his followers initially viewed music with some skepticism, believing that it distracted the faithful from their true purpose, within a century of his death, Muslim worship had become a highly musical event. In the call to prayer, each of the call’s seven phrases is sung, with a long pause between each phrase and each phrase becoming more melodic than the last. In the daily prayer service and on holy days, verses from the Qur’an are chanted and special songs are sung.

Maher Zain - Palestine Will Be Free | ماهر زين - فلسطين سوف تتحرر | Official Music Video, 5:39
Check Out Maher Zain's New Album "One": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Order from iTunes/Amazon now: http://smarturl.it/MZOne ©2016 Awakening Records - Maher Zain - Palestine Will Be Free | Official Music video from the album"Thank You Allah". Watch entire album videos: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... To buy the album (iTunes, Amazon... etc): http://www.maherzain.com/store This is the first time an animated peace music video has been produced on Palestine: "We are recognized as pioneers and constantly pushing the bounds of creativity and innovation. This animated music video for our new star artist Maher Zain is just another step in that direction and certainly not the last", said Bara Kherigi, Director of Awakening Records. Destined to be an international success, the video features the story of a young brave Palestinian girl who never loses hope for a better future despite the harsh realities surrounding her. ------- Connect with Maher Zain: Website: http://www.MaherZain.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/MaherZain Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/MaherZain Instagram: http://instagram.com/MaherZainOfficial YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/MaherZainOffi... -- Download Maher Zain Mobile App: Android: http://bit.ly/MZApp iOS: http://apple.co/1TP9GWE -- Connect with Awakening Records©: Official website: http://www.awakening.org Official Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/awakeningrecords Official Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AwakeningRec Subscribe to our official YouTube channel: http://bit.ly/YTAwkSubscribe ------------------------- Lyrics: We keep telling each other That this day will be Will be the last and tomorrow We all can go home free And all this will finally end Palestine tomorrow will be free Palestine tomorrow will be free No mother, no father to wipe away my tears That's why I won't cry I feel scared but I won't show my fears I keep my head high Deep in my heart I never have any doubt That Palestine tomorrow will be free Palestine tomorrow will be free I saw those rockets and bombs shining in the sky Like drops of rain in the sun's light Taking away everyone dear to my heart Destroying my dreams in a blink of an eye What happened to our human rights? What happened to the sanctity of life? And all those other lies? I know that I'm only a child But is your conscience still alive? I will caress with my bare hands Every precious grain of sand Every stone, and every tree 'Cause no matter what they do They can never hurt you 'Cause your soul will always be free Palestine tomorrow will be free Palestine tomorrow will be free Lyrics: Maher Zain & Bara Kherigi Melody: Maher Zain Arrangement: Maher Zain & Hamza Namira © Awakening Records 2009 -- Awakening Records is a subsidiary of the UK-based Awakening Worldwide that has operational offices in both United States of America (USA) and Egypt. Awakening Records currently represents five artists: Maher Zain (Sweden), Hamza Namira (Egypt), Mesut Kurtis(Macedonia), Raef (USA), and Harris J (UK). (Previously Sami Yusuf & Irfan Makki among others).

https://youtu.be/foSbqLi6U10



        The Art of the Book 309

Sometime in the eighth century, the art of papermaking was introduced into the Arabic world from China. The process involved extracting cellulose pulp from any of a number of plants, suspending the pulp in water, catching it on a fine screen, and then drying it into sheets. By the first years of the ninth century, most official documents in Baghdad were executed on paper, and soon afterward books, which were more affordable than parchment manuscripts, began to increase in number. Calligraphers and artists created not only scholarly treatises but also romances, epics, and lyric poetry, and most Abbasid cities soon boasted special booksellers’ markets. As Jonathan M. Bloom notes in his history of papermaking in the Islamic world, Paper Before Print, “Paper … became the prime medium of memory.” Bloom suggests that although scholars have long recognized “the major achievements of intellectual life under the Abbasids … these achievements were not accidental. Rather, they were tied to the introduction of paper: they were a product of both increased intellectual curiosity—itself fostered by the growth of learning made possible by the explosion of books—and attempts to exploit the potential applications of paper.” It is likely that the West did not produce paper in any sufficient quantity for another 500 years—until the invention of the printing press—because of its comparative lack of interest in the written word. The richest library in the West by the mid-fourteenth century, for instance, was the college library of the Sorbonne in Paris, which boasted some 2,000 volumes. By contrast, a single tenth-century Andalusian scholar, Ibn Hani al-Andalusi, reputedly owned a private library of some 400,000 volumes. Muslim culture, in turn, was slow to adopt the printing press because it so valued the art of calligraphy.

Beautifully Crafted Digital Art, Quran Ayat and Islam, 1:22

https://youtu.be/XuopatZvXq8



        The Sufi Tradition 310

After the 1258 fall of Baghdad to Mongol invaders—the conquering Mongols would themselves become Muslim—the art of bookmaking shifted to Persia, where a thriving literary culture, exemplified by the poetry of Nezami, already existed. Particularly at the provincial capitals of Shiraz and Herat, home to a number of important Persian poets and painters, the art of the book became associated with the mystical practices of the Sufi orders. Sufism (from the Arabic word for “wool,” suf, a reference to the coarse woolen garments worn by Sufi practitioners) embraces a wide range of mystical practices. All of them share a belief in attaining visionary experience and divine inspiration by means of trances achieved in the intense experience of music, poetry, and dance. Thus, the ecstasy of the wild, whirling dervish dance (the Persian word for a Sufi or Muslim mystic is darvish) represents the path of the soul as it moves closer to God (Fig. 9.18). The great Sufi poets—Sa’di (ca. 1213–92), Rumi (ca. 1207–73), and Jami (1414–92) among them—emphasize the pursuit of the beautiful, often in the form of a beautiful woman or, in the case of Rumi, a beautiful man. However, such a pursuit is an allegory for, or figurative representation of, the pursuit of the beauty that is God.

Islamic Mysticism: An Introduction to Sufi Islam, 6:23

An introduction to the history, practices, and beliefs of Sufi Islam. Sufism, or tasawwuf in Arabic, is practiced by many Muslims around the world, both Shia and Sunni, as a personal, mystical, or esoteric path to God. The video includes poetry by Mawlana Rumi and Ibn Arabi, and Mevlevi whirling dervish performances. Produced & Directed by Aleem Karmali Written by Karim Gillani www.karimsangeet.com www.crescentproductions.com Become a Facebook fan: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Aleem-K..

https://youtu.be/1EQtaQYpzTw



    READINGS

        9.1 from the Qur’an, Surah 47 315

        9.1a from the Qur’an, Surah 76 292

        9.1b from the Qur’an, Surah 5 293

        9.2 from the hadith 293

        9.3a from the Sunjata (12th century) 302

        9.3b from the Sunjata (12th century) 304

        9.4 Judah Halevi, “My Heart Is in the East” 306

Krinis, Ehud. (translated from Hebrew by Ann Brener and Tamar Liza Cohen), God’s Chosen People: Judah Halevi’s Kuzari and the Shīʿī Imām Doctrine. (Cultural Encounters in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages): Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2014. Pp. 352. $111.00. ISBN-13:  978-2503543963.

Reviewed by G. Mick Smith, PhD
Strayer University
gmick.smith@strayer.edu


Krinis addresses medieval Jewish interaction within an eleventh and twelfth-century Jewish-Andalusian intellectual world. Judaism posits "chosenness" as the belief that the Jews via descent from the ancient Israelites are the chosen people of God by virtue of their unique covenant with God. The idea of the Israelites directly chosen by God is found most pointedly in the Book of Deuteronomy and as developed in the related notion in the Hebrew Bible using related terms and phrases such as a "holy people". Nonetheless, Krinis attempts to show that it is Shia influence and not the Jewish tradition that dominated Judah Halevi's Kuzari

Krinis' volume is characterized best as a study in the history of ideas and traces how Halevi (c. 1075 – 1141), the Spanish Jewish physician, poet, and philosopher, incorporated notions of the Imam doctrine from the Shi'ites. Although he is borrowing ideas, in an ironic twist of elucidation, Halevi proves the necessity of Judaism in his work. His major work, Kuzari, relies on the Shi'ia Imam doctrine while appropriating the idea of the chosen people but as referring to the Jewish people as the chosen ones (p. 4).

From 19th Century research until today, the Kuzari has been viewed as anti-philosophical or rationalist and therefore simply typifying its era as characteristic of other works in its day. Most interpreters then, before Krinis, viewed the Kuzari as trendy and embedded in its direct philosophical roots, rather than original and related to Shia thought. This is not to suggest that all interpreters viewed the Kuzari as confined in its philosophical affinities but Ignac Goldhizer and Shlomo Pines interestingly identified traces of Shia thought preceding Krinis.  

Krinis presents a unique perspective though in claiming that Halevi appropriated the Imam doctrine of Mohammed's Shia followers. This critical split in the question of succession among the followers of Islam, for Halevi at least, led him to this central connection between the Shia successors and Halevi who creatively and selectively picked appealing ideas from the hadith and other texts.

Krinis' argument then rests on the circumstantial evidence of familiarity between Jewish writing and Shia literature. Krinis' method here is to perform a textual analysis to reveal Halevi's acquaintance and depth of influence or affinity for Shia writers. Krinis' claim, which requires analysis, is to weigh the scope of influence and, most importantly, "the formulation of the central ideological position of this treatise--the idea of the chosen people" (p. 32).

The idea of the chosen people requires elucidation. There at least two ways to interpret the notion. An afrad is defined herein as a unique individual, or a series of individuals throughout history; or, the concept may refer to a collective group. In the Kuzari this could refer to chosen and successive individuals from Adam to Jacob, and in the second example, the word refers to the Twelve Tribes of Israel.

In Shia thought, there are two models for the principle of meta-historical continuity: the spiritual, universal model, and the material, particularist model. The spiritual universal model is identified with the Shia concept of prophetic legacy wherein the tradition "is transmitted and handed down in a straight line of God's chosen prophets and 'successors' from the very beginning of history" (43). This chain of transmission consists of leading figures representing four unique periods in time: the early progenitors--Adam to Abraham; the Israelite era--Isaac to Zachariah; the Christian period--Jesus until Mohammed; and, the Islamic period--Mohammed as transmitted through the Imams. In this prophetic legacy model, there is a continuing presence of the universal, monotheistic religion throughout the course of history. The legacy of monotheism is thus preserved and transmitted by chosen individuals until the idealized Islamic period.

The second model, the material particular, is expressed by the primordial concept known as Mohammed's light. In this way, the primordial light is projected into the historical record in the form of a hidden light dwelling in human semen, and transmitted hereditarily from the loins of men into the wombs of women. This direct family lineage ultimately triumphs in the birth of Mohammed and the Imams. This model, analogous to the first, is based on three different stages: the progenitors from Adam to Abraham, the Arabic era from Ishmael to the immediate forefathers of Mohammad and Ali, and the final stage, which is that of Mohammad and the Imams. This latter model emphasizes Arabic superiority in the lineage of the chosen.  

In Shia literature, the discrepancy between the model of prophetic legacy and the model of primordial lights, is often subdued and not explicit, so that the distinctive features of both models often converge considerably. In any case, in the Kuzari aspects of both Shia models are highlighted by Halevi's exposition of his salient, unique individuals model.

The key idea is that the transmission of the chosen characteristics, similar to an inheritance as that of a father to a son, is exemplified by the unique possession of the historical caliphate. In him and in historical concreteness, the caliph inherits the land of Israel, knowledge is transmitted through succession, and is the most virtuous of humans. Although there are differences between the afrad unique individuals and the Shia models of continuity (71) the afrad model is itself an adaptation of patriarchal precedent.

The question to consider is why Halevi diverged from a Jewish cultural model, as that of the three patriarchs, and replace the chosen people model with a disparate patriarchal model so completely foreign to canonical rabbinic literature? The traditional Jewish sources limit the chosen lineage at a point in middle history but in Halevi's Kuzari a full and complete linkage blossoms between the beginning of history and the emergence of the chosen group. Closely examining the Kuzari reveals that the unique individuals model is based in principle on Shia terminology, concepts, and thought patterns. The answer to Halevi's question then relies on the evidence that Krinis can accumulate to demonstrate his evidence. Krinis' claim is that the Shia doctrine of primordial chosen-ness is in the Kuzari. Unique individuals in the Kuzari are the appropriate ones who inherit the land and are "the progenitor of the election-determining entity for all who followed" (103).

Historically then, God's Proof, or the term Hujja, represents that Shia individual who is the ultimate authority, claim, evidence, or proof of a polemical argument during an historical time period. God's chosen individual as proof gave way to an entire collective serving as God's evidence in history as the Chosen People.

Also, there are features of hierarchism in the Kuzari as borrowed from Shia thought. There is a holistic, hierarchical distinction between the chosen and the non-chosen as well as the People of God as opposed to other nations which can be attributed to Shia thought. Superhuman attributes of these chosen divine humans are on the upper level of the hierarchy. There is a shift in emphasis from the prophet-messenger type, as reflected in the Quran to the divine human type, which is demonstrated in a plethora of Islamic literature: hadith, sira, literature, dogmatic treaties, mystical treaties, and so forth. Another aspect of Shia thought in particular should be noted and that is the issue of mediation. The God of mediation, in Islamic monotheism, is non-personal, non-interventionist, and non-revelatory.  The Shia divine order in the Kuzari  results in "inserting Shia terms and perceptions into frameworks of a philosophical basis" (p. 223).

In conclusion, Krinis is to be commended for pointing out the creative maneuver of Halevi who transformed the intended group of recipients from descendants of Mohammed to Jews; during a time of Arabic literary vibrancy Halevi strengthened the view that the Jews of Israel are the Chosen People. Krinis provides a sound summary: "the originality of the Kuzari is manifested, first and foremost, in the unique ability of its writer to borrow terms and motifs from a variety of worlds and to weave them together into a significantly unified ideological frame, one which is manifestly original and completely his own" (313). On the other hand, the drawbacks of the volume are not to elaborate upon Jewish tradition and the liveliness of Judaic thought that is part and parcel of the Kuzari. Krinis' work might be richer with a more of a nod in the direction of Judaic thought. Finally, one minor corrective should be mentioned: "is" should be it (172). 


        9.5 from Nezami, Haft Paykar, “The Tale of the Black Princess” (1197) 310

        9.6 “Tale of the Fisherman and the Genie” from The Thousand and One Nights (ca. 800–1300) 315

        9.7a from Jami, “Seduction of Yusuf and Zulaykha” (1483) 311

        9.7b from Jami, “Seduction of Yusuf and Zulaykha” (1483) 312

        9.8 from Rumi, The Divan of Shams of Tabriz (ca. 1250) 317

    FEATURES

        CLOSER LOOK The Bismillah and the Art of Calligraphy 294

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Islamic Heritage 313

10 Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade THE EARLY MEDIEVAL WORLD IN EUROPE 319

THINKING AHEAD

    10.1 Describe what Anglo-Saxon art and literature tell us about Anglo-Saxon culture.

    10.2 Discuss Charlemagne’s impact on medieval culture and the legacy of his rule.

    10.3 Define the Romanesque and its relation to both pilgrimage churches and the Cluniac abbey.

    10.4 Examine the motivations for the Crusades and appraise their outcome.

    10.5 Explain the courtly love tradition as it manifests itself in the literature of the period.


    Anglo-Saxon Artistic Style and Culture 321

    What can we learn about Anglo-Saxon culture from its art and literature?

A purse cover from the Sutton Hoo site (Fig. 10.2) is a fine example of the artistic style of this non-Christian Germanic culture. It is a work of cloisonné, a technique in which strips of gold are set on edge to form small cells. The cells are then filled with a colored enamel glass paste and fitted with thin slices of semiprecious stones (in this case, garnet). At the top of the purse cover shown here, two hexagons flank a central motif of animal interlace. In this design, two pairs of animals and birds, facing each other, are elongated into serpentine ribbons of decoration, a common Scandinavian motif. Below this, two Swedish hawks with curved beaks attack a pair of ducks. On each side of this design, a male figure stands between two animals. This animal style was used in jewelry design throughout the Germanic and Scandinavian world in the era before Christianity. Notice its symmetrical design, its combination of interlaced organic and geometric shapes, and, of course, its animal motifs. Throughout the early Middle Ages, this style was imitated in manuscripts, stone sculpture, church masonry, and wood sculpture.

In many ways, the English language was shaped by Anglo-Saxon traditions. Our days of the week are derived from the names of Saxon gods: Tuesday and Wednesday are named after two Saxon gods of war, Tiw and Woden. Thursday is named after Thor, the god of thunder, and Friday after Frigg, Woden’s wife. Similarly, most English place-names have Saxon origins. Bury means fort, and Canterbury means the fort of the Cantii tribe. Ings means tribe or family; Hastings is where the family of chief Haesta lived. Strat refers to a Roman road; Stratford-on-Avon designates the place where the Roman road fords the River Avon. Chester means Roman camp, as in Dorchester; minster means monastery, as in Westminster; and ham means home, as in Nottingham.

Anglo-Saxon Britain, 2:22

See how the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes competed over domination of England while also dealing with Vikings.

https://youtu.be/GhQIT85wobE


     
Society, Law, and Family Life 321

The survival of Anglo-Saxon names in modern English suggests the degree to which this culture dominated even medieval English life. Earlier Anglo-Saxon culture revolved around the king and his thanes (lords). The king possessed his own large estate, as did each of his thanes, and the king and his retinue moved continually among the estates of the thanes, who owed hospitality and loyalty to the throne. Aside from these few powerful persons, feudal society was composed of peasants. Some were ceorls, or churls, free men who owned farms of 90 to 100 acres. Others rented land from the thanes, usually in lots of 20 acres. They paid their lords in goods—sheep or grain—and worked his fields two or three days per week. All employed serfs (day laborers) and thralls (slaves), often captives of wars. (Evidence suggests that by the eighth century, the Anglo-Saxons were routinely marketing slaves abroad, in France and Rome particularly.) Runaway slaves were punished by death, as were those convicted of disloyalty to their thanes.

Anglo-Saxon law was based on the idea of the wergeld, or “life-price” of an individual. A thane’s value was roughly six times that of a churl, and a thrall had no value at all. If a thane were killed (or injured), his family (or in the case of injury, he himself) was entitled to be compensated at the highest fixed rate. But a thane could kill or injure a thrall with no wergeld due at all. The wergeld for men and women was identical, although a pregnant woman was worth as much as three times the usual rate, and a woman’s potential as a bearer of children could raise her value even if she were not pregnant.

The medieval fief averaged from 3,000 to 5,000 acres and included one or more manor houses occupied by the lord. The manor house was surrounded by a small village that included as many as 50 families, a common mill, a wine press, an oven, and a church. Surrounding the village were fields and pasture. Oats, corn, barley, wheat, and rye were the largest crops, and over time, serfs developed the heavy-wheeled plow for cultivating sandy soil and the moulboard plow for plowing clay soils. The tandem four-oxen harness helped them in their work (Fig. 10.3). They also learned to offset soil depletion by crop rotation, allowing one-third of their fields to lie fallow each year to recover their fertility.

The Anglo-Saxons in Britain, 4:49

For over 600 years the Anglo-Saxons were settled in Britain replacing many of the Roman stone buildings with new buildings of their own. At the same time they brought Christianity to the country. The reign of the Anglo-Saxons came to an end in 1066 but they will be remembered not only for the vast political change they brought with them but for the amazing craftmanship and ornate artifacts and Jewellery that they left behind. They certainly earned their place in history !!

https://youtu.be/Vzxiz3Kw9eI



        Beowulf, the Oldest English Epic Poem 323

This rigidly hierarchical society is celebrated in the oldest English epic poem, Beowulf. In the poem, a young hero, Beowulf, comes from afar to rid a community of monsters that have been ravaging it. A treasure very much like that found in the Sutton Hoo ship burial is described just 26 lines into the poem, when the death of the Danish king Shild is described (Reading 10.1a).

A Tribute to a Hero: Beowulf, 1:56

"Beowulf is a legendary Geatish hero and later turned king in the epic poem named after him, one of the oldest surviving pieces of literature in the English language" This is a Tribute to him, Beowulf. The Music used: Beowulf Main Title - Alan Silvestri. What We Need Is a Hero - Alan Silvestri.

https://youtu.be/gpkKPqcK7AE



        The Merging of Pagan and Christian Styles 325

Whatever Beowulf’s relation to Christian tradition, it is easy to see how the poem might have been read, even in its own time, in Christian terms. Other clearly Christian poems survive from the era, among them The Dream of the Rood, in which a poet recounts his dream of a conversation with the wooden cross (the rood) upon which Jesus was crucified. Jesus is portrayed as if he were a Germanic king willing to die, like Beowulf, for the greater good. Another is the short poem known as Caedmon’s Hymn, written by the Anglo-Saxon monk, Caedmon, probably in the 670s or 680s (Reading 10.2). It is the only surviving text of what was reportedly a large body of vernacular religious poetry by Caedmon. Tradition holds that the monk was unable to sing, but one night he heard himself singing his poem in a dream, and he miraculously awoke with the ability to sing it. So that you can see how remote the Anglo-Saxon is from the English translation, here is the original text following the translation.

King Beowulf about Christianity, 1:06

https://youtu.be/liN10C_cXjc



        Manuscript Illustration: Blending of Anglo-Saxon and Christian Traditions 327

In 601, Gregory sent Augustine a letter urging him not to eliminate pagan traditions overnight, but to incorporate them into Christian practice: “For it is certainly impossible to eradicate all errors from obstinate minds at one stroke, and whoever wishes to climb a mountain top climbs gradually step by step, and not in one leap.” This is one reason that the basic elements of the animal style, evident in the purse cover from Sutton Hoo (see Fig. 10.2), appear in a manuscript page from the Lindisfarne Gospels, designed by Bishop Eadfrith of Lindisfarne in 698 (Fig. 10.6). Notice particularly how the geometric grids in the border decoration of the purse cover are elaborated in the central circle of the Lindisfarne carpet page (a descriptive term, not used in the Middle Ages, that refers to the resemblance between such pages and Turkish or Islamic carpets). The animal interlace of the purse cover reappears in the corner designs that frame the central circle of the carpet page, where two birds face outward and two inward. And the beasts that turn to face one another in the middle of the purse cover are echoed in the border figures of the carpet page, top and bottom, left and right. The pre-Christian decorative vocabulary of the Sutton Hoo treasure, created to honor a pagan king, has been transformed to honor the Christian conception of God.

This carpet page is an example of a Celtic cross. Legend has it that while preaching to a group of the soon-to-be converted, Saint Patrick had been shown an ancient standing stone monument with a circle carved onto it, symbolic, he was told, of the moon goddess. Patrick reportedly made the mark of a Latin cross through the circle and blessed the stone, thereby making the first Celtic cross. The story is probably only a legend—the circle with a cross through it antedates Patrick’s arrival in Ireland, where it probably symbolized, in pagan culture, the sun and moon, male and female, unity and balance in all things—but the legend speaks to the syncretism (the combining of different practices and principles) of the age.

The Lindisfarne Gospels, 4:43

https://youtu.be/fquuIZCiwIE


 
Carolingian Culture and the Frankish Kings 328

    How did Charlemagne change medieval culture and what was his legacy to the Frankish kings?

Although England was slow to Christianize, the European continent was not. Christianity was firmly established in 732, at Poitiers, France, just south of Tours in the Loire Valley. There Charles Martel, king of the Franks, defeated the advancing Muslim army, which had entered Spain in 711 and had been pushing northward ever since. The Arabs retreated south, beyond the Pyrenees, and settled into Spain. The Franks were one of many Germanic tribes—like the Angles and Saxons in England—that had moved westward beginning in the fourth century ce. Most of these tribes adopted most of the Christian beliefs of the Roman culture they conquered, most notably the Ostrogoths in Italy, the Visigoths in southern Gaul (France) and Spain, the Vandals in North Africa, and the Franks, who controlled most of present-day France. Unlike the other Germanic tribes, the Franks were Orthodox, or Catholic, Christians, the result of the conversion in 496 of Clovis (ca. 466–511). Clovis was the founder of the first Frankish dynasty, the Merovingians. Within a hundred years, the Franks would come to control most of western Europe.

The Carolingian Renaissance in Three Minutes, 2:59

Outside of European specific courses or books, the time period between the fall of Rome and the High Middle Ages is usually glossed over. It is almost as though pop culture history says, "And then Romans fell and then there were knights and Vikings." This ignores the noteworthy achievements of the people who lived during the time period after the Fall of The Western Empire in what is now called Late Antiquity.

https://youtu.be/ed8kyeGcBI0



Charles Martel’s Final Moorish War and the Great Berber Uprising in Spain, 733-741, 5:29

http://www.realcrusadeshistory.com For the full series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... This episode kicks off Part II of the Complete History of the Crusades Series: Christendom's Crucible: Survival, Endurance, Rebirth. This episode deals with Charles Martel's final battle with Islam, as well as the Berber uprising in Spain that destabilized Muslim Spain, giving the Christians in the north time to consolidate and even begin to expand. Watch the full series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Donate to support Crusades history: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr... Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Real-C... Twitter: https://twitter.com/CrusadesHistory

https://youtu.be/ddJuvPgtnbM



        The Song of Roland: Feudal and Chivalric Values 330

Charlemagne’s military might was the stuff of legend. For centuries after his rule, tales of his exploits circulated throughout Europe in cycles of poems sung by jongleurs, professional entertainers or minstrels who moved from court to court and performed chansons de geste (“songs of heroic deeds”). The oldest of these, and the most famous, is the Song of Roland, a poem built around a kernel of historical truth transformed into legend and eventually embellished into an epic. Four thousand lines long, composed of ten-syllable lines grouped in stanzas, it was transmitted orally for three centuries and finally written down in about 1100, by which time the story of a military defeat of little consequence had become an epic drama of ideological importance. The jongleurs sang the poem accompanied by a lyre. The only surviving musical notations to the poem are the letters AOI that end some verses. The exact meaning of this phrase is unclear, but it probably indicates a musical refrain, repeated throughout the performance. Most likely, the poem was sung in a syllabic setting, one note per syllable, in the manner of most folk songs even today. Its melody was probably also strophic—that is, the same music repeated for each stanza of the poem.

Song Of Roland, 6:11

https://youtu.be/TzBOMstrfLI


     
Promoting Literacy 332

Across Europe, the Church had traditionally served as the chief guardian of culture. In its monastic centers, the Roman love of learning had been maintained, especially in the manuscripts transcribed by monastic copyists. But literacy was anything but widespread. Charlemagne sought to remedy this situation at his court at Aachen (present-day Aix-la-Chapelle), which soon attracted leading scholars and artists, whose efforts Charlemagne rewarded handsomely. Chief among these was an Englishman, perhaps even of Anglo-Saxon origin, Alcuin of York (735–804), who in 782 became head of Charlemagne’s court school. One of the foremost grammarians and theologians of the period, Alcuin served as Charlemagne’s personal tutor.

Early Medieval Europe - Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance, 2:53

Carolingian Renaissance is a cultural and intellectual revival and the first of three medieval renaissances, which started during the reign of Charlemagne in the late 8th century. When Charlemagne takes power, the ancient schools of the Roman Empire are long gone. Culture took refuge in monasteries. children for the monastic life we ​​learned there. At the same time, the clergy and laity are increasingly uneducated. In 789, in a broad program of reforms, Charlemagne entrusted the teaching of the Church, demanding that each monastery every bishopric opened schools to teach reading to children from books carefully corrected. The program covers the basic skills, reading (of course Latin), writing and arithmetic. But also singing for church services and "notes", a kind of shorthand for the future chancery employees. Emperor's objectives are clear: the practice of religion and the execution of administrative tasks. Charlemagne known fact that it is necessary that the clergy be educated and provided with correct versions of the sacred text in order to evangelize and mentor populations. It is also aware of the importance of writing to govern and unify the various territories of the empire. Administrative staff must know how to read and to interpret his orders write to write reports. The language, Latin, must be pure in order to be understood by all. But Charlemagne's efforts are not always followed up. On several occasions, it must renew its instructions on schools. His successor, Louis the Pious, also legislates a lot in this area. The cultural level of the clergy increases, timidly under Charlemagne and more markedly throughout the ninth century. Many cultural centers bloom throughout the Empire and the Carolingian scholars write correct Latin which will remain for centuries the international language of religion and culture. However, the population remains outside of this cultural renaissance: the majority is expressed in Germanic or Romance language; she does not understand Latin and has no opportunity to consult books, extremely rare items at the time. If schools providing elementary knowledge remain unevenly distributed across the Empire, many centers of study are developed however in the Palace of the Emperor or in large monasteries and bishoprics. Harking back to ancient times, these institutions organize education in two levels: the trivium grouping three humanities (grammar, dialectic and rhetoric), followed quadrivium devoted to scientific disciplines (arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy). These seven are the liberal arts disciplines. This organization studies the basis for school and university education during the Middle Ages. In these schools, we rediscover the authors of Latin Antiquity, one learns to read the Bible and the great theologians of the first centuries. The renewal of the studies also concerns sciences, be it astronomy or medicine. Led by recognized scholars as Alcuin Theodulf or Rabanus Maurus, these centers provide training of the intellectual elite and the cultural revival of the Carolingian period. It is a meeting of the teachers came from all backgrounds, who bring with them their knowledge and culture, at the crossroads of ancient and Byzantine tradition and the franc and German heritage. It was here that merges the ninth century, this patchwork behind Western culture. The Mighty Kingdom by Audionautix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/...) Artist: http://audionautix.com/

https://youtu.be/07_L1H_3US8


     
The Medieval Monastery 333

 The monastery was a central part of Carolingian culture, arguably its most important institution. Before the Carolingian era, monastic life varied widely across Europe. In Italy, the rule of solitude (the Greek word monos, from which monasticism derives, means “alone”) was barely enforced, and life in a monastery could be positively entertaining. If, in Ireland, more austere conditions prevailed, still the lively intellectual climate of the monastery attracted men and women seeking a vocation. Even from monastery to monastery, different conditions and rules prevailed.

Charlemagne imposed on all monasteries in the Frankish kingdom the rule of Benedict of Nursia, an Italian monk who had lived two centuries earlier (ca. 480–547). The Rule of Saint Benedict defined monastic life as a community of like-minded individuals, all seeking religious perfection, under the direction of an abbot elected by the monks. Monks were to live a family life in the pursuit of religious perfection. They were to possess nothing of their own, accepting worldly poverty. They were to live in one place and not wander, guaranteeing the community’s stability. And they were never to marry, acknowledging their chastity. Each day was divided into eight parts, the horarium (from the Latin hora, “hour”). The horarium is the daily prayer schedule of liturgical praise called the Divine Office (the word Office comes from the Latin officium, meaning “duty”), marked by recitations of the psalms and the chanting of hymns and prayers at eight specific times of the day, from early morning until bedtime. Between services, the monks studied, worked, and ate a light breakfast and heartier dinner. They lived by the motto of their order: “Pray and work.”

Making History - Medieval Monastic Clergy, 5:49

Life in the monasteries in Medieval Europe was much more difficult than modern film depicts it to have been.

https://youtu.be/a_oeKXEMpsY



        The Ottonian Empire 337

Charlemagne’s empire dissolved in 843 when his son Louis the Pious (r. 814–40) divided the kingdom among his own feuding sons: Lothar, the eldest of the three; Louis the German; and their half-brother, Charles the Bald. To the east, Louis the German ruled most of what is today Germany and Austria. To the west, Charles the Bald ruled most of what is now France. And between the two was Lothar, whose kingdom extended in a narrow band from the North Sea to Italy. When Lothar died in 855, his kingdom was partitioned among his three sons. With this middle territory thus weakened, Charles the Bald to the west and Louis the German to the east began to fight over it, a contest between the German and French Frankish kingdoms. By the end of the tenth century, two powerful kingdoms—one German, the other French—had emerged.

Heinrich the Fowler, 2:01

A moving epic tale of Heinrich the Fowler and the Ottonian Empire.

https://youtu.be/vOsNpD4IjMw



        Capetian France and the Norman Conquest 337

To the west of the Ottonian Empire, the Frankish territory formerly controlled by Charles the Bald was invaded in the middle of the ninth century by Normans—that is, “Northmen”—Viking warriors from Scandinavia. The Viking onslaught was devastating, as they plundered and looted across the north European seas, targeting especially isolated but wealthy monasteries such as Lindisfarne, which they had attacked even earlier, in 793. The Viking invasions fragmented the former empire and caused nobility, commoners, and peasants alike to attach themselves to anyone who might provide military protection—thus cementing the feudal system. By the tenth century, they had raided, explored, and settled territories from North America, which the explorer Leif Eriksson reached in about the year 1000, to Iceland, Greenland, the British Isles, and France. In France, they besieged Paris in 845 and gained control of the lower Seine Valley. In 915, the Frankish king Charles III (r. 893–923) was forced to grant the Norse leader Rolf, or Rollo, permanent control of the region. Rollo became the first duke of Normandy.

Norman Conquest of England | 3 Minute History, 3:29

https://youtu.be/tc92zC0P0Iw



    The Romanesque: The Pilgrimage Church and the Monastic Abbey 338

    How does the Romanesque style manifest itself in both pilgrimage churches and the Cluniac abbey?

Throughout the Middle Ages, it was customary for Christians to go on religious pilgrimages to holy places or sites containing sacred objects. People believed that their prayers for forgiveness, healing, fertility, or anything else would have a better chance of being fulfilled if they were able to get physically close to a holy object, person, or site. The pilgrimage was also an act of piety, demonstrating the pilgrim’s faith, and, in part, an act of penance. As Europe became increasingly urbanized, worsening hygienic conditions spread disease. Believing that disease was related to sinfulness, pilgrims sought to atone for their sins, saving themselves from sickness and contagion on earth and perpetual damnation in the afterlife.

Episode 2: A White Garment of Churches: Romanesque and Gothic Art part 2, 5:46

Romanesque art and architecture were shaped by two powerful forces: pilgrimage and the monastic movement. Later, Gothic cathedrals were filled with divine light. Featured: Basilique, Sainte-Marie-Madeleine in Vézelay, the sculptures of Gislebertus, Paray-le-Monial, the cathedrals at Chartes. "Episode 2: A White Garment of Churches: Romanesque and Gothic Art." Art of the Western World. Presented by Michael Wood. Dir. Geoff Dunlop et. al. WNET/Thirteen, 1989. DVD.

https://youtu.be/RLjXFBsHhBY



The Bayeux Tapestry

The Bayeux Tapestry - Seven Ages of Britain - BBC One, 4:56

The Bayeux Tapestry. The BBC's David Dimbleby describes the historical significance of the Bayeux Tapestry for his forthcoming BBC One Series, Seven Ages of Britain. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcone

https://youtu.be/F8OPQ_28mdo



        Cluny and the Monastic Tradition 345

One of the most influential of the Romanesque pilgrimage churches was the Abbey of Cluny. Like Charlemagne’s Saint Gall (see Fig. 10.12), Cluny, founded in about 910, was a reformed Benedictine monastery. The Cluniac order enjoyed a special status in the Church hierarchy, reporting directly to the pope and bypassing all feudal or ecclesiastic control. No secular ruler could exercise any control over the monastery (the origin of our modern insistence on the separation of Church and State). Furthermore, the Cluniac order insisted on the celibacy of its monks and nuns—the Church was to be their only lord and spouse. Celibacy was not the rule elsewhere, and was not officially imposed on Catholic priests until 1139.

Perhaps the most important role of the Cluniac order was its sense of culture as something wider than local traditions. Its monks preserved and translated Classical texts. They rediscovered, particularly, Greek and Roman antecedents. The plan of their church mimicked Old Saint Peter’s in Rome. They were lovers of knowledge and of beauty (both considered chief attributes of the Almighty), and of Classical means of representation. The naturalism we associate with Greek and Roman art gradually began to find favor once again.

Cluny Abbey, 7:15

Cluny Abbey, dedicated to St Peter, is a former Benedictine monastery built in the Romanesque style, with three churches built in succession from the 10th to the early 12th centuries. Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910. The establishment of the Benedictine Order was a keystone to the stability of European society that was achieved in the 11th century. In 1790 during the French Revolution, the abbey was sacked and mostly destroyed, with only a small part of the Abbey surviving. Today, there remain only the buildings built under the Old Mode as well as a small portion of Cluny III. Only the southern transept and its bell-tower still stand; the ruined bases of columns give an idea of the size of the rest of the church. The surviving structure represents less than 10% of the floor area of Cluny III, which was the largest church of Christendom, until the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, five centuries later. The abbey has sheltered, since 1901, a forming center of the �cole nationale sup�r-ieure d'arts et m�tiers (ENSAM) of the engineers of the Art-and-Trades.

https://youtu.be/PgJBEWq5Ues


     
The Cistercian Challenge 347

Not everyone supported the richness of the Cluniac liturgy and its accompanying music, art, and architecture. From the point of view of Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, such artistic excess—in other words, beauty—was an affront to the monastic mission. Chief spokesperson for a new order of Cistercian monks, Bernard of Clairvaux (1091–1153) advocated a rigorous application of the Rule of Saint Benedict. Cistercians were to be self-sufficient, living off their own cultivation of the land (this proved impossible in practice). They were to live a simple life of self-imposed poverty symbolized by the undyed wool of their habits. And their plain, undecorated churches stand in stark contrast to the grandeur and opulence of the rest of Romanesque architecture. Can it be, Bernard asks in his Apologia for Abbot William, that the riches of such large and sumptuous churches as Cluny and others are meant to stimulate financial donations to the Church? Is it really true, he asks, that if “their eyes are feasted with relics … their purse strings are loosed”? Bernard is denouncing not beauty itself, but the use of beauty for monetary profit. He also objects to the fact that it distracts attention from prayer. The Cistercians belong to a long tradition of thought that challenges the role of art in religion, extending back to the early years of Islam and the iconoclasts in Byzantium, although they do not oppose the use of imagery. They simply discourage using imagery in an ostentatious way.

SAINTS SPEAK: St. Bernard of Clairvaux (Holy Repentance), 4:32

From heaven, in his own words, St. Bernard shares how sin damages the image of God on our soul, but through confession, it is restored.


https://youtu.be/Z-PGHetVx7Y


 
The Crusades 347

    Why did the Crusades occur and what, if anything, did they accomplish?

On November 25, 1095, at the Council of Clermont (present-day Clermont-Ferrand), Pope Urban II (papacy 1088–99) preached the First Crusade. The pope had received his training as a monk at Cluny, under the direct tutelage of Hugh de Semur. What motivated the First Crusade is difficult to say. We know that throughout Christendom there was a widespread desire to regain free access to Jerusalem, which had been captured by the Arabs in 638. In part, however, the aim was to bring peace to Europe. Because of the feudal primogeniture system, by which the eldest son in a family inherited all of its property, large numbers of aristocratic younger brothers were disinherited and left to their own devices. They had taken to feuding with one another (and with their elder brothers) and raiding other people’s land. The Crusades organized these disenfranchised men with the promise of reward, both monetary and spiritual: “Jerusalem,” Urban preached, “is the navel of the world; the land is fruitful above all others, like another paradise of delights. … Undertake the journey [also] for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the imperishable glory of the kingdom of heaven.” The pope also presented the Crusades as a Holy War:

♘ Islamic Jihad vs. Catholic Crusades (very telling), 2:57

Thanks to Bill Warner, Director, Center for the Study of Political Islam for the stats.

https://youtu.be/O6l33XvZDuE



        Krak des Chevaliers and the Medieval Castle 349

Krak des Chevaliers (Fig. 10.26), in northern Syria, was first occupied by Crusaders in 1109, and, beginning in 1142, it was occupied by the Knights Hospitaller, whose mission was to care for the sick and wounded. During the Crusades, it was besieged 12 times, finally falling to Berber invaders in 1271.

Krak des Chevaliers was modeled on the castle-fortresses built by the Normans in England and northern France. When the Normans arrived in England in the twelfth century, they needed defenses against the Saxons. To provide protection, they built mounds, or mottes, topped with a wooden tower, or keep (see Fig. 10.15). Beginning in 1078, stone castles gradually replaced these wooden fortifications (Fig. 10.27). The sheer weight of the stone keep required that it be built on solid ground. So, unless a natural hill presented itself, the motte (the mound on which the older wooden towers had been built) was eliminated. Now the keep served as the main residence of the lord and included a main hall, a chapel, and a dungeon. Workshops, kitchens, and storehouses surrounded the bailey. Most stone castles had a well for fresh water in case of siege, a great advantage over the aqueduct supplying Krak des Chevaliers.

Krak des Chevaliers, 3:12

Subtitles in EN & GR - Υπότιτλοι στα ελληνικά και αγγλικά Krak des Chevaliers is a Crusader castle and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.

https://youtu.be/0SVci8ZvaLk



    Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Art of Courtly Love 350

    What is courtly love and how does it manifest itself in the literature of the period?

In the Second Crusade, Eleanor of Aquitaine (ca. 1122–1204) accompanied her husband, King Louis VII, into battle in the Middle East, along with 300 ladies of similar mind, all dressed in armor and carrying lances. Her intent was to help the sick and wounded. The women, most of whom eventually returned safely to Europe, never engaged in battle, but theirs was an act of uncommon personal and social bravery. They were widely chided by contemporary commentators, but their actions underscore the changing role of women in medieval society.

Eleanor was, by all accounts, fiercely independent, so much so that, in March 1152, Louis had his marriage to her annulled, technically on the grounds that they were related by blood, but in reality because he suspected her of adultery. Eleanor lost no time in reestablishing her position—just eight weeks after the annulment from Louis, she married Henry of Anjou, soon to be King Henry II of England. Together they had eight children, including the future English kings, Richard the Lion-Hearted and John, but Eleanor’s relationship with Henry was anything but easy. Henry cheated on her and treated her abusively, until she finally abandoned England for France in 1170. From Poitiers, in 1173, she encouraged her three surviving sons, Richard, John, and Geoffrey, to rebel against their father, and Henry ultimately responded to her meddling by bringing her back to England in 1179 and keeping her under house arrest until his death in 1189.

In the decade that she lived at Poitiers, Eleanor and her daughter by Louis VII, Marie, countess of Champagne, established that city as the center of a secular culture and literary movement that celebrated the art of courtly love. This was the time in which the great oral poems of the first millennium—poems like Beowulf and Song of Roland—were first written down. Furthermore, over 2,600 poems survive as texts composed by the troubadour poets of Eleanor’s own day, and some of these survive with the accompanying music for the poems as well.

Medieval Queens of England: Eleanor of Aquitaine, 4:37

Eleanor of Aquitaine This is part of my "Medieval Queens of England" series, in which I write a short biography of the Queens of England from Matilda of Flanders to Elizabeth I. Enjoy! Video made by me. I do not own the photos or music. Music: "Rachel's Song" by Vangelis

https://youtu.be/X46-14q-dQ0



        Troubadour Poetry 350

Troubadour poetry originated in the south of France, in Provence, the area around the lower Rhone Valley, and slightly later spread north (the Northern poets are sometimes called trouvère poets to distinguish from their Southern forebears—and far more trouvère music survives than troubadour). The troubadour poets, most of them men, though a few were women, usually accompanied themselves on a lyre or lute, and in their poems they can be said to have “invented” romantic love as we know it today—not the feelings and emotions associated with love, but the conventions and vocabulary that we use to describe it. The primary feeling is one of longing, of a knight or nobleman for a woman (usually unattainable because married or of a higher status), or, when the troubadour was a woman—a trobairitz—the reverse. Thus, to love is to suffer, to wander aimlessly, unable to concentrate on anything but the mental image of the beloved, to lose one’s appetite, to lie sleepless at night—in short, to give up life for a dream. There was, in addition, a quasi-religious aspect to courtly love. Recognizing that he is beset by earthly desires, the lover sees his ability to resist these temptations and rise above his own base humanity as evidence of his spiritual purity. Finally, in the courtly love tradition, the smitten knight or nobleman must be willing to perform any deed to win his lady’s favor. In fact, the loyalty that he once conferred upon his lord in the feudal system is, in courtly love, transferred to his lady (who is often, in fact, his lord’s wife), as the scenes on a jeweled twelfth-century casket make clear (Fig. 10.28). If the courtly love tradition reduced women to little more than objects of male desire, in some measure it also allowed them to share in the power enjoyed by their husbands. The thirteenth-century poet Guiraut Requier wrote that four ranks of musicians existed. The lowest was the jongleurs, musicians who not only sang but also engaged in acrobatics, animal tricks, and other like entertainments. Minstrels were next on the ladder, full-time musicians of lesser station than troubadours because they did not write their own material. The troubadours composed their own music and lyrics and performed their own songs, most often at court. The highest rank of musician was doctores de trobar (trobar means “to invent” and is the root of troubadour), the most outstanding composers of the day.

Music History: Troubadours, 2:23

Watch more at http://educator.com/music-theory/musi... Other subjects include Music Theory, Music Editing Software, as well as Math, Science, Language, and Computer Science. -All lectures are broken down by individual topics -No more wasted time -Just search and jump directly to the answer

https://youtu.be/eoVb9PZp0oM



        The Romance: Chrétien de Troyes’s Lancelot 352

Because the poetry of the courtly love tradition was written in the vernacular—the common language of everyday life—and not in the Latin of the highly educated, a broader audience was able to enjoy it. And longer forms, like the Song of Roland, also began to circulate widely, some of them in prose. A remarkable example is the work of Marie de France. Though born in France, she wrote in the English court, and in the late twelfth century, she published a collection of over 100 Fables, many of which were her own. Marie also published another collection of 12 Lais, folktales that deal, in a variety of forms and lengths, with matters of love. A lai was technically a short romance that combined supernatural elements and the courtly love tradition; typically they were sung by minstrels, accompanied by a harp or lyre. In Bisclavret (see Reading 10.9, pages 359–361), she tells the story of a werewolf who is unjustly betrayed by his “loving” wife but ultimately saved by a more loving king.

One of the most popular works of the day, Chrétien de Troyes’s Lancelot, appeared around 1170. Centered on the adventures of Lancelot, a knight in the court of the legendary King Arthur of Britain, and focusing particularly on his courtly love-inspired relationship with Guinevere, Arthur’s wife, the poem is an example of the medieval romance. The term “romance” derives from the Old French term romans, which referred to the vernacular, everyday language of the people as opposed to Latin. The medieval romance was designed to entertain a broad audience with stories of adventure and love, while it pretended to be an actual historical account of Charlemagne, King Arthur, or Roman legend.

Excalibur -- Lancelot & Guinevere, 5:00

Excalibur is a 1981 dramatic fantasy film directed, produced and co-written by John Boorman that retells the legend of King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. Lancelot is King Arthur's most valued Knight of the Round Table , however things change when he falls for Guinevere , bride of King Arthur.

https://youtu.be/G-wylX3P-Ew



    READINGS

        10.1a–d Beowulf, trans. Burton Raffel 323–325

        10.2 from Caedmon’s Hymn 326

        10.3 Song of Roland 331

        10.4 from Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias 357

        10.4a from Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias 335

        10.5 from Pope Innocent III, On the Misery of the Human Condition 345

        10.6 from the Gesta Francorum (Deeds of the Franks), “The Fall of Jerusalem” 358

        10.7 Bernard de Ventadour, “The Skylark,” verses 1–4 and 7 351

        10.8 Comtessa de Dia’s “Cruel Are the Pains I’ve Suffered,” from Lark in the Morning: The Verses of the Troubadours 351

        10.9 from Marie de France, Bisclavret (The Werewolf) 359

        10.10 from Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot 353

    FEATURES

        CLOSER LOOK The Bayeux Tapestry 340

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE Toward a New Urban Style: The Gothic 354

Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why in 610 CE did the Archangel Gabriel first visit Mohammad? Given Answer: Correct To deliver messages from the one and only God Correct Answer: To deliver messages from the one and only God out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why is the Kaaba significant to Muslims today? Given Answer: Correct It represents the physical center of the planet and universe Correct Answer: It represents the physical center of the planet and universe out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Spanish Jews welcome the Muslim invasion? Given Answer: Correct The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them Correct Answer: The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Mohammad allow Muslim men to have up to four wives? Given Answer: Correct To provide protective charity Correct Answer: To provide protective charity out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct What does the word Islam mean? Given Answer: Correct Submission Correct Answer: Submission out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why in 1066 did William of Normandy invade England? Given Answer: Correct To make good Edward's promise that William would be England's next king Correct Answer: To make good Edward's promise that William would be England's next king out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What pilgrimage destination was most difficult to reach? Given Answer: Correct Jerusalem Correct Answer: Jerusalem out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Beowulf considered an English poem even through its events take place in Scandinavia? Given Answer: Correct It is written in Old English Correct Answer: It is written in Old English out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why was the courtly love poetry written in the common language instead of Latin? Given Answer: Correct More people would be able to enjoy it Correct Answer: More people would be able to enjoy it out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What was the main task of Christian missionaries in England? Given Answer: Correct To transfer the people's allegiance from their king to God Correct Answer: To transfer the people's allegiance from their king to God
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Mali's Mansa Moussa cause the value of gold in Egypt to fall in 1334? Given Answer: Correct He distributed so much gold to the poor Correct Answer: He distributed so much gold to the poor out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why perhaps were conquered Africans eager to convert to Islam? Given Answer: Correct To avoid enslavement Correct Answer: To avoid enslavement out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why in the Qur'an are Muslim women advised to dress modestly? Given Answer: Correct To avoid harassment Correct Answer: To avoid harassment out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why in 610 CE did the Archangel Gabriel first visit Mohammad? Given Answer: Correct To deliver messages from the one and only God Correct Answer: To deliver messages from the one and only God out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Charlemagne admire the monastery of St. Gall? Given Answer: Correct Its functional, orderly arrangement Correct Answer: Its functional, orderly arrangement out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What in the Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy made it a popular pilgrimage destination? Given Answer: Correct The relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods Correct Answer: The relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct What advantages did feudalism offer the nobles? Given Answer: Correct Military support and goods or produce Correct Answer: Military support and goods or produce out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery? Given Answer: Correct Beowulf Correct Answer: Beowulf out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What medieval cult is connected to the courtly love literature? Given Answer: Correct The Cult of the Virgin Correct Answer: The Cult of the Virgin
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why do Muslims believe that the Qur'an cannot be translated? Given Answer: Correct It is the direct word of God Correct Answer: It is the direct word of God out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Mecca important to the Bedouin traders? Given Answer: Correct It had natural springs Correct Answer: It had natural springs out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Scheherazade in The Thousand and One Nights tell her husband a story each night? Given Answer: Correct To prevent execution the next morning Correct Answer: To prevent execution the next morning out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Islam able to spread so quickly after Muhammad's death? Given Answer: Correct A long war had exhausted the Byzantine and the Persian empires Correct Answer: A long war had exhausted the Byzantine and the Persian empires out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Pope Leo III crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor? Given Answer: Correct For Christianizing the people of his vast empire Correct Answer: For Christianizing the people of his vast empire out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why in 1066 did William of Normandy invade England? Given Answer: Correct To make good Edward's promise that William would be England's next king Correct Answer: To make good Edward's promise that William would be England's next king out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why was the Book of Kells moved from Iona off the Scottish coast to Kells in Ireland? Given Answer: Correct To protect it from Vikings threatening the Scottish coast Correct Answer: To protect it from Vikings threatening the Scottish coast out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Europe's Christians embark on pilgrimages? Given Answer: Correct To atone for their sins Correct Answer: To atone for their sins out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What pilgrimage destination was most difficult to reach? Given Answer: Correct Jerusalem Correct Answer: Jerusalem
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why do Muslims decorate their mosques without figurative images? Given Answer: Correct Mohammad warned that image makers would face punishment at Judgment Correct Answer: Mohammad warned that image makers would face punishment at Judgment out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Spanish Jews welcome the Muslim invasion? Given Answer: Correct The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them Correct Answer: The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why does an author use a framing tale? Given Answer: Incorrect To function as narrator Correct Answer: To unite different stories out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Scheherazade in The Thousand and One Nights tell her husband a story each night? Given Answer: Correct To prevent execution the next morning Correct Answer: To prevent execution the next morning out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why was the courtly love poetry written in the common language instead of Latin? Given Answer: Correct More people would be able to enjoy it Correct Answer: More people would be able to enjoy it out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Charlemagne admire the monastery of St. Gall? Given Answer: Correct Its functional, orderly arrangement Correct Answer: Its functional, orderly arrangement out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct What in the Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy made it a popular pilgrimage destination? Given Answer: Correct The relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods Correct Answer: The relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why in 1066 did William of Normandy invade England? Given Answer: Incorrect To seek revenge on Harold of Wessex for invading Normandy Correct Answer: To make good Edward's promise that William would be England's next king out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What was the main task of Christian missionaries in England? Given Answer: Correct To transfer the people's allegiance from their king to God Correct Answer: To transfer the people's allegiance from their king to God
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why does an author use a framing tale? Given Answer: Correct To unite different stories Correct Answer: To unite different stories out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why was the Kaaba significant to the Bedouins? Given Answer: Incorrect It marked their trade route's midpoint Correct Answer: It housed images of their gods out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What does the word Islam mean? Given Answer: Correct Submission Correct Answer: Submission out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why do Muslims decorate their mosques without figurative images? Given Answer: Correct Mohammad warned that image makers would face punishment at Judgment Correct Answer: Mohammad warned that image makers would face punishment at Judgment out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What pilgrimage destination was most difficult to reach? Given Answer: Correct Jerusalem Correct Answer: Jerusalem out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What advantages did feudalism offer the fiefs? Given Answer: Correct Use of land and protection Correct Answer: Use of land and protection out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct What effect was the space created by the Romanesque churches' barrel vaults designed to produce for the pilgrims? Given Answer: Correct Raise their eyes and direct their thoughts toward heaven Correct Answer: Raise their eyes and direct their thoughts toward heaven out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Beowulf travel from Denmark to Sweden? Given Answer: Correct To kill the monster Grendel Correct Answer: To kill the monster Grendel out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What architectural feature especially distinguishes a Romanesque church? Given Answer: Correct Barrel vaults Correct Answer: Barrel vaults
Question 1: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why did Mohammad leave Mecca for Medina in 622? Given Answer: Incorrect The Archangel Gabriel told him to flee Correct Answer: Mecca's leadership was displeased with him out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Scheherazade in The Thousand and One Nights tell her husband a story each night? Given Answer: Correct To prevent execution the next morning Correct Answer: To prevent execution the next morning out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Spanish Jews welcome the Muslim invasion? Given Answer: Correct The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them Correct Answer: The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct What does the Arabic word masjid mean? Given Answer: Correct Place of prostration Correct Answer: Place of prostration out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery? Given Answer: Correct Beowulf Correct Answer: Beowulf out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What leads to Roland's death in the Song of Roland? Given Answer: Correct His sense of pride Correct Answer: His sense of pride out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why did Pope Leo III crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor? Given Answer: Incorrect For building the monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland Correct Answer: For Christianizing the people of his vast empire out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What advantages did feudalism offer the nobles? Given Answer: Correct Military support and goods or produce Correct Answer: Military support and goods or produce out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What is the meaning of the old French romans, from which "romance" derives? Given Answer: Correct Everyday language Correct Answer: Everyday language