Tuesday, February 07, 2017

HUM 111 Week 6 Winter 2017


  • Chapter 11: Centers of Culture: Court and City in the Larger World – Asia, Africa, Americas 
  • Chapter 12: The Gothic Style – Medieval Europe

Pre-Built Course Content


  • Complete and submit Week 6 Quiz 5: Chapters 9 and 10
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 11: Centers of Culture: Court and City in the Larger World – Asia, Africa, Americas 
    • Chapter 12: The Gothic Style – Medieval Europe
  • View the Week 6 Would You Like to Know More? videos
  • Explore the Week 6 Music Folder
  • Do the Week 6 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 6 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options)



Click the image below to learn more about the importance of masks in early African cultures.

Facing the Divine: Exploring African masks as art connecting humans to the realm of spirits.

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/111/1146/Week6/WYLTKM-AfricanCulture/story.html


Click the image below to learn more about gothic architecture.

Let's go Goth! A new cathedral design points to the heavens.

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/111/1146/Week6/WYLTKM-GothicArchitecture/story.html


HUM111 Music for Week 6

 

In this week's readings (chaps. 11-12), there are three musical compositions mentioned.  These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.   Watch and give it a listen.   Here below is some background and description of each--and the links to the YouTubes (and sometimes other helps).
  1. West Africa: Yoruba Traditional Talking Drums  (chap. 11, p. 387)
Batile Alake's classic "Iranti Awol Owo" from the album "Waka Music Of Nigeria" (released online by Community 3 Records). This is a 5 minute promo clip taken from a 17 minute track. Released in coordination with Batile's local record label, Leader Records of Lagos, Nigeria. Produced by Albert Garzon; Mastered by Scott Hull of Masterdisk, NYC. 5:31

https://youtu.be/HUuykOe9doU



The Yoruba tribe of West Africa uses three types of batá drums to do musical signaling that simulates Yoruba talking. Read p. 387 (in chap. 11) carefully about the background of this "Talking Drum" music and then listen to the YouTubes at the links above.
Ayan Bisi Adeleke - Master talking drummer - drum talks, 6:03
Bisi playing the talking drum. Plays dundun - part 1. Plays gongon and bembe in part two. Edited on Linux with Cinelerra.
https://youtu.be/B4oQJZ2TEVI
King Sunny Ade & His African Beats - Me Le Se (Live on KEXP), 7:43
King Sunny Ade & His African Beats perform live at the Triple Door in Seattle as part of the 25th anniversary of The Best Ambiance on KEXP. Recorded 6/29/09.
https://youtu.be/osNAy1DNkOQ

             ---------------------- 
  1. Alleluia, Dies Sanctificatus (chap. 12, p. 417; compare chap. 10, p. 347)  Léonin (this selection was also in Week 5; it is discussed in both chapters 10 and 12)
 Read  p. 417 (in chap. 12) carefully, and then briefly glance back at p. 347 (in chap. 10).  Then consider the term polyphony (two or more lines of melody; p. 347) as you listen to this, as well as the other terms suggested.This selection is a partricular form called “melismatic”.  The composer (Léonin) worked in the Notre Dame Cathedral (Paris) in the late 1100s AD.  Alleluia, Dies Sanctificatus (="Hallelujah, A Holy Day") is a chant normally sung at Christmas. This was one of the polyphonic chants in Léonin’s Magnus Liber Organi (his “Big Book of Polyphony”!).   You can see how chant is developing even further from those examples in the earlier chants covered in Week 5.  
Alleluia: Dies Sanctificatus, 4:29
The mystery of the Incarnation of the Word lies at the heart of the Christian faith. It is celebrated just after the longest night of the year, when (in the northern hemisphere) the days begin to lengthen until we reach the summer solstice, which is associated with the figure of John the Baptist. To celebrate this moment, the Church deploys an exceptional virtually uninterrupted liturgical cycle in which the usual Offices are interspersed with four Masses.
The music is that of the ancient chant of the Church of Rome, one of the oldest repertories of which traces have remained in the collective memory of mankind. Up to the thirteenth century this repertory accompanied the papal liturgy. It disappeared with the installation of the papacy in Avignon, and sank into oblivion. Rediscovered in the early twentieth century, it aroused little enthusiasm among musicians, and only began to be studied properly, first from the liturgical, then from the musicological perspective, in the second half of the century. At this time, to distinguish it from Gregorian chant, it was named Old Roman chant.
Old Roman chant occupies a central position in the history of music. It is the keystone which gives meaning and coherence to what ought to be the musical consciousness of Western Europe and far beyond. For, looking back to the period before, it gives us the key to the filiation between the chant of the Temple of Jerusalem and the heritage of Greek music. Through the magic of music, sung texts become icons. Time is deployed with sovereign slowness confers on the sound a hieratic immanence in which time and space are united in a single vibrant truth.
https://youtu.be/wBs-qf8AUCc


  1. Viderunt Omnes (by Pérotin) (chap. 12, pp. 417-418) 
This polyphonic composition by Pérotin was designed for singing in a large Gothic cathedral in the late 1100s and early 1200s AD.  Our book notes the use of “counterpoint”.  Viderunt Omnes (="All Have Seen").  See p. 418 for the Latin lyrics and translation. 
Pérotin le Grand - Viderunt omnes - David Munrow, 11:50
Magister Perotinus / "Pérotin le Grand" - Viderunt omnes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%A9r..
https://youtu.be/KA6oq_UYbyA






















Week 6 Explore

 
Angkor and BeninSoutheast Asia and West Africa

Lost City of Angkor Wat, 2:52
In 1860, missionaries came across ruins in the Cambodian jungle—and discovered a lost city twice as large as Manhattan.
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/ancient-mysteries/angkor-wat-temples
Benin City's history
https://africa.si.edu/exhibitions/past-exhibitions/alonge/history-of-benin/ Gothic Style of Cathedral Architecture

Chartres Cathedral (UNESCO/NHK), 2:56
Partly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over a 26-year period after the fire of 1194, Chartres Cathedral marks the high point of French Gothic art. The vast nave, in pure ogival style, the porches adorned with fine sculptures from the middle of the 12th century, and the magnificent 12th- and 13th-century stained-glass windows, all in remarkable condition, combine to make it a masterpiece. Source: UNESCO TV / © NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai URL: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/81/
https://youtu.be/9727p6ozlYo












11 Centers of Culture COURT AND CITY IN THE LARGER WORLD 363

    Developments in China 364

        The Tang Dynasty in Chang’an, “The City of Enduring Peace” (618–907 ce) 365

        The Song Dynasty and Hangzhou, “The City of Heaven” (960–1279 ce) 367

        The Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) 368

    Indian and Southeast Asian Civilizations 369

        Buddhist Art and Architecture 373

        Hindu Art and Architecture 374

    Japan: The Court, The Military, and Spiritual Life 376

        The Rise of Court Life in Japan and the Coming of the Fujiwara 376

        The Heian Period: Courtly Refinement 378

        The Kamakura Period (ca. 1185–1392): Samurai and Shogunate 381

    The Cultures of Africa 383

        Ife Culture 384

        Benin Culture 386

        West African Music 387

        East Africa: The Zagwe Dynasty 388

        The Swahili Coast 388

        Great Zimbabwe 389

    The Cultures of Mesoamerica and South America in the Classic Era 391

        Monte Albán and Zapotec Culture 392

        Teotihuacán 392

        Mayan Culture 394

        The Post-Classic Era: Toltecs and Aztecs 396

        The Cultures of South America 397

    READINGS

        11.1 Poems by Li Bai and Du Fu 401

        11.1a Poems by Li Bai and Du Fu 366

        11.2 from Marco Polo, Travels 367

        11.3 from Murasaki Shikibu, Diaries 379

        11.4 Ki no Tomonori, “This Perfectly Still” 379

        11.5 from Sei Shonagon, The Pillow Book, “Hateful Things” 402

        11.5a from Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, “Elegant Things” 379

        11.6 from Jacob Egharevba, A Short History of Benin 386

        11.7 from Popol Vuh: The Great Mythological Book of the Ancient Maya 395

    FEATURES

        CLOSER LOOK Guo Xi’s Early Spring 370

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Spanish and the Fate of the Inca and Aztec Capitals 399

12 The Gothic Style FAITH AND KNOWLEDGE IN AN AGE OF INQUIRY 405

    Saint-Denis and the Gothic Cathedral 406

        Chartres Cathedral 409

        Stained Glass 409

        Gothic Architecture 410

        Gothic Sculpture 416

        Music in the Gothic Cathedral: Growing Complexity 417

    The Rise of the University 418

        Héloïse and Abelard 419

        The Romance of the Rose 419

        The Education of Women 420

        Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism 420

    The Radiant Style and the Court of Louis IX 421

        The Gothic Style in the French Ducal Courts 423

        The Miniature Tradition 423

    The Gothic in Italy 426

        The New Mendicant Orders 427

    READINGS

        12.1 from Jean de Meun, Romance of the Rose 433

        12.2 from Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 421

        12.3 from Bonaventure of Bagnoreggio, Legenda Maior 429

        12.4 Saint Francis of Assisi, “Canticle of the Sun” 430

    FEATURES

        MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Rib Vaulting 411

        CLOSER LOOK The Stained Glass at Chartres 412

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE Representing the Human 431


Chapters 11-12

11 Centers of Culture COURT AND CITY IN THE LARGER WORLD 363


THINKING AHEAD

    11.1 Describe how the literature, art, and architecture of the Tang and Song dynasties reflect the values of Chinese society.

    11.2 Compare and contrast the ways in which Buddhist and Hindu art and architecture embody the presence of, respectively, Buddha and the Hindu gods.

    11.3 Describe the complex relationship between court life and spiritual practice in Heian and Kamakura Japan.

    11.4 Discuss the ways in which African arts serve as bridges between the temporal and supernatural worlds.

    11.5 Understand how Mesoamerican and South American art and architecture reflect the relationship of the various cultures of the region to their gods.

Developments in China 364


    How are the values of the Tang and Song dynasties reflected in their art, architecture, and literature?

After the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 ce (see Chapter 7), China entered an uneasy period. Warring factions vied for control of greater or lesser territories, governments rose to power and fell again, civil wars erupted, and tribes from Central Asia continuously invaded. During this time, Buddhism began to spread through the culture. The ethical system based on the teachings of Confucius, which stressed self-discipline, propriety, reverence for elders, and virtuous behavior (see Chapter 7), seemed to have resulted in civil and cultural dysfunction. In contrast, Buddhism offered an ethical system based less on social and civic duty and more on each person’s responsibility for his or her actions. Especially in its emphasis on meditation and enlightenment, Buddhism was compatible with Daoism and its emphasis on mysticism and harmony with nature (also discussed in Chapter 7). By the seventh century ce, Chinese leaders had learned to take the best from all three—Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism—and the culture was once again unified.

Tang and Song, 5:59
The golden ages of the Tang and Song Dynasties of China, and the great inventions they contributed during the Medieval period.
https://youtu.be/FZGXXbh3jzU
The Tang Dynasty in Chang’an, “The City of Enduring Peace” (618–907 ce) 365

In 618, the Tang dynasty reestablished a period of peace and prosperity in China that, except for a brief period of turmoil in the tenth century, would last for 660 years. The Tang dynasty was the largest and most organized government in the world in the second half of the first millennium ce. Its capital was the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, Chang’an, “City of Enduring Peace” (present-day Xi’an, which is about one-seventh the size of the Tang capital). The city had served as the capital of the Han dynasty as well, but as the Tang restored trade along the Silk Road, they created elaborate plans to restore the city, too. By the eighth century, its population was well over 1 million, living inside a walled perimeter nearly 26 miles in length and enclosing almost 42 square miles. Outside the walls lived perhaps as many as another million people. Among its inhabitants were Korean, Japanese, Jewish, and Christian populations, and its emperors maintained diplomatic relations with Persia.

Virtual Chang-An 虛擬長安, 6:27
Designed and produced by GIA, NCTU, TAIWAN Category Film & Animation License Standard YouTube License Music "Why Wake Me Upthe Spring Wind" by Longyin Listen ad-free with YouTube Red
https://youtu.be/SEM1_0cvq6o
Ancient Chang'an (Xi'an), 1:39
Explore the architecture behind China's forgotten city
https://youtu.be/DVzFnp4DCBk


        The Song Dynasty and Hangzhou, “The City of Heaven” (960–1279 ce) 367

“The most splendid city in the world”—so the Venetian explorer Marco Polo (1254–1324) described Hangzhou, the capital of China’s Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279) when Polo first visited it in 1274. Although Hangzhou was then the world’s largest city—home to about 2 million people—no other Westerner had ever seen it. Marco Polo’s father and uncle had a successful trading business with the East, and Polo lived with them in China for 17 years.

He wrote at length about his journey to Hangzhou in his Travels, first published in 1299. He claimed that he first visited the city as the ambassador of Kublai Khan. Northern Song China was already in Kublai Khan’s hands, conquered in 1271, but he would not conquer the Southern Song on the Yangzi River until 1279. So when Polo first saw Hangzhou, it was still a Song city. Its lakes and parks were so beautiful, filled with floating teahouses from which passengers could view the palaces, pagodas, and temples that dotted the shore, that the city was known as Kinsai, or the “City of Heaven.” The entire city, some 200 square miles in area, was protected by a 30-foot-high wall, with even higher watchtowers rising above it. Inside the walls, a system of canals, which must have reminded Polo of his native Venice, was crisscrossed by some 12,000 bridges. These canals were fed by the most famous and probably most beautiful lake in China, the so-called West Lake, a popular resort. Beautiful women and pleasure-seekers gathered on houseboats on its waters, and writers and artists congregated in the tranquil libraries and monasteries on its shores.

“In this city,” Polo would write, “there are 12 guilds of different crafts, and each guild has 12,000 houses in the occupation of its workmen. Each of these houses contains at least 12 men, while some contain 20 and some 40, including the apprentices who work under the masters. All these craftsmen had full employment since many other cities of the kingdom are supplied by this city.” In fact, each guild was formed around people from the same province. In Hangzhou, tea and cloth merchants hailed from the eastern province of Anhui, carpenters and cabinetmakers from the city of Ningbo, and so on. All came together to enjoy the benefits of trade and commerce in the capital. Foodstuffs, silks, spices, flowers, and books filled the markets (Reading 11.2)

10 magical scenes to prove that Hangzhou is the most beautiful city to host G20 yet. #360 #VR, 6:13
Hangzhou Zhejiang China Marko Polo recorded his visit in the 13th century. In his book he wrote “it is without a doubt the finest and most splendid city in the world.” Throughout history it has been of great importance as the capitals of the Wuyue Kingdom and the Song dynasty and the birthplace of porcelain. Now it is the Silicon Valley of China, home to Alibaba (market value US$231 billion) and many other tech giants. Countless legends and poems were written in Hangzhou, with the most famous a saying, "Heaven above, Suzhou and Hangzhou below." These are a few of the reasons why Zhou Enlai brought Richard Nixon to Hangzhou on that infamous first visit from the west. Where did they stay when here? On the shores of West Lake, the legendary body of water in the middle of the city. Join VICI as we take you on a tour through 10 magical sights on Hongzhou's famous West Lake. [Best viewed with VR glasses]
https://youtu.be/GbgAb2hXcFM


        The Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) 368

Throughout the period known as the medieval era in the West, China was threatened from the north by nomadic tribes. The Northern Song capital of Bianjing had fallen to tribes from Manchuria in 1126, forcing the Song to retreat south to Hangzhou. Finally, the Song dynasty succumbed to the Mongol leader Kublai Khan in 1279. Kublai Khan ruled from a new capital at present-day Beijing, transforming it into a walled city constructed on a grid plan and extending the Grand Canal to provision the city.

Yuan dynasty, 2:57
https://youtu.be/2aL13JE_jJ0


    Indian and Southeast Asian Civilizations 369

    How do Buddhist and Hindu art and architecture make manifest the living presence of Buddha and the Hindu gods?

By 1200, Indian civilization was among the world’s oldest, and it asserted broad influence over all of Southeast Asia (Map 11.2). Its history during the centuries before and after 1200 was largely determined by competing religious forces, especially Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. Buddhism, which flourished in India from about 100 to 600 ce, had steadily waned in influence. It was further diminished when Muslim invaders entered northern India in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, destroying centers of worship in their path. Many of the Buddhist monks fled north into Nepal and across the Himalayas into Tibet or eastward into present-day Myanmar (formerly Burma). The Muslim invaders, who established their capital at Delhi, brought with them new forms of art and architecture rooted in Persian court traditions. Meanwhile, Hinduism became increasingly popular, and it gradually asserted itself as the dominant Indian religion. Well into the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, India was ruled by Hindu dynasties, especially in the south, where the culture was relatively isolated from the influence of the Delhi sultans. Hinduism spread throughout Southeast Asia, where Cambodian monarchs constructed magnificent temples inspired by Indian prototypes.

Video: Indian and Southeast Asian Art, 6:01
Highlights from the upcoming Indian and Southeast Asian Art sale in New York on 18 September 2013 are discussed by Hugo Weihe, International Director of Asian Art, and Sandhya Jain-Patel, Specialist Head of Sale of Indian and Southeast Asian Art. For more information: http://www.christies.com/sales/indian...
https://youtu.be/ZOQYkqkwlPM


        Buddhist Art and Architecture 373

High in the isolated valleys of the Himalayas in Nepal and Tibet, Buddhist monks adapted Buddhism to the native Tibetan mystical religion known as Bon. The local religious leaders, known as lamas (meaning “none superior”), considered themselves the reincarnation of earlier deceased lamas and Buddhist bodhisattvas. The chief lama, the Dalai (meaning “ocean”), was believed to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, the embodiment of compassion in this new form of Buddhism. Enlightenment, not simply nirvana, is the goal of this version of Buddhism, generally known as Mahayana, and the vow of every bodhisattva is to help others achieve enlightenment before they themselves cross over into paradise.

Among the artistic expressions of this faith were rolled-up cloth paintings, known as thangkas. As monks traveled from one monastery to another, they would unroll thangkas as aids to instruction. Painted on the thangkas were images representing Buddhist figures of authority, including lamas, bodhisattvas, and the Buddha himself, which, the Tibetans believed, were manifest in their images. The thangka reproduced here (Fig. 11.6) represents Manjushri, a bodhisattva associated with a great historical teacher. Thus, the thangka not only symbolizes wisdom, it makes Manjushri’s wisdom present.

In Myanmar, Anawratha, the first king of the Bagan Empire (r. 1044–77), was a devout Buddhist. His capital at Bagan became a center of Buddhist learning, attracting monks from across Southeast Asia, especially from India, as Muslims gained control of the subcontinent. There he built the Shwesandaw Paya, or “Sunset Pagoda,” in 1057 (visible in the far distance at the middle right, Fig. 11.7), a five-terraced structure topped by a circular bell-shaped stupa that, legend has it, contains the hairs of Buddha. Here, Buddha was manifest, present to the pilgrim circling the stupa in search of enlightenment. For the next two centuries, until Bagan was overrun by the army of Kublai Khan in 1287, Anawratha’s heirs built more than 13,000 temples, pagodas, and other religious structures, of which some 2,200 temples remain standing.

Buddhist Art and Architecture: Borobodur Temple in Magelang, Central Java - Indonesia Tourism, 4:40
Video Buddhist Art and Architecture: Borobodur Temple in Magelang, Central Java - Indonesia Tourism Borobodur temple is the largest Buddhist monument in the world. Built during King Samaratungga of Wangsa dynasty in 824. Borobudur was built 300 years before Angkor Wat in Cambodia and 400 years before the great cathedrals of Europe. Borobudur has an area of ​​123x123 m² with 504 Buddha statues, stupas overlay 72 and 1 main stupa. Gupta beraksitektur form this temple that reflects the influence of India. After a visit here you will understand why Borobudur has appeal for visitors and an icon of Indonesia's cultural heritage. International agencies of the United Nations recognizes as well that UNESCO praised the Borobudur Temple as one of the largest Buddhist monument in the world. In this temple there in 2672 relief panels that when arranged in rows, the length reaches 6 km. Ensemble relief is the most complete in the world and incomparable artistic value and each scene is a complete masterpiece. Borobudur consists of 1460 relief panels and 504 stupas but actually there are 160 panels are intentionally dumped at the very bottom, contains scenes Silk Karmawibhangga (causation). There is also stating that the accumulation of the lower part to strengthen the foundations early on found has been severely damaged. Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles found in 1814 Borobudur in damaged condition and ordered that the site be cleaned and studied thoroughly. Borobudur existence was already known locals in the 18th century where previously buried material of Mount Merapi. Today Borobudur is one of the wonders and treasures precious Indonesia and the world.
https://youtu.be/6MViaZDw5wU


        Hindu Art and Architecture 374

Hindu religion and art are infused with a deep respect for sexuality, evident even in the architecture (see Chapter 7). The Kandarya Mahadeva Temple (Fig. 11.8) at Khajuraho, the capital of the Chandella dynasty, represents the epitome of northern Indian Hindu architecture. Its rising towers are meant to suggest the peaks of the Himalayas, home of the Hindu gods, and this analogy would have been even clearer when the temple was painted in its original white gesso. The plan (Fig. 11.9) is a double cross, with arms extending north and south from the east–west axis. At the first crossing is the mandapa, the columned assembly hall. At the second crossing is the garbhagriha, or “womb chamber,” the symbolic sacred cavern at the heart of the sacred mountain/temple. Here rests the cult image of the Brahman, in this case the lingam, or symbol of male sexuality, of Shiva, the first, or formless emanation of the Brahman. (The Brahman is the creator and the universal soul; see Chapter 7.) Although it is actually almost completely dark, the garbhagriha is considered by Hindu worshipers to be filled with the pure light of the Brahman. The towers of the temple rise from east to west, as if gathering around the central tower, known as the sikhara, that rises to a height of over 100 feet above the garbhagriha. As the height increases, the temple seems to gather the energy of the Hindu religion to a single rising point, soaring with the spirit of the worshiper.

The Hindu Temple, 4:49
An introduction to the art and architecture of the Hindu temples of India. Category Education License Standard YouTube License Music "Guru Bandana In Desh Malhar" by Asha Bhosle, Swapan Chaudhuri & Ali Akbar Khan Listen ad-free with YouTube Red
https://youtu.be/Yiupwfu_h0k


    Japan: The Court, The Military, and Spiritual Life 376

    What was the relationship between court and spiritual life in the Heian and Kamakura periods?

Although Buddhism may have been known in Japan earlier, it is commonly believed that it arrived in the Yamato period (before 700 bce; see Chapter 1) from Korea and China. According to the Chronicles of Japan, a statue of Buddha and a collection of sacred Buddhist texts were given to Japanese rulers by the king of the Baekje region of Korea in 552. Chinese calligraphy was already the basis of the Japanese written language, and to some, Buddhism seemed equally amenable to Japanese adaptation. But Buddhism was by no means welcomed by all. Of the three rival clans then most powerful in Yamato Japan—the Soga, Mononobe, and Nakatomi, each tied to the imperial family through marriage to the emperor—both the Mononobe, who were in charge of the emperor’s military, and the Nakatomi, in charge of Shinto ritual, opposed the introduction of Buddhism into the country. But the Soga, managers of imperial estates who were in constant contact with the Koreans and Chinese, were deeply attracted to the religion, and the Yamato emperor allowed them to practice it within their own clan.

A BLEND OF TWO RELIGIONS?! Tsurugaoka Hachimangu Shrine in KAMAKURA, 1:25
This shrine is dedicated to Hachiman, which is the patron god of the Minamoto clan and considered to be the god of the samurai. This shrine has a lot of deep history rooted in the Heian period, so we had Tyler come along and drop some of his knowledge of Minamoto and the Taira. Check it out here: http://www.tsurugaoka-hachimangu.jp/ DOGA.TV - Beta http://do-ga.tv/ DOGA.TV Official Facebook https://www.facebook.com/DOGA-TV-6403... DOGA.TV Official Twitter https://twitter.com/Doga_TV
https://youtu.be/digfx5IyQQo





        The Rise of Court Life in Japan and the Coming of the Fujiwara 376

As the Soga gained more and more power over the last decades of the sixth century, they eventually defeated the Mononobe and Nakatomi in a civil war, and the head of the Soga clan, Umako, installed his 39-year-old daughter, Suiko, as empress and declared her 29-year-old nephew, Shotoku (r. 593–622), her regent and crown prince. The capital was moved inland from Osaka on the coast to the Soga homeland in the Asuka Valley in the central Yamato plain.

Shotoku, whose name means “Wise and Virtuous,” emphasized the importance of the Chinese model of civil administration, and introduced Confucianism to the court. When he built a new palace at Ikaruga, in the central Asuka plain, he constructed a Buddhist temple next to it. Others were built during his administration, and over 1,300 Buddhist monks and nuns were ordained. But Buddhism was in fact practiced only by a small number of the aristocracy around the Asuka capital.

In 645, the Nakatomi, who had been forced to tolerate Buddhism even as they continued to maintain Shinto ritual at court, rebelled, executing the Soga clan. Anyone else who showed resistance to their rule was executed as well. Nakatomi no Kamatari (614–69) was awarded the surname of Fujiwara by Emperor Tenji for his part in crushing the Soga and placing Tenji on the throne. The Fujiwara clan, thus directly descended from the Nakatomi, would become the greatest noble clan of classical Japan, ruling it for 500 years.

In 708, the Fujiwara oversaw the construction of a new capital at Hojeikyo, commonly called Nara after its location in the Nara plain, some 15 miles to the northwest of Asuka (see Map 11.3). It was laid out according to the principles of Chinese city planning as a walled city on the model of Chang-an (see Fig. 11.3), 2.7 miles from east to west and about 3.1 miles from north to south, with a broad avenue running north and south in its center culminating at the Heijo Palace. And although the Nakatomi/Fujiwara clan had despised the Buddhist-leaning Soga the century before, at Nara, they officially accepted Buddhism as the state religion. Magnificent temples and monasteries were constructed, including what would remain, for a thousand years, the largest wooden structure in the world, the Todaiji Temple (Fig. 11.13). It houses a giant bronze, known as the Great Buddha, over 49 feet high and weighing approximately 380 tons. According to ancient records, as many as 2.6 million people were required to aid in its construction, although that number represents approximately half of Japan’s population at the time and is probably a gross exaggeration. The original temple was twice destroyed by warring factions, in 1180 and again in 1567. The current Buddha is in fact a 1691 reconstruction of the original, and the Todaiji Temple is itself a reconstruction of 1709. The restored temple is considerably smaller than the original, approximately two-thirds its size, and now stands 188 feet in width and 156 feet in height.

Todaiji Temple in Nara Tour! - Video Japan Guide, 3:12
Todaiji is a Buddhist temple located in the Nara prefecture. In 1998, It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. More details: http://japanesquest.com/item/todaiji-... Please give us feedback on this video: http://japanesquest.com/video-feedback Website: http://japanesquest.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/japanesquest Twitter: https://twitter.com/japanesquest Instagram: http://instagram.com/japanesquest Vine: https://vine.co/japanesquest
https://youtu.be/SlvafqJQc08



        The Heian Period: Courtly Refinement 378

The acceptance of Buddhism by the Fujiwara clan at Nara suggests that the conflict between the clans in the earlier Yamato period was probably as much about power as it was religion. But it is also true that by the seventh century Buddhist doctrine and Shinto had begun to influence each other. The Great Buddha at Nara became identified with the Shinto goddess Amaterasu (see Chapter 1), and Buddhist ceremonies were incorporated into Shinto court ritual. But between 784 and 794, the capital of Japan was moved to Heian-kyo—present-day Kyoto—which quickly became the most densely populated city in the world. According to records, the move occurred because the secular court needed to distance itself from the religious influence of the Buddhist monks at Nara. Indeed, one of these monks had risen to power as the lover of the empress Koken (r. 749–59, 765–70).

Like Nara, Heian-kyo was modeled on Chang’an, the capital of the Tang dynasty, and, also as at Nara, the ordered grid of its streets was a conscious bow to Chinese philosophy and its reflection in the workings of government. Between the late eleventh and the middle of the twelfth century at Heian-kyo, scholars estimate that the royal family regularly dedicated new Shinto shrines and new Buddhist temples.

The Heian Period, 3:13
https://youtu.be/IAbQacGa8KU



        The Kamakura Period (ca. 1185–1392): Samurai and Shogunate 381

During the Heian period, the emperors had increasingly relied on regional warrior clans—samurai (literally, “those who serve”)—to exercise military control, especially in the countryside. Over time these clans became more and more powerful, until, by 1100, they had begun to emerge as a major force in Japanese military and political life, inaugurating the Kamakura period, which takes its name from the capital city of the most prominent of these clans, the Minamoto. Their newfound power in many ways represented a resurgence of the familial clan-based system of authority that had been deeply engrained in Japanese society since at least the time of the Yamato emperors, but almost inevitably, their rise also resulted, as it had among the Yamato clans, in intense rivalry and, eventually, warfare.

The Histories Part 82: Shoguns and Samurai, 3:24
The shoguns were generals who acted as governmental dictators, and the Samurai were Japanese knights. They both dominated Japan for almost 700 years.
https://youtu.be/jUwErdtrS7Q


    The Cultures of Africa 383

    In what ways does African art seek to bridge the gap between the temporal and spiritual worlds?

Just as in Europe and Asia, all over Africa, powerful kingdoms arose during this period. Several large kingdoms dominated the western African region known as the Sahel, the grasslands that serve as a transition between the Sahara desert and the more temperate zones to the west and south. Among the most important is the kingdom of Mali (see Chapter 9), which shows the great influence Islam had come to have on much of North Africa long before the end of the first millennium ce. Farther south, along the western coast of central Africa, were the powerful Yoruba state of Ife and the kingdom of Benin. On the eastern side of Africa, the Zagwe dynasty continued long Christian traditions in the Horn of Africa, while the Arab Swahili culture thrived along the central east coast. Farther south, near the southeastern tip of Africa, the ancient Shona civilization produced urban centers represented today by the ruins of “Great Zimbabwe” (Map 11.4).

Mapungubwe - Lost Kingdoms of Africa - Great Zimbabwe - BBC 4, 4:25
In 1871, European explorers stumbled across an astonishing ruined city, deep in the African interior. Great Zimbabwe has been a source of fascination and controversy ever since, a symbol of African genius and a fascinating insight into the empires which once dominated southern Africa. More about this series: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00pv1m4
https://youtu.be/U2JR2FVrDHM


        Ife Culture 384

The Ife culture is one of the oldest in West Africa. It developed beginning around the eighth century along the Niger River, in what is now Nigeria. It was centered in the city of Ife. By 1100, it was producing highly naturalistic, sculptural, commemorative portraits in clay and stone, probably depicting its rulers, and not long after, elegant brass sculptures as well.

An example of Ife brasswork is the Head of a King (or Oni) (Fig. 11.18). The parallel lines that run down the face represent decorative effects made by scarring—scarification. A hole in the lower neck suggests that the head may have been attached to a wooden mannequin, and in memorial services, the mannequin may have worn the royal robes of the Ife court. Small holes along the scalp line suggest that hair, or perhaps a veil of some sort, also adorned the head. But the head itself was, for the Ife, of supreme importance. It was the home of the spirit, the symbol of the king’s capacity to organize the world and to prosper. Ife culture depended on its kings’ heads for its own welfare.

Kingdom of Ife: Ife uncovered, 5:10
Professor John Picton and metallurgist Paul Craddock discuss the meaning and the making of the sculptures in the exhibition Kingdom of Ife sculptures from West Africa http://www.britishmuseum.org/whats_on..
https://youtu.be/JNmCg3nNi1U


        Benin Culture 386

Sometime around 1170, the city-state of Benin, some 150 miles southeast of Ife, also in the Niger basin, asked the oni of Ife to provide a new ruler for their territory, which was, legend has it, plagued by misrule and disorder. The oni sent Prince Oranmiyan, who founded a new dynasty. Oranmiyan was apparently so vexed by the conditions he found that he named his new state ibini, “land of vexation,” from which the name Benin derives. After some years, Oranmiyan returned home, but not until after he had impregnated the Benin princess. Their son Eweka would become the first king, or oba, as the Benin culture called their ruler, ruling from 1180 to 1246.

Already in place at the capital, Benin City, were the beginnings of a massive system of walls and moats that would become, by the fifteenth century, the world’s largest human-built earthwork. According to archeologist Phillip Darling, who has studied the wall and moat system for several decades, they total some 10,000 miles in length, or some four to five times the length of the main Great Wall of China. These earthworks consist of moats, the dirt from which was piled alongside them to make walls up to 60 feet high. They were probably first dug over a thousand years ago to protect settlements and their farmlands from the nocturnal raids of the forest elephant. But as Benin grew, linear earth boundaries demarcated clan or family territories and symbolically signified the boundary between the real physical world and the spirit world. When the British arrived in the late nineteenth century, the walls were still largely intact (Fig. 11.20), but they were soon destroyed by British forces, and what remains of them have been increasingly consumed by modern urbanization.

Like the Ife to the north, the Benin rulers also created lifelike images of their ancestor rulers. In the first half of the twentieth century, recognizing that many of the oral traditions of Benin culture were in danger of being lost, the Benin court historian, Chief Jacob Egharevba (1893–1981), recorded as many traditional tales and historical narratives as he could find and published them in his Short History of Benin. This is his account of the origins of brass-casting (see Chapter 2, Materials & Techniques, page 42) of oba heads in Benin culture (Reading 11.6):

Experiencing Traditional Culture in Ouidah, Benin, 2:51
August 30, 2014 at 2PM 1003 1st Ave, Charleston, WV 23502 charleston.ec@thearthcenter.org (304) 400-4899 Join us for a vivid presentation of photos, videos, and stories from our visit to Ouidah and our growing alliance with the temples.
https://youtu.be/TBBsmGLEeFk



        West African Music 387

The rhythm-driven crescendo of the Benin praise poem shares much with African music as a whole. In fact, the poem may have been accompanied by music. African music is part of the fabric of everyday life, accompanying work, poetry, ceremony, and dance, and often evoked by visual art. The Western idea that music can be isolated from every day experience is almost incomprehensible to the African sensibility. Typically consisting of a single line of melody without harmony, African music is generally communal in nature, encouraging a sense of social cohesion by promoting group activity. As a result, one of the most universal musical forms throughout Africa is call-and-response music, in which a caller, or soloist, raises the song, and the community chorus responds to it.

Call-and-response music is by no means simple. The Yoruba language, for instance, is tone-based; any Yoruba syllable has three possible tones and this tone determines its meaning. The Yoruba reproduce their speech in the method of musical signaling known as talking drums (track 11.1), performed with three types of batá drums, which imitate the three tones of the language. In ritual drumming, the drums are played for the Yoruba gods and are essentially praise poems to those gods. Characteristic of this music is its polyrhythmic structure. Here as many as five to ten different “voices” of interpenetrating rhythms and tones, often repeated over and over again in a call-and-response form, play off against one another. This method of playing against or “off” the main beat is typical of West African music and exists to this day in the “off-beat” practices of Western jazz.

Ogbon - Traditional Yoruba Music from Benin, 5:43
Beninois Yoruba artist Taofique returns with a new single titled 'Ogbon". An Ode styled music that draws on the wisdom in traditional Yoruba chant style music with the talking drum (dundun / gangan) and the Agogo.
https://youtu.be/HMyfRhk4EHQ





Diali Cissokho & Kaira Ba, "Teeriyaa (Friendship)". Official Music Video.

User: n/a - Added: 9/8/16
 Watch and listen to this great example of West African music.  Look for features and for instruments like those described on pp. 302, 308-9 and 387.  This clip celebrates friendship.  

Now, our esteemed colleague in Atlanta, Dr. Alan Rogers, has sent me a great video .  You must understand, Alan is a historian with an expertise in, among other things, all matters equestrian (horses) and metallurgy (he forges iron products in his spare time--and knows of metals and history).  And, from this video, we find Alan also has soul and  skill in what might be called the earliest JAZZ instruments.  In this case he demonstrates different types of mbira (see vol. 2, p. 874) from different parts of Africa.  And--he says we can use this video in our classes!  He happened to do this video for his HUM111 week 1--related to human innovations.   See below--between the dotted lines.
Thanks, Alan.  I think one day we should have our team meet on your back porch!       By the way, Alan--next we want the equestrian demo! 
      --------------------- 
BTW, here is a video I made for Week 1 but it is mostly about African musical instruments that I play three versions of.  I will give a live version of this tomorrow in my HUM111 on ground.  Give it a look and everyone is welcome to use it. 

0:02 / 4:47 Diali Cissokho & Kaira Ba, "Teeriyaa (Friendship)". Official Music Video
Diali Cissokho & Kaira Ba's "Teeriyaa from the 2012 release, Resonance. Find out more at: https://KairaBaMusic.com https://kairabamusic.bandcamp.com/ https://igg.me/at/TransAtlantic/x/471... Directed by Andrea Tani Production Manager Matt Mitchell Kaira Ba is: Diali Keba Cissokho - Kora, Vocals Jonathan Henderson - Bass, Percussion Austin McCall - Drums Will Ridenour - Percussion John Westmoreland - Guitar Dancer/ Actors: Sidya Cissokho Diabel Diom All rights reserved Kaira Ba Music 2016.
https://youtu.be/_3PvLbQ_xwI


        East Africa: The Zagwe Dynasty 388

Ironically, one of the dynasties of greatest cultural importance in medieval East Africa was also one of the shortest lived and least revered. In the region of today’s Ethiopia, the Zagwe dynasty reigned for approximately 150 years, from the early twelfth century (when the declining Aksumite Empire fell), to 1270. In that year the last Zagwe ruler was deposed by a new ruling family, who claimed descent from both the Aksumite Empire that had preceded the Zagwe, and King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Both claims were designed to give the impression that their family had a dazzling and unbroken chain of legitimate power reaching back into biblical times. Although the new rulers embarked on a campaign to discredit the Zagwe dynasty as usurpers and their reign as a disgrace, the Zagwe rulers had already ensured their survival as a respected part of Ethiopian history by the rock churches they left behind.

Zagwe dynasty, 3:51
Zagwe dynasty =======Image-Copyright-Info======== License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 (CC BY-SA 4.0) LicenseLink: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b... Author-Info: LeGabrie Image Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ap... =======Image-Copyright-Info======== ☆Video is targeted to blind users Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA image source in video
https://youtu.be/dTCA3ckgTLk



        The Swahili Coast 388

In the medieval era, Christian places of worship were rare in Africa. In the trading centers of the north and west, Islam was the dominant nonindigenous religion. East Africans had traded with Arab sailors since before the beginning of the common era, from trade depots along a narrow coastal strip ranging from today’s Somalia through Mozambique (see Map 11.4). When these traders embraced Islam, the people the Arabs called Swahili, from the Arabic word for “shore,” were quick to follow. From Mogadishu in the north to Sofala in the south, a region known as the Swahili Coast, Arabs and Africans blended their customs to create one of the most vibrant cultures in Africa. They also created a new language—Swahili, an African language with many borrowings from Arabic.

Looking directly out onto the Indian Ocean, Swahili ports played a key role in trade with all of Asia from the medieval era onward. The great Chinese explorer Zheng He (see Chapter 18) reached the Swahili Coast, trading Chinese porcelain and other goods for African products such as spices and wild animals to take back to the Chinese emperor.

The Swahili were renowned for their architecture. Using local materials such as fossilized coral limestone, they built mosques and other buildings, carving trims and decorations directly into the stone in floral designs, arabesques, and other patterns like those used to decorate the Qur’an (see Chapter 9). So beautiful were these works that, upon visiting Kilwa, medieval explorer Ibn Battuta pronounced it “the most beautiful of cities.” The Great Mosque at Kilwa (Fig. 11.23) would have been where Ibn Battuta stopped to pray. Constructed of pieces of fossilized coral bound together by cement made from sand, the pillars, arches, and walls of the mosque were coated in a glossy plaster also made from coral, into which patterns were excised.

The truth behind the Swahili coastal civilisation, 2:29
A team led by a Tanzanian archaeologist has challenged long held beliefs that Swahili coast civilisation - in East Africa, was heavily influenced by outsiders who arrived to trade with the local communities. After excavating an extensive cave just outside Zanzibar, he has discovered evidence of settlements, animal domestication. Hassan Mhelela has visited the cave and sent us this report.
https://youtu.be/wJNlSh1U_XA


        Great Zimbabwe 389

In embracing Islam, the people of the Swahili Coast transformed their society, but the influence of the new faith did not spread far inland. West of Sofala, at a port at the southern end of the Swahili Coast, the Shona people built an entirely indigenous African civilization in the region of today’s Zimbabwe. The Shona people, who still occupy the region today, are thought to have first come to the region by 1100 ce. At first the Shona relied on their advanced skills at mining, animal husbandry, and agriculture to sustain their communities in the rocky grasslands of the region, but as the Swahili Coast became more and more lucrative as a center of trade, the Shona positioned themselves as an inland hub of trade to which coastal traders could travel to procure goods for export. From surrounding regions, they mined or imported copper and gold, and in return received exotic goods such as porcelain and glass from Asia and the Middle East.

Between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Shona erected the massive stone buildings and walls of a city known today as Great Zimbabwe. (The word zimbabwe is thought to refer to “palaces of stone.”) A huge city for its time, the ruins cover one square mile and are believed to have housed a population of somewhere between 10,000 and 20,000. Great Zimbabwe has several distinct areas. The oldest of these, a hilltop enclosure known as the Hill Ruin, probably served as a lookout, but may also have been set apart for religious ceremonies or initiation rites. Built around 1250, it has a perimeter wall of smooth stone blocks that follows the contours of the hilltop. Inside this wall are several smaller enclosures with floors of clay that were hardened and polished to a shine. The enclosures also had ceremonial platforms decorated with carved geometric patterns and tall rock monoliths topped by carved birds, possibly representing messengers from the spirit world (Fig. 11.24).

The Shona and Great Zimbabwe, 3:13
https://youtu.be/BrmaCPG_Cac


    The Cultures of Mesoamerica and South America in the Classic Era 391

    How do the art and architecture of Mesoamerica and South America reflect the relationship of the various cultures of the region to their gods?

The cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, comprising modern-day Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and southern Mexico, possessed a great sense of their own history. They were fully aware that cultures at least as great as themselves—the Olmec in particular (see Chapter 1)—had preceded them. But during a period of about a thousand years, roughly 250 bce to 900 ce, which archeologists call the Classic Era, the cultures of Mesoamerica flourished. “Pre-Columbian” refers to the era before Columbus arrived in the Americas in 1492, and the title “Classic Era,” borrowed from Greco-Roman culture, designates what historians consider to be the high point of pre-Columbian culture in the Americas. Three great cultures thrived in Mesoamerica during the Classic Era: the Zapotec culture in the state of Oaxaca; the somewhat mysterious but enormously influential civilization centered at Teotihuacán, just north of Tenochtitlán (present-day Mexico City); and to the south, the Maya culture in the states of Yucatan and Chiapas, and the countries of Belize and Guatemala (Map 11.5). These cultures were at once highly developed and, from a Western point of view, seemingly backward, astronomically sophisticated, with two separate but extraordinarily accurate calendars, yet lacking a domesticated beast of burden capable of carrying an adult. Even more astonishing, they lacked one of the most fundamental tools of civilization—the wheel. Although they used wheels on children’s toys, they never enlarged them for use on wagons or carts. These civilizations never discovered how to process bronze or iron, yet they moved and cut stones weighing in excess of 100 tons and built enormous temples, the centerpieces of cities rivaling any in Europe or Asia. But what they lacked, they probably did not need, and what they developed was extraordinary.

Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, 2:39
The following video presents the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, from 2000 BCE with the first preclassical cultures to the Spanish conquest of the Mayas in 1697. Major civilizations, cultures and empires will be shown. Not all peoples and ethnicities are accounted for.
https://youtu.be/sayBVN3q6pc


        Monte Albán and Zapotec Culture 392

Zapotec culture, which occupied the territory later controlled by the Mixtec, was centered at Monte Albán in Oaxaca. The Zapotecs had themselves been closely tied to the Olmecs (see Chapter 1), but instead of living in the alluvial lowlands of the Gulf coast, they built their capital atop a mountain overlooking the three major valleys of central Oaxaca. It seems likely that they were the first Mesoamerican people to use the 260-day calendar, and they possessed a writing system, although, with the exception of names, dates, and places, it remains largely undeciphered. Like the Olmec before them, they valued jade above all other precious stones or metal—more than gold and silver. Jade would remain the most treasured material through the entire history of the cultures of Mesoamerica, from the Olmecs to the Aztecs. The translucent green color of jade symbolized water, fertility, and vegetation—in short, the life force. Large stones were very rare, and specimen pieces were passed down from generation to generation. A particularly fine example is a bat god from Monte Albán, discovered in the grave of an early Zapotec king, and probably worn as a symbol of his power (Fig. 11.26). Its eyes, made of shell, stare fiercely out at any who would have approached him.

Monte Alban Archaeological Site Intro, 3:29
Monte Alban is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca. In addition to being one of the earliest cities of Mesoamerica, Monte Alban is important because it served as the center of Zapotec life and culture for close to a thousand years. The ruins of Monte Alban are visible from anywhere in the central part of the Valley of Oaxaca, and have always attracted large numbers of visitors, explorers and researchers. In this video Ivan, our tour guide, gives an introduction to this amazing historic and cultural site.
https://youtu.be/7CT8UMb39w4


        Teotihuacán 392

Teotihuacán thrived from about 50 to 750 ce. By the fourth century ce, it was a center of culture comparable to Constantinople in the Old World. In contrast to the later Mayan cities, many of which were quickly forgotten and overgrown in the jungle, Teotihuacán remained, for the Maya, the Aztecs, and other Mesoamerican civilizations, a holy site, the manifestation on earth of Tollan, the Mesoamerican mythic place of origin. Even a thousand years after it flourished, the most important Aztec rulers made pilgrimages to it.

The city is laid out in a grid system, the basic unit of which is 614 square feet, and every detail is subjected to this scheme, conveying a sense of power and mastery. A great, broad avenue, known as the Avenue of the Dead, runs through the city (Figs. 11.27 and 11.28). It links two great pyramids, the Pyramids of the Moon and the Sun, both surrounded by about 600 smaller pyramids, workshops and numerous plazas, and a giant market area. There are some 2,000 known apartment complexes—more are likely to be excavated—nearly all adorned with complex murals related to ritual life. Their size, location (nearer or farther from the center), and their quality of construction is indicative of the social status of the inhabitant. The Pyramid of the Sun is oriented to mark the passage of the sun from east to west and the rising of the stellar constellation, the Pleiades, on the days of the equinox. Each of its two staircases contains 182 steps, which, when the platform at its apex is added, together total 365. The pyramid is thus an image of time. This representation of the solar calendar is echoed in another pyramid at Teotihuacán, the Temple of the Plumed (or Feathered) Serpent, which is decorated with 364 serpent fangs.

Pirámides de Teotihuacan, México, 5:50
Teotihuacan is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas. The largest pyramid, the Pyramid of the Sun, was completed by 100 AD. At its peak (450 AD), the city covered over 30 km² and probably housed a population of over 150,000 people. Archaeological evidence suggests that Teotihuacan (45 km northeast of Mexico City) was a multi-ethnic city, with distinct quarters occupied by Otomi, Zapotec, Mixtec, Maya and Nahua peoples. By F.C., octubre 2010.
https://youtu.be/2JdcM-jCTks


        Mayan Culture 394

 To the south, another culture, that of the Maya, both predated and post-dated that of Teotihuacán. The Maya occupied several regions: the highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala; the southern lowlands of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize; and the northern lowlands in the states of Yucatan, Campeche, and Quintano Roo. They were never unified into a single political entity, but rather consisted of many small kingdoms that engaged in warfare with one another over land and resources.

An elaborate calendar system enabled them to keep track of their history—and, evidence suggests, predict the future. It consisted of two interlocking ways of recording time, a 260-day calendar and a 365-day calendar. The 260-day calendar probably derives from the length of human gestation, from a pregnant woman’s first missed menstrual period to birth. When both calendars were synchronized, it took exactly 52 years of 365 days for a given day to repeat itself—the so-called calendar round—and the end of each cycle was widely celebrated.

The Mayan calendar was put to many uses. An example is the Madrid Codex (Fig. 11.29), one of the four surviving Mayan codices. It consists of 56 stucco-coated bark-paper leaves, painted, with the exception of one page, on both sides. Over 250 separate “almanacs” that place events of both a sacred and secular nature within the 260-day Mesoamerican ritual calendar fill its pages. It records events concerning particularly the activities of daily life (planting, tending crops, the harvest, weaving, and hunting), rituals, astronomic events, offerings, and deities associated with them. The four horizontal rows in the lower half of each panel are composed of the glyphs of the 20 named days recycling 13 times. Sky serpents who send the rain and speak in thunder are shown weaving around the rows of glyphs. In the shorter top two leaves, standard numerology can be seen. The Mayans wrote numbers in two ways, as a system of dots and bars, seen here, and in a set of pictorial variants.

TOP 10 Amazing Facts About THE MAYANS, 5:12
Top 10 Fascinating Facts About The Mayans The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Many misconceptions about the mayans exist, and this list should put an end to at least one or two of them. In addition, it will introduce you to facts that you never knew about this great ancient civilization.10 Continuing Culture BychurchThe Fact: There are numerous Mayans still living in their home regionsIn fact, there are over seven million Mayans living in their home regions, many of whom have managed to maintain substantial remnants of their ancient cultural heritage. Some are quite integrated into the modern cultures of the nations in which they reside, while others continue a more traditional culturally distinct life, often speaking one of the Mayan languages as a primary language. The largest populations of contemporary Maya inhabit the Mexican states of Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, and Chiapas, and in the Central American countries of Belize, Guatemala, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. Just as a point of interest, it is very possible that the word “shark” comes to us from the Mayan languages, as does the word “cocoa”. To say “thank you” in Yucatec Maya, you say “Jach Dyos b’o’otik.”9 Mayan Childhood 4-CrosseyesThe Fact: The Mayans “enhanced” the beauty of their childrenThe Maya desired some unnatural physical characteristics for their children. For instance, at a very young age boards were pressed on babies’ foreheads to create a flattened surface. This process was widespread among the upper class. Another practice was to cross babies’ eyes. To do this, objects were dangled in front of a newborn’s eyes, until the newborn’s eyes were completely and permanently crossed. Another interesting fact about Mayan children is that most were named according to the day they were born. Every day of the year had a specific name for both boys and girls and parents were expected to follow that practice. 8 Excellent Doctors 53068499.Shaman03The Fact: The Mayans had many excellent medical practicesHealth and medicine among the ancient Maya was a complex blend of mind, body, religion, ritual, and science. Important to all, medicine was practiced only by a select few who were given an excellent education. These men, called shamans, act as a medium between the physical world and spirit world. They practice sorcery for the purpose of healing, foresight, and control over natural events. Since medicine was so closely related to religion and sorcery, it was essential that Maya shamans had vast medical knowledge and skill. It is known that the Maya sutured wounds with human hair, reduced fractures, and were even skilled dental surgeons, making prostheses from jade and turquoise and filling teeth with iron pyrite.7 Blood Sacrifice AztecshumansacrificeThe Fact: Some Mayans still practice blood sacrificeIt is a rather well known fact that the Mayans practiced human sacrifice for religious and medical reasons – but what most people don’t know is that many Mayans still practice blood sacrifice. But don’t get too excited – chicken blood has now replaced human blood. Today the Maya keep many of the ritualistic traditions of their ancestors. Elements of prayer, offerings, blood sacrifice (replacing human blood with that of sacrificed chickens), burning of copal incense, dancing, feasting, and ritual drinking continue in traditional ceremonies.6 Painkillers Escuintla EnemaThe Fact: The Mayans used painkillers The Mayan peoples regularly used hallucinogenic drugs (taken from the natural world) in their religious rituals, but they also used them in day to day life as painkillers. Flora such as peyote, the morning glory, certain mushrooms, tobacco, and plants used to make alcoholic substances, were commonly used. In addition, as depicted in Maya pottery and carvings, ritual enemas were used for a more rapid absorption and effect of the substance. Above is a statue of a Mayan enjoying their enema.5 Ball Courts Tikal BallcourtThe Fact: The Mayans built ball courts so they could play gamesThe Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the pre-Columbian peoples of Mesoamerica. The sport had different versions in different places during the millennia, and a modern version of the game, ulama, is still played in a few places by the local indigenous population.
https://youtu.be/DwZbGLCtZ6A
What happened to the Mayan civilization? 1:34
https://youtu.be/OkTaSiAmnwg
The Simpsons Recreation of Mayan Culture.mp4, 2:14
https://youtu.be/ykVjEvOlddo


        The Post-Classic Era: Toltecs and Aztecs 396

In the north, after the decline of Teotihuacán, the Toltec culture rose to power. Centered in Tula in the modern state of Hidalgo, in terms of architecture, symbols, planning, and narrative programs, the Toltecs were a bridge between Teotihuacán and the Aztecs. When, in the twelfth century, Tula was burned and its inhabitants scattered, one of these surviving groups was the Mexica. Later known as the Aztecs, they wandered into the Valley of Mexico in about 1325 and built a village on the shores of Lake Texcoco. There they saw an eagle perching on a prickly pear cactus (tenochtli), a sign that their wandering was over. They dug canals and drained the shallow areas of the lake, converting them into fertile fields, and there, as well, they built the city of Tenochtitlán on an island in the lake’s center.

Blood sacrifice was central to Aztec culture, merging perfectly with the warrior traditions inherited from the Toltecs. The Aztecs believed that the sun, moon, and earth all depended upon human blood for their sustenance. Their chief activity, as a result, was war, and the chief goal of war was to capture sacrificial victims, as well as acquire territory and exact tribute to buttress the life of the elites, including quetzal feathers, copal resin for incense, and cotton for warrior uniforms. At puberty, boys were placed under jurisdiction of a local warrior house and trained for war, where they learned that success in life equaled the number of enemies captured alive for later ritual killing. Death itself, when realized in the pursuit of such honor, was the greatest honor an Aztec male could achieve.

Centered at Tenochtitlán, Aztec culture would survive until the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. In only a few years it was almost totally destroyed, its vast quantities of magnificent goldwork looted and returned to Europe to be melted down to support the warring ways of the European kings (see Chapter 18).

The Aztec Successors of the Toltec, 2:02
https://youtu.be/Ue3OBUN0u0M


        The Cultures of South America 397

 As in Mesoamerica, complex cultures developed in South America during the period corresponding to the Middle Ages in Europe, particularly in the area of present-day Peru (see Map 11.5). The region is one of dramatic contrast. The snow-capped peaks and high grasslands of the Andes Mountains capture rainfall from the Pacific Ocean, creating rivers that drop quickly to the sea across one of the most arid deserts in the world.

Travel tips on Peru's history and culture, 3:14
What you need to know before you go to Peru: This short video describes some of the history and culture of Peru and the Incas that preceded them.
https://youtu.be/ZQFpswPZFY0


    READINGS

        11.1 Poems by Li Bai and Du Fu 401

        11.1a Poems by Li Bai and Du Fu 366

Li Bai and Du Fu are generally considered the greatest poets of the Tang dynasty. The two became close friends after Li Bai was summoned to the capital at Chang’an by the emperor Xuanzong in 742. They wrote many poems to one another, a good example of which is the second of the two poems below. The first poem below underscores Li Bai’s sense of isolation and loneliness after he was expelled from court in 762. After the collapse of the Tang court in the mid-750s, Du Fu wandered down the Yangtze River, finding patrons and dreaming of his return to Chang’an, until his death in 770.


        11.2 from Marco Polo, Travels 367

        11.3 from Murasaki Shikibu, Diaries 379

        11.4 Ki no Tomonori, “This Perfectly Still” 379

        11.5 from Sei Shonagon, The Pillow Book, “Hateful Things” 402

        11.5a from Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, “Elegant Things” 379

        11.6 from Jacob Egharevba, A Short History of Benin 386

        11.7 from Popol Vuh: The Great Mythological Book of the Ancient Maya 395

    FEATURES

        CLOSER LOOK Guo Xi’s Early Spring 370

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Spanish and the Fate of the Inca and Aztec Capitals 399

12 The Gothic Style FAITH AND KNOWLEDGE IN AN AGE OF INQUIRY 405

 THINKING AHEAD

    12.1 Outline the ideas, technological innovations, and stylistic developments that distinguish the Gothic style in France.

    12.2 Explain why the University of Paris was preeminent among medieval institutions of higher learning.

    12.3 Define the Radiant style.

    12.4 Describe how the Gothic style manifested itself in Italy.



    Saint-Denis and the Gothic Cathedral 406

     What ideas, technological innovations, and stylistic developments mark the rise of the Gothic style in France?

Even as a pupil at the monastery school, Abbot Suger had dreamed of transforming the Abbey of Saint-Denis into the most beautiful church in France. The dream was partly inspired by his desire to lay claim to the larger territories surrounding the Île-de-France. Suger’s design placed the royal domain at the center of French culture, defined by an architecture surpassing all others in beauty and grandeur.

After careful planning, Suger began work on the abbey in 1137, painting the walls, already almost 300 years old, with gold and precious colors. Then he added a new facade with twin towers and a triple portal. Around the back of the ambulatory he added a circular string of chapels (Figs. 12.2 and 12.3), all lit with large stained-glass windows (Fig. 12.4), “by virtue of which,” Suger wrote, “the whole would shine with the miraculous and uninterrupted light.”

This light proclaimed the new Gothic style. In preparing his plans, Suger had read what he believed to be the writings of the original Saint Denis. (We now know that he was reading the mystical tracts of a first-century Athenian follower of Saint Paul.) According to these writings, light is the physical and material manifestation of the Divine Spirit. Suger would later survey the accomplishments of his administration and explain his religious rationale for the beautification of Saint-Denis:

Marvel not at the gold and the expense but at the craftsmanship of the work.
Bright is the noble work; but being nobly bright, the work
Should brighten the minds, so that they may travel, through the true lights,
To the True Light where Christ is the true door.

Basilique de Saint Denis (Basilica of Saint Denis), 5:14
This church was an abbey church several centuries before it became a cathedral. The church is commemorated to Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris, who was beheaded at Montmartre (Martyr's Mount) and according to tradition carried that head several miles before expiring. An earlier church was dedicated to his memory and a monastery has been at this location since the 7th century. As early as the 7th century some French kings chose to be buried at this spot and by the 8th century the Carolingian kings were choosing this abbey church for both coronation and burial. Finally, by 996 and until the French Revolution most of the kings of France were buried here. Just prior to and during the French Revolution, much damage was done to the church and the royal tombs were destroyed and their corpses thrown into a communal pit. But in 1805 Napoleon decided to restore the church and to have brought back to the church what remained of the royal tombs as well as sculpture and stained glass. For more information: http://saint-denis.monuments-nationau...
https://youtu.be/Ys7w78MLr6U




        Chartres Cathedral 409

Chief among these is the Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Chartres, which, like the other Gothic cathedrals in both the Île-de-France and its surrounding territories, drew its inspiration from Paris. The cathedral’s spires can be seen for miles in every direction, lording over town and countryside as if it were the very center of its world (Fig. 12.5, and see Fig. 12.1). Chartres was, in fact, located in the heart of France’s grain belt, and its economy thrived as France exported grain throughout the Mediterranean basin. But more important, Chartres was the spiritual center of the cult of the Virgin, which throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries assumed an increasingly important role in the religious life of Western Europe. The popularity of this cult contributed, perhaps more than any other factor, to the ever-increasing size of the era’s churches. Christians worshiped the Virgin as the Bride of Christ, Personification of the Church, Queen of Heaven, and prime Intercessor with God for the salvation of humankind. This last role was especially important, for in it the Virgin could intervene to save sinners from eternal damnation. The cult of the Virgin manifested itself especially in the French cathedrals, which are often dedicated to Notre Dame, “Our Lady.”

Soon after the first building phase was completed at Chartres, between about 1140 and 1150, pilgrims thronged to the cathedral to pay homage to what the Church claimed was the Virgin’s tunic, worn at Jesus’ birth. This relic was housed in the cathedral and was believed to possess extraordinary healing powers. But in 1194, the original structure was destroyed by fire, except for the west facade, a few stained-glass windows, including one of the most beautiful, known as Notre-Dame de la Belle Verrière (“Our Lady of the Beautiful Window”) (Fig. 12.6), and the tunic of the Virgin. The survival of the window and the tunic was taken as a sign of divine providence, and a massive reconstruction project was begun in gratitude. Royalty and local nobility contributed their financial support, and the local guilds gave both money and work.

0:03 / 5:06 Chartres Cathedral: A Sacred Geometry - Beginning
This clip is opening five minutes of the acclaimed documentary exploring the mysteries of Chartres Cathedral with Professor Keith Critchlow. Available to rent and buy as a digital download from Vimeo: www.vimeo.com/ondemand/chartrescathedral
https://youtu.be/Nswicka4GF8


        Stained Glass 409

The stained-glass program at Chartres is immensely complex. The innovative engineering that marks Gothic architecture (to be discussed later in this chapter) freed the walls of the need to bear the weight of the structure. It also freed the walls to contain glass (see Materials & Techniques, page 411, and Closer Look, pages 412–413).

The purpose of the stained-glass programs in all Gothic cathedrals was to tell the stories of the Bible in a compelling way to an audience that was largely illiterate. The art allowed them to read the scriptural stories for themselves. At Chartres, 175 glass panels, containing more than 4,000 figures, are carefully designed, in Abbot Suger’s words, “to show simple folk … what they ought to believe.” Two windows are notable for their role in the cult of the Virgin. Notre-Dame de la Belle Verrière, whose central panel survived the fire of 1194, embodies the shift in style that occurred in the twelfth century as the Gothic supplanted the Romanesque. The Virgin and Child in the middle are almost Byzantine in their stiffness, their feet pointed downward, their pose fully frontal, the drapery of their clothing almost flat; compare the sixth-century mosaic of Emperor Justinian in San Vitale church, Ravenna (see Fig. 8.28 in Chapter 8). But the angels on the sides, which are thirteenth-century additions, are both less stiff and more animated. The swirls and folds of their gowns flow across their limbs, revealing the anatomy beneath them.

Building the Great Cathedrals - Cathedrals in Color, 4:48
Except for the color in their stained glass windows, today, Gothic Cathedrals appear as drab as the material with which they were built: stone. But to medieval pilgrims, they were a kaleidoscopic feast for the eyes, inside and out. Watch this bonus scene from "Building the Great Cathedrals" and be sure to check out our website for lots more: http://providencepictures.com/news/bu... Building the Great Cathedrals premieres October 19, 2010 on Nova/PBS.
https://youtu.be/EGAumT8aNkk


        Gothic Architecture 410

As the Gothic style developed, important architectural innovations contributed to the goal of elevating the soul of worshipers to the spiritual realm. Key among these innovations was rib vaulting. The principles of rib vaulting were known to Romanesque architects, but Gothic architects used these techniques with increasing sophistication (see Materials & Techniques, page 411). Rib vaulting allowed for the massive stonework of the Romanesque style to be replaced, inside and out, by an almost lacy play of thin columns and patterns of ribs and windows, all pointing upward in a gravitydefying crescendo that carries the viewer’s gaze toward the heavens. Extremely high naves—Chartres’s nave is 120 feet high, Reims’s nave is 125, and the highest of all, Beauvais’s, is 157, the equivalent of a 15-story building—add to this emphasis on verticality, contributing a sense of elevation that is both physical and spiritual. The nave of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Amiens is perhaps the supreme statement of this architectural verticality (Figs. 12.8 and 12.9). The nave is only 48 feet wide, but it soars to three times that height, 144 feet, and this narrowly proportioned space cannot help but create a sense of exaggerated height for the visitor.

0:02 / 2:31 Gothic Architecture in 2 minutes
Brief explanation of Gothic Architecture in "Draw My Life" style. Resources: http://historylists.org/architecture/... https://sg.answers.yahoo.com/question... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_a... http://www.exploring-castles.com/char... http://www.historybyzim.com/2013/02/g... http://html.rincondelvago.com/romanes... http://www.differencebetween.net/misc... Music: "Plucky Daisy" by Kevin MacLeod
https://youtu.be/Iz5YdZdqE44


        Gothic Sculpture 416

If we look at developments in architectural sculpture from the time of the decoration of the west portal of Chartres Cathedral (1145–70) to the time of the sculptural plan of the south transept portal (1215–20), and, finally, to the sculptures decorating the west front of Reims Cathedral (1225–55), we can see that, in a little over 100 years, Gothic sculptors had begun to reintroduce Classical principles of sculptural composition into Western art.

Although they seem almost Byzantine in their long, narrow verticality, feet pointing downward, the jamb sculptures on the west portal of Chartres mark a distinct advance in the sculptural realization of the human body (Fig. 12.14). These, and five more sets, flank the three doorways of the cathedral’s Royal Portal. The center tympanum of the portal depicts Christ Enthroned in Royal Majesty, the north tympanum the Ascension of Christ, and the south the Virgin and Child Enthroned. The jamb sculptures represent figures from the Hebrew Bible considered to be precursors of Christ. These works have little in common with Romanesque relief sculpture, typified by the Last Judgment tympanum on the Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy in Conques (see Fig. 10.22 in Chapter 10). While the Chartres figures remain contained by the form of the colonnade behind them, they are fully rounded and occupy a space in front of the column itself.

How to read a Gothic cathedral façade, 6:43
Andrea Kirkby explains the way to 'read' the messages that the Gothic builders incorporated in their work. Cathedrals featured include Paris, Laon, Reims, Rouen, Amiens, Bourges and Chartres.
https://youtu.be/FBwrcowWOGc



        Music in the Gothic Cathedral: Growing Complexity 417

With its vast spaces and stone walls, the Gothic cathedral could be as animated by its acoustics as by its light, or, as at Reims, the liveliness of its sculpture. Ecclesiastical leaders were quick to take advantage of this quality in constructing their liturgy. At the School of Notre-Dame, in Paris, the first collection of music in two parts, the Magnus Liber Organi (The Great Book of Polyphony), was widely distributed in manuscript by about 1160. Among its many anonymous composers was Léonin (see track 10.4). The Magnus Liber Organi was arranged in song cycles to provide music for all the feast days of the Church calendar. The Magnus Liber was created at a time when most polyphony was produced and transmitted only orally. What makes it so significant is that it represents the beginning of the modern sense of “composition”—that is, works attributable to a single composer.

Early Music History: Middle Ages pt 2, 5:29
Nar. William Devonshire Book: "Early Music" by Linda Sheppard Music: Leonin, 'viderunt omnes' of the Notre Dame Cathedral
https://youtu.be/Iqry2zYPWfI


    The Rise of the University 418

    Why did the University of Paris become preeminent among medieval institutions of higher learning?

The first university was founded in Bologna, Italy, in 1158. Two hundred years earlier, in Spain, Islamic institutions of higher learning were generally attached to mosques, since learning was considered sacred. At first, the term university meant simply a union of students and the instructors with whom they contracted to teach them. Universitas was an umbrella term for collegia, the groups of students who shared a common interest or, as at Bologna, hailed from the same geographic area. The University of Bologna quickly established itself as a center for the study of law (Fig. 12.17), an advanced area of study for which students prepared by mastering the seven liberal arts.

Proficiency in Latin was mandatory, and students studied Latin in all courses of their first four years of study. They read the writings of the ancient Greeks—Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid—in Latin translation. Augustine of Hippo’s On Christian Doctrine was required reading, as were Boethius’s writings on music and arithmetic. To obtain their bachelor of arts (BA) degree, students took oral exams after three to five years of study. Further study to acquire mastery of a special field led to the master of arts (MA) degree and might qualify a student to teach theology or practice medicine or law. Four more years of study were required to acquire the title of doctor (from the Latin, doctus, “learned”), culminating in a defense of a thesis before a board of learned examiners.

The Medieval University, 2:13
During the early Middle Ages, any type of higher education was usually available only in monasteries and cathedral schools, where Christian monks and nuns taught each other and preserved the writings of classical authors. But by the eleventh-century, medieval Europe was becoming more urban and complex, and royal governments needed highly trained men to run their bureaucracies. Students and teachers were also demanding better ways to be educated, and the solution to this came about with the creation of universities. Universities come from the Latin word universitas, which means guild, and these schools were essentially groups of students and teachers who got together into their own groups for the purposes of learning -- in some universities it was the students themselves who paid the teachers and ran the institution. The main curriculum was based on seven areas - grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy - all of which were important for a cleric in the Catholic church. In some universities, other subjects were also important - Salerno was renowned as a place to study medicine and Bologna for law. By the twelfth and thirteenth centuries universities were becoming important centres of learning and some would become quite famous - like Oxford and Cambridge in England, and the University of Paris in France. In the later Middle Ages, universities would emerge in most other parts of Europe too, as monarchs and cities wanted them as sources of highly-skilled bureaucrats and to increase their own reputation. Occasionally, though, the relations between university students and their local communities could get hostile, and since students were treated as clergy, it meant that they could not be tried by local courts for crimes, only the much more lenient ecclesiastical courts. While very few medieval men (and no women) could be part of a university, the institution did develop and grow throughout the Middle Ages, and became home to some of the periods greatest thinkers -- such as Peter Abelard and Thomas Aquinas. The university has since become the standard of higher education not just in Europe, but throughout the world. To learn more about medieval education, please visit http://www.medievalists.net/2011/08/2...
https://youtu.be/Ly9BPvFJfqo


        Héloïse and Abelard 419

The quality of its teaching most distinguished the University of Paris. Because books were available only in handwritten manuscripts, they were extremely expensive, so students relied on lectures and copious note-taking for their instruction. Peter Abelard (1079–ca. 1144), a brilliant logician and author of the treatise Sic et Non (“Yes and No”), was one of the most popular lecturers of his day. Crowds of students routinely gathered to hear him. He taught by the dialectical method—that is, by presenting different points of view and seeking to reconcile them. This method of teaching originates in the Socratic method, but whereas Socratic dialogue consisted of a wise teacher who was questioned by students, or even fools, Abelard’s dialectical method presumed no such hierarchical relationships. Everything, to him, was open to question. “By doubting,” he famously argued, “we come to inquire, and by inquiring we arrive at truth.”

Needless to say, the Church found it difficult to deal with Abelard, who demonstrated time and again that various Church Fathers—and the Bible itself—held hopelessly opposing views on many issues. Furthermore, the dialectical method itself challenged the unquestioning faith in God and the authority of the Church. Abelard was particularly opposed by Bernard of Clairvaux, who in 1140 successfully prosecuted him for heresy. By then, Abelard’s reputation as a teacher had not faded, but his moral position had long been suspect. In 1119, he had pursued a love affair with his private student, Héloïse. Abelard not only felt that he had betrayed a trust by falling in love with her and subsequently impregnating her, but he was further humiliated by Héloïse’s angry uncle, in whose home he had tutored and seduced the girl. Learning of the pregnancy, the uncle hired thugs to castrate Abelard in his bed. Abelard retreated to the monastery at Saint-Denis, accepting the protection of the powerful Abbot Suger. Héloïse joined a convent and later served as abbess of Paraclete, a chapel and oratory founded by Abelard.

Heloise and Abelard Love Story | LittleArtTalks, 6:03
The heartbreaking love story of Heloise and Abelard. Cupid and Psyche Love Story https://youtu.be/ehMAlOL113Y?list=PL5... Izanami and Izanagi Myth https://youtu.be/l3MKdJjQeOw?list=PL5... www.LittleArtTalks.com Twitter: @LittleArtTalks http://goo.gl/UuSvyp Tumblr: http://goo.gl/fsNDEO Facebook: http://goo.gl/YScjms Pinterest: http://goo.gl/Cazd5J Instagram @LittleArtTalks http://instagram.com/littlearttalks Google+: http://goo.gl/iwDlJf Images: Wikipedia Commons, Public Domain, Fair Use Welcome to Little Art Talks! I'm so glad you found this video. I make videos about art inspired by friends who tell me they don't know anything about it. If you liked this video, please like, comment, share & subscribe. :) See you soon!
https://youtu.be/K6FRlY0k9FE


        The Romance of the Rose 419

The relationship of Héloïse and Abelard would be celebrated in what is undoubtedly the most extensively illuminated and popular vernacular poem of the age, the Roman de la Rose (“Romance of the Rose”), begun by Guillaume de Lorris (d. ca. 1235) but largely written by Jean de Meun (ca. 1240–ca. 1305). The book is the dream vision of a 25-year-old narrator who finds himself, accompanied by Dame Oyouse, or Lady Idleness, before a walled garden full of roses and pleasure seekers (Fig. 12.18). As he selects a rose for himself, the God of Love shoots him with several arrows, leaving him forever enamored of one particular flower. His efforts to obtain the Rose meet with little success. A stolen kiss alerts the guardians of the Rose, who then enclose it behind great fortifications. At the point where Guillaume de Lorris’s poem breaks off, the narrator is left lamenting his fate. Jean de Meun concludes the narrative with a bawdy account of the plucking of the Rose, achieved through deception, which is very unlike Guillaume’s idealized conception of the love quest. The book also included the first translations of the letters of Héloïse and Abelard, originally written in about 1135–36 and rendered by Meun from Latin into the vernacular. They include Héloïse’s arguments to Abelard against their marriage, and her declaration of loyalty to him after she became a nun (see Reading 12.1, page 433).

The Romance of the rose, 5:02
Helena Phillips-Robins discusses CUL MS Gg.4.6, displayed the exhibition 'The moving word: French medieval manuscripts in Cambridge', held in Cambridge University Library, 22 January-17 April 2014. The Romance of the Rose was one of the best known, most admired and most imitated texts of the French Middle Ages. It is an allegorical love poem that is truly encyclopaedic in scope, telling the story of Amant (the Lover) who falls asleep and dreams that he enters a walled garden. In the same fountain in which Narcissus drowned himself he sees the reflection of a beautiful rosebud and is immediately inflamed by desire to possess it. A series of allegorical characters, from Fair Welcome to Reason to Foul Mouth, help and hinder him on his quest and he finally manages to pluck the rose in what is a violent, even rape-like sexual conquest. While most medieval vernacular texts survive in a handful of manuscripts, the Rose is preserved in nearly three hundred. The one we are looking at here was produced in Paris in the 1330s. The miniatures are by Richard de Montbaston, who, together with his wife Jeanne, illustrated over 20 copies of the Rose. On the opening page of the text [f. 3], we see the Lover asleep, with the rosebush forming the backdrop to the scene. He then arises in his dream and comes across a high garden wall. His pointing finger and upturned gaze draw our eyes to the painted figures, which are supposed to represent various vices along with Sorrow, Old Age and Poverty. The moment when the Lover actually enters the garden is depicted a few folios further on [f. 7v]. Idleness -- dressed in orange -- takes him by the hand, about to lead him through the archway. We have a great example of a later reader putting his stamp on the manuscript, as it were, for R. Smithe, a sixteenth-century English owner of the manuscript, has indulged in a little cross-cultural graffiti, writing his name on the garden wall. The rubric (in red) just above the miniature reads 'Oyseuse' (Idleness). Rubrics were, of course, composed by copyists and while they are not actually part of the poem itself, they are an important part of the manuscript as a whole. Rubrics identifying who is speaking are a standard feature of Rose manuscripts and help to orient the reader among the poem's vast array of characters.
https://youtu.be/9dPI1hW7mrM


        The Education of Women 420

Héloïse’s story reveals much about the education of women in the Middle Ages. Intellectually brilliant, she became Abelard’s private student because women were not allowed to study at the university. There were some exceptions, particularly in Italy. At Bologna, Novella d’Andrea (1312–66) lectured on philosophy and law. At Salerno, in southern Italy, the chair of medicine was held by Trotula (d. 1097), one of the most famous physicians of her time, although some scholars debate whether she was actually a woman, and convincing evidence suggests that her works are actually compendiums of works by three different authors. Concerned chiefly with alleviating the suffering of women, the major work attributed to her is On the Diseases of Women, commonly known throughout the Middle Ages as the Trotula. As the author says at the beginning of the treatise:

    Because women are by nature weaker than men and because they are most frequently afflicted in childbirth, diseases very often abound in them. … Women, from the condition of their fragility, out of shame and embarrassment do not dare reveal their anguish over their diseases (which happen in such a private place) to a physician. Therefore, their misfortune, which ought to be pitied, and especially the influence of a certain woman stirring my heart, have impelled me to give a clear explanation regarding their diseases in caring for their health.

In 63 chapters, the book addresses issues surrounding menstruation, conception, pregnancy, and childbirth, along with general ailments and diseases. The book champions good diet, warns of the dangers of emotional stress, and prescribes the use of opiates during childbirth, a practice otherwise condemned for centuries to come. It even explains how an experienced woman might pretend to be a virgin. The standard reference work in gynecology and obstetrics for midwives and physicians throughout the Middle Ages, the Trotula was translated from Latin into almost all vernacular languages and was widely disseminated.



        Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism 420

In 1245, Thomas Aquinas (1225–74), a 20-year-old Dominican monk from Italy, arrived at the University of Paris to study theology, walking into a theological debate that had been raging for nearly 100 years, ever since the conflict between Abelard and Bernard: How does the believer come to know God? With the heart? With the mind? Or with both? Do we come to know the truth intuitively or rationally? Aquinas took on these questions directly and soon became the most distinguished student and lecturer at the university.

Aquinas was accompanied to Paris by another Dominican, his teacher Albertus Magnus (ca. 1200–80), a German who taught at both Paris and Cologne and who later produced a biological classification of plants based on Aristotle. The Dominicans had been founded in 1216 by the Spanish priest Dominic (ca. 1170–1221) as an order dedicated to the study of theology. Aquinas and Magnus, and others like them, increasingly trained by Dominicans, were soon labeled scholastics. Their brand of theological inquiry, which was based on Abelard’s dialectical method, was called Scholasticism.

Most theologians understood that there was a seeming conflict between faith and reason, but, they argued, since both proceeded from God, this conflict must, by definition, be a misapprehension. In the universities, rational inquiry and Aristotle’s objective descriptions of physical reality were all the rage (see Chapter 5), so much so that theologians worried that students were more enthralled with logical argumentation than right outcomes. Instead of studying heavenly truths and Scriptures, they were studying pagan philosophy, dating from the fourth century bce. Scholasticism sought to reconcile the two. One of the greatest efforts in this direction is Aquinas’s Summa Theologica, begun in 1265 when he was 40 years old. At Albertus Magnus’s request, Aquinas set out to write a theology based entirely on the work of ancient philosophers, demonstrating the compatibility of Classical philosophy and Christian religion. The Summa Theologica takes on virtually every theological issue of the age, from the place of women in society and the Church, to the cause of evil, the question of free choice, and whether it is lawful to sell a thing for more than it is worth. The medieval summa was an authoritative summary of all that was known on a traditional subject, and it was the ultimate aim of every highly educated man to produce one.

In a famous passage Aquinas takes on the largest issue of all—the summa of summas—attempting to prove the existence of God once and for all. Notice particularly the Aristotelian reliance on observation and logically drawn conclusions (Reading 12.2):

Three Minute Philosophy: Thomas Aquinas, 3:51
By popular demand, an all new three-minute philosophy lesson! This time we rocket through the life work of theologian Thomas Aquinas. I know it goes for four minutes. Shut up. It has extra bits.
https://youtu.be/Mz_iGGGMddw
What is SCHOLASTICISM? What does SCHOLASTICISM mean? SCHOLASTICISM meaning & explanation, 3:18
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of, and a departure from, Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities. The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology, such as Schola Medica Salernitana, the University of Bologna, and the University of Paris. It is difficult to define the date at which they became true universities, although the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe held by the Catholic Church and its various religious orders are a useful guide. Not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, scholasticism places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference, and to resolve contradictions. Scholastic thought is also known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions. In the classroom and in writing, it often takes the form of explicit disputation: a topic drawn from the tradition is broached in the form of a question, opponents' responses are given, a counterproposal is argued and opponent's arguments rebutted. Because of its emphasis on rigorous dialectical method, scholasticism was eventually applied to many other fields of study. As a program, scholasticism began as an attempt at harmonization on the part of medieval Christian thinkers: to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, and to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy, especially that of Aristotle but also of Neoplatonism. (See also Christian apologetics.) Some of the main figures of scholasticism include Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Bonaventure, and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas's masterwork Summa Theologica, considered to be the pinnacle of scholastic, medieval, and Christian philosophy, began while Aquinas was regent master at the studium provinciale of Santa Sabina in Rome, the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. Important work in the scholastic tradition has been carried on well past Aquinas's time, for instance by Francisco Suárez and Luis de Molina, and also among Lutheran and Reformed thinkers.
https://youtu.be/hxK2TVRbxQk


    The Radiant Style and the Court of Louis IX 421

    What is the Radiant style?

By the middle of the thirteenth century, the Gothic style in France had been elaborated into increasingly flamboyant patterns of repeated traceries and ornament that we have come to refer to as the Rayonnant or Radiant style. Similarly elaborate styles developed in both England and Germany. Although only 3 feet high, the Three Towers Reliquary (Fig. 12.19), from Aachen Cathedral in Germany, gives a fair impression of this new, more complex style. It might as well be a model for a small church. Its pinnacles and spires soar upward. Rather than presenting us with a veil of stone—compare the facade of Amiens Cathedral (see Fig. 12.12), which, although highly decorated, is a solid mass—the reliquary seems more like a web of gossamer. It is as if the walls themselves should dissolve into air and light, as if the building—or reliquary—should float away in a halo of golden rays.

Sainte-Chapelle, a Royal Medieval Gothic Chapel in Paris, 2:12
La Sainte-Chapelle (The Holy Chapel) is a royal medieval Gothic chapel, located near the Palais de la Cité, on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. Begun some time after 1239 and consecrated in 1248, the Sainte-Chapelle is considered among the highest achievements of the Rayonnant period of Gothic architecture. Its erection was commissioned by King Louis IX of France to house his collection of Passion Relics, including Christ's Crown of Thorns - one of the most important relics in medieval Christendom. With the Palais de la Cité, today called La Conciergerie, the Sainte-Chapelle is one of the surviving buildings of the Capetian royal palace on the Île de la Cité. Although damaged during the French revolution, and restored in the 19th century, it retains one of the most extensive in-situ collections of 13th-century stained glass anywhere in the world. The royal chapel is a prime example of the phase of Gothic architectural style called "Rayonnant", marked by its sense of weightlessness and strong vertical emphasis. It stands squarely upon a lower chapel, which served as parish church for all the inhabitants of the palace, which was the seat of government. Make sure you go on a sunny day, as the highlight of this small chapel in Rayonnante Gothic style are the large stained-glass windows which soar up to near the vaulted ceiling. Also of interest is the extremely ornate lower level. If it happens to be rainy or cloudy, give Sainte-Chapelle a miss, as the play of coloured lights on the floor are well worth the wait for a sunnier day. The Sainte-Chapelle has been a national historic monument since 1862. Though small compared to many other famous buildings, this "jewel box" structure is one of the world's most beautiful buildings still standing. QUESTIONS? We would like to hear from you! If you have any comments or questions about this destination or just need some general travel advice, feel free to leave a comment below! ABOUT VideoVoyage.TV is a travel channel specializing in informative videos about various travel destinations around the world. We are publishing a short video every day starting with places around Southeast Asia, but planning to extend our coverage to Europe and the Caribbean in the upcoming months. SUBSCRIBE http://www.youtube.com/videovoyagetv?...
https://youtu.be/EINhf3rCtkY



        The Gothic Style in the French Ducal Courts 423

In the fourteenth century, the authority of the French king, though never challenged, was rivaled by the power of the ducal courts outside of the Paris region. Among these dukes were the king’s relatives, the dukes of Anjou, Berry, and Burgundy, who fashioned magnificent courts in their own capitals and employed vast numbers of artists charged with decorating them in a Gothic style directly indebted to the Radiant style of the century before.

The Burgundian dukes ruled from Dijon in eastern France, but they controlled as well the region of Flanders, encompassing present-day Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg. When, in the early fifteenth century, they moved from Dijon to Flanders, their favorite destination was Bruges, which of all the Flemish towns had been the first to build a town hall (Fig. 12.21). Its lavish Gothic ornamentation—from the tracery patterns in the upper windows to the ornamentation of the roofs and towers—was designed to recall the palaces of the French and Burgundian nobility. Interestingly, Bruges’s adaptation of this style for its civic government—a government at least theoretically independent of ducal authority—underscores not only its citizens’ sense of self-worth, but also their growing independence from the very nobles they imitated.


        The Miniature Tradition 423

It is perhaps no accident that a culture so concerned with material goods and material well-being should develop, in its art, a taste for detailed renderings of material reality. The Northern European attention to detail in art derives, first of all, from the Gothic predilection for intricate traceries, the winding interplay of ornamental buds and leaves so often apparent in Gothic stone- and woodwork. As we have also seen, in the sculptural decoration of churches such as that at Reims (see Fig. 12.16), by the middle of the thirteenth century, there was a developing taste for naturalism in art. It is in the work of the medieval miniature painters of the fifteenth-century French and Burgundian courts that these two directions first merge.



    The Gothic in Italy 426

    How did the Gothic style manifest itself in Italy?

The Gothic in Italy manifested itself in ways quite different from the rest of Europe, in no small part because Italy consisted of a number of individual city-states independent of control by a king or the Holy Roman Emperor. Even the papacy lacked real authority throughout most of the thirteenth century, since it had moved to France. Political power in these city-states—particularly in Florence and Siena—rested not with the landed aristocracy, who were often excluded from participation in civic affairs, but with the communities’ leading merchant families. And these city-states competed with one another for the control of trade—and with it political influence and wealth.

This competitive atmosphere, and the civic pride associated with it, prompted civic leaders to commission new cathedrals and churches that would be, they hoped, the envy of their neighbors. Siena took the lead, commissioning a new facade for its magnificent cathedral in 1284 (Fig. 12.25). To the two-tone marble banding of the original Romanesque cathedral, the artist in charge, Giovanni Pisano, integrated features of the French Gothic style, such as the triple portal with its pointed gables over the tympana, the soaring finials, the rose window, and an elaborate sculpture program.

Pisano’s great innovation was, in fact, this sculpture program. It incorporated freestanding sculptures of prophets and saints on the pinnacles, arches, and gables of the facade. His Mary, Sister of Moses (Fig. 12.26) is an example. She leans dramatically forward, as if turning to communicate with the other figures on the facade. But her pose also is the result of Giovanni’s acute sense of his public. He realized that, when seen from street level, Mary’s face would be hidden behind her dress and breasts if he did not arch her neck forward. The result is a figure that stands independently of the architecture and, like the other figures on the facade, asserts its freedom in a manner comparable to the figures on the west facade portal of Reims Cathedral (see Fig. 12.16).

Giovanni
Pisano, 4:28
https://youtu.be/xr_IeKEbzRM


        The New Mendicant Orders 427


Aside from cathedrals, civic leaders also engaged in building projects for the new urban religious orders: the Dominicans, founded by the Spanish monk Dominic de Guzman (ca. 1170–1221), whose most famous theologian was Thomas Aquinas; and the Franciscans, founded by Francis of Assisi (ca. 1181–1226). Unlike the traditional Benedictine monastic order, which functioned apart from the world, the Dominicans and the Franciscans were reformist orders, dedicated to active service in the cities, especially among the common people. Their growing popularity reflected the growing crisis facing the mainstream Church, as isolation and apparent disregard for laypeople plagued it well into the sixteenth century.

The mainstream Church held property and engaged in business—sources, many felt, of the Church’s corruption. The Dominicans and Franciscans were both mendicant orders—that is, they neither held property nor engaged in business, relying for their support on contributions from their communities. The Dominicans and the Franciscans were rivals, and they often established themselves on opposite sides of a city. The Dominicans’ priority was preaching. The Franciscans committed themselves to a severe regimen of prayer, meditation, fasting, and mortification of the flesh, based on Francis’s conviction that one could come closer to God by rejecting worldly goods. But both orders borrowed freely from one another. The Franciscans adopted the more efficient organizing principles of the Dominicans as well as their love of learning and emphasis on preaching, while the Dominicans accepted the Franciscan repudiation of worldly goods.

Monastic and Mendicant Catholic Religious Orders - Gregorian Chant, 2:29
I did not make this video for deep explanatory or instructional purposes, but as a general overview of these religious orders. I have included only the most well known and popular orders, with the Latin name and abbreviation as well as the common English name. The pictures are a collection of Monastic and Mendicant monks and friars, and do not chronologically coincide with the slides. 'Laetetur Cor' is being chanted: Laetetur cor quaerentium Dominum. Quaerite Dominum et confirmamini; quaerite faciem eius semper. Confitemini Domino et invocate nomen eius, annuntiate inter gentes opera eius. Laetetur cor quaerentium Dominum. Quaerite Dominum et confirmamini; quaerite faciem eius semper. Let the heart of them rejoice that seek the Lord. Seek ye the Lord, and be strengthened: seek his face evermore. Give glory to the Lord, and call upon his name: declare his deeds among the Gentiles. Let the heart of them rejoice that seek the Lord. Seek ye the Lord, and be strengthened: seek his face evermore.
https://youtu.be/xk8CJpv9CYk




    READINGS

        12.1 from Jean de Meun, Romance of the Rose 433

The Romance of the Rose is an allegorical dream vision about love, in which a young man endeavors to possess the rosebud with which he has become enamored. In Meun’s hands, it becomes a satire on contemporary society. At the end of the poem, in an allegory of sexual intercourse, the lover finally penetrates the inner sanctum of the rose. The poem ends with the narrator awakening, fulfilled, at daybreak. The following represents the first publication of the letters of Héloïse and Abelard, included in the poem as part of a jealous husband’s arguments against marriage.



        12.2 from Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 421

        12.3 from Bonaventure of Bagnoreggio, Legenda Maior 429

        12.4 Saint Francis of Assisi, “Canticle of the Sun” 430

    FEATURES

        MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Rib Vaulting 411

        CLOSER LOOK The Stained Glass at Chartres 412

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE Representing the Human 431






Facing the Divine: Exploring African masks as art connecting humans to the realm of spirits.

Pre-Built Course Content

Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the later part of the Renaissance. Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, such as dorms and rooms.

Façade of Reims Cathedral, France
It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions, whether springing from faith or from civic pride. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction while many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches.
The interior of the western end of Reims Cathedral
A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century.
Overview of Reims Cathedral from north-east
Let's go Goth! A new cathedral design points to the heavens.
Pre-Built Course Content
EXPLORE ACTIVITIES
Angkor and BeninSoutheast Asia and West Africa

  • Chapter 11 (pp. 375-6), Angkor Wat (in Cambodia), history and connections to Hindu beliefs; (pp. 386-7), Benin (in Nigeria, West Africa); Review "Week 6 Music" folder
  • Content blocked:

3D Documentary of Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត or "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, with site measuring 162.6 hectares (1,626,000 sq meters).[1] It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple for the Khmer Empire, gradually transforming into a Buddhist temple toward the end of the 12th century.[2] It was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II[3] in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura (Khmer: យសោធរបុរៈ, present-day Angkor), the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious center since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia,[4] appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors.
Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls.
The modern name, Angkor Wat, means "Temple City" or "City of Temples" in Khmer; Angkor, meaning "city" or "capital city", is a vernacular form of the word nokor (នគរ), which comes from the Sanskrit word nagara (Devanāgarī: नगर).[5] Wat is the Khmer word for "temple grounds", also dervied from Sanskrit vāṭa (Devanāgarī: वाट), meaning "enclosure".[6]
Angkor Wat, 4:16
https://youtu.be/zBSk55K5CSk

Benin City is a city (2006 est. pop. 1,147,188) and the capital of Edo State in southern Nigeria. It is a city approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the Benin River. It is situated 320 kilometres (200 mi) by road east of Lagos. Benin is the centre of Nigeria's rubber industry, but processing palm nuts for oil is also an important traditional industry.[1]

Gothic Style of Cathedral Architecture
  • Chapter 12 (pp. 407-413), Stained glass windows; review Week 6 Music Folder 2: 56
  • Partly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over a 26-year period after the fire of 1194, Chartres Cathedral marks the high point of French Gothic art. The vast nave, in pure ogival style, the porches adorned with fine sculptures from the middle of the 12th century, and the magnificent 12th- and 13th-century stained-glass windows, all in remarkable condition, combine to make it a masterpiece.
  • Stained glass windows at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9727p6ozlYo
5:02
MUSIC FOLDER
Pre-Built Course Content
HUM111 Music for Week 6
In this week's readings (chaps. 11-12), there are three musical compositions mentioned. These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube. Watch and give it a listen. Here below is some background and description of each--and the links to the YouTubes (and sometimes other helps).
West Africa: Yoruba Traditional Talking Drums (chap. 11, p. 387), 5:32
The music of the Yoruba people is perhaps best known for an extremely advanced drumming tradition,[88] especially using the dundun[89] hourglass tension drums. The representation of musical instruments on sculptural works from Ile-Ife, indicates, in general terms a substantial accord with oral traditions. A lot of these musical instruments date back to the classical period of Ile-Ife, which began at around the 10th century A.D. Some were already present prior to this period, while others were created later. The hourglass tension drum (Dùndún) for example, may have been introduced around the 15th century (1400's), the Benin bronze plaques of the middle period depicts them. Others like the double and single iron clapper-less bells are examples of instruments that preceded classical Ife.[90] Yoruba folk music became perhaps the most prominent kind of West African music in Afro-Latin and Caribbean musical styles. Yorùbá music left an especially important influence on the music of Trinidad, the Lukumi religious traditions,[91] practice and the music of Cuba.[92]
Royal Gbèdu drums
Some Yoruba musical Instruments. From the left, Shekere, Dundun/Gangan drums, Sakara drums (right)
Yoruba drums typically belong to four major families, which are used depending on the context or genre where they are played. The Dùndún / Gángan family, is the class of hourglass shaped talking drums, which imitate the sound of Yoruba speech. This is possible because the Yoruba language is tonal in nature. It is the most common and is present in many Yoruba traditions, such as Apala, Jùjú, Sekere and Afrobeat. The second is the Sakara family. Typically, they played a ceremonial role in royal settings, weddings and Oríkì recitation; it is predominantly found in traditions such as Sakara music, Were and Fuji music. The Gbedu family (literally, "large drum") is used by secret fraternities such as the Ogboni and royal courts. Historically, only the Oba might dance to the music of the drum. If anyone else used the drum they were arrested for sedition of royal authority. The Gbèdu are conga shaped drums played while they sit on the ground. Akuba drums (a trio of smaller conga-like drums related to the gbèdu) are typically used in afrobeat. The Ogido is a cousin of the gbedu. It is also shaped like a conga but with a wider array of sounds and a bigger body. It also has a much deeper sound than the conga. It is sometimes referred to as the "bass drum". Both hands play directly on the Ogido drum.[93]
Today, the word Gbedu has also come to be used to describe forms of Nigerian Afrobeat and Hip Hop music. The fourth major family of Yoruba drums is the Bàtá family which are well decorated double faced drums, with various tones. They were historically played in sacred rituals. They are believed to have been introduced by Shango, an Orisha, during his earthly incarnations as a warrior king. Traditional Yoruba drummers are known as Àyán. The Yoruba believe that Àyángalúwas the first drummer. He is also believed to be the spirit or muse that inspires drummers during renditions. This is why some Yoruba family names contain the prefix 'Ayan-' such as Ayangbade, Ayantunde, Ayanwande.[94] Ensembles using the dundun play a type of music that is also called dundun.[89] The Ashiko (Cone shaped drums), Igbin, Gudugudu (Kettledrums in the Dùndún family), Agidigbo and Bèmbé are other drums of importance. The leader of a dundun ensemble is the oniyalu meaning; ' Owner of the mother drum ', who uses the drum to "talk" by imitating the tonality of Yoruba. Much of this music is spiritual in nature, and is often devoted to the Orisas.
Agogo metal gongs
Within each drum family there are different sizes and roles; the lead drum in each family is called Ìyá or Ìyá Ìlù, which means "Mother drum", while the supporting drums are termed Omele. Yoruba drumming exemplifies West-African cross-rhythms and is considered to be one of the most advanced drumming traditions in the world. Generally, improvisation is restricted to master drummers. Some other instruments found in Yoruba music include, but are not limited to; The Gòjé (violin), Shèkèrè (gourd rattle), Agidigbo (thumb piano that takes the shape of a plucked Lamellophone), Saworo (metal rattles for the arm and ankles, also used on the rim of the bata drum), Fèrè (whistles), Aro (Cymbal)s, Agogô (bell), different types of flutes include the
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUuykOe9doU (see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4oQJZ2TEVI&list=PLF7DC628F7164F441 [6:02] for discussion of the traditional form.
Cf. King Sunny Ade & His African Beats - Me Le Se (Live on KEXP), 7:43
"King" Sunny Adé (born Sunday Adeniyi, 22 September 1946) is a Nigerian musician, singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and a pioneer of modern world music. He has been classed as one of the most influential musicians of all time.[1]
Refer to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=osNAy1DNkOQ&list=RDZedutGxrkAw for modernized version)
The Yoruba tribe of West Africa uses three types of batá drums to do musical signaling that simulates Yoruba talking. Read p. 387 (in chap. 11) carefully about the background of this "Talking Drum" music and then listen to the YouTubes at the links above.
----------------------
Alleluia, Dies Sanctificatus (chap. 12, p. 417; compare chap. 10, p. 347) Léonin (this selection was also in Week 5; it is discussed in both chapters 10 and 12)
Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) (fl. 1150s — d. ? 1201) was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum. He was probably French, probably lived and worked in Paris at the Notre Dame Cathedral and was the earliest member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony and the ars antiqua style who is known by name. The name Léonin is derived from "Leoninus," which is the Latin diminutive of the name Leo; therefore it is likely that Léonin's given French name was Léo.
All that is known about him comes from the writings of a later student at the cathedral known as Anonymous IV, an Englishman who left a treatise on theory and who mentions Léonin as the composer of the Magnus Liber, the "great book" of organum. Much of the Magnus Liber is devoted to clausulaemelismatic portions of Gregorian chant which were extracted into separate pieces where the original note values of the chant were greatly slowed down and a fast-moving upper part is superimposed. Léonin might have been the first composer to use the rhythmic modes, and maybe he invented a notation for them. According to W.G. Waite, writing in 1954: "It was Léonin's incomparable achievement to introduce a rational system of rhythm into polyphonic music for the first time, and, equally important, to create a method of notation expressive of this rhythm."[1]
The Magnus Liber was intended for liturgical use. According to Anonymous IV, "Magister Leoninus (Léonin) was the finest composer of organum; he wrote the great book (Magnus Liber) for the gradual and antiphoner for the sacred service." All of the Magnus Liber is for two voices, although little is known about actual performance practice: the two voices were not necessarily soloists.
According to Anonymous IV, Léonin's work was improved and expanded by the later composer Pérotin. See also Medieval music.
The musicologist Craig Wright believes that Léonin may have been the same person as a contemporaneous Parisian poet, Leonius, after whom Leonine verse may have been named. This could make Léonin's use of meter even more significant.[2]
4:23
The mystery of the Incarnation of the Word lies at the heart of the Christian faith. It is celebrated just after the longest night of the year, when (in the northern hemisphere) the days begin to lengthen until we reach the summer solstice, which is associated with the figure of John the Baptist. To celebrate this moment, the Church deploys an exceptional virtually uninterrupted liturgical cycle in which the usual Offices are interspersed with four Masses.

The music is that of the ancient chant of the Church of Rome, one of the oldest repertories of which traces have remained in the collective memory of mankind. Up to the thirteenth century this repertory accompanied the papal liturgy. It disappeared with the installation of the papacy in Avignon, and sank into oblivion. Rediscovered in the early twentieth century, it aroused little enthusiasm among musicians, and only began to be studied properly, first from the liturgical, then from the musicological perspective, in the second half of the century. At this time, to distinguish it from Gregorian chant, it was named Old Roman chant.

Old Roman chant occupies a central position in the history of music. It is the keystone which gives meaning and coherence to what ought to be the musical consciousness of Western Europe and far beyond. For, looking back to the period before, it gives us the key to the filiation between the chant of the Temple of Jerusalem and the heritage of Greek music. Through the magic of music, sung texts become icons. Time is deployed with sovereign slowness confers on the sound a hieratic immanence in which time and space are united in a single vibrant truth.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBs-qf8AUCc (for text and translation, see http://williamhawley.net/scorepages/alleluiadies/alleluiadiestxt.htm )
Polyphony
In music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice which is called monophony, and in difference from musical texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords which is called homophony.
Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Baroque forms such as fugue, which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal. Also, as opposed to the species terminology of counterpoint, polyphony was generally either "pitch-against-pitch" / "point-against-point" or "sustained-pitch" in one part with melismas of varying lengths in another.[1] In all cases the conception was probably what Margaret Bent (1999) calls "dyadic counterpoint",[2] with each part being written generally against one other part, with all parts modified if needed in the end. This point-against-point conception is opposed to "successive composition", where voices were written in an order with each new voice fitting into the whole so far constructed, which was previously assumed.
The term polyphony is also sometimes used more broadly, to describe any musical texture that is not monophonic. Such a perspective considers homophony as a sub-type of polyphony.[3]
Melismatic
Melisma (Greek: μέλισμα, melisma, song, air, melody; from μέλος, melos, song, melody), plural melismata, in music, is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed to syllabic, in which each syllable of text is matched to a single note.
Read p. 417 (in chap. 12) carefully, and then briefly glance back at p. 347 (in chap. 10). Then consider the term polyphony (two or more lines of melody; p. 347) as you listen to this, as well as the other terms suggested.This selection is a partricular form called “melismatic”. The composer (Léonin) worked in the Notre Dame Cathedral (Paris) in the late 1100s AD. Alleluia, Dies Sanctificatus (="Hallelujah, A Holy Day") is a chant normally sung at Christmas. This was one of the polyphonic chants in Léonin’s Magnus Liber Organi (his “Big Book of Polyphony”!). You can see how chant is developing even further from those examples in the earlier chants covered in Week 5.
Viderunt Omnes (by Pérotin) (chap. 12, pp. 417-418), 11:50

"Viderunt Omnes" is a traditional Gregorian chant of the 11th century. The work is based on an ancient gradual of the same title.
The chant was subsequently expanded upon by composers of the Notre Dame school who developed it as type of early polyphony known as organum. Thought to be written for Christmas, the polyphonic settings would have retained the same liturgical purpose as the original gradual, while being musically enhanced for the festivities. The cantus firmus, or tenor, "holds" the original chant, while the other parts develop complex melismas on the vowels. The various settings of Viderunt Omnes provide context for specific trends in medieval music.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KA6oq_UYbyA
This polyphonic composition by Pérotin was designed for singing in a large Gothic cathedral in the late 1100s and early 1200s AD. Our book notes the use of “counterpoint”. Viderunt Omnes (="All Have Seen"). See p. 418 for the Latin lyrics and translation.
Gothic Cathedrals
Birth of the Gothic, Abbot Suger and the ambulatory in the Basilica of St. Denis, 1140-44, 5:17
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=2E... Ambulatory, Basilica of Saint Denis, Paris, 1140-44.
Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker
http://youtu.be/2EciWH-1ya4

Chartres Cathedral
Chartres Cathedral, also known as Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a medieval Catholic cathedral of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Paris. It is considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The current cathedral, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1250, is the last of at least five which have occupied the site since the town became a bishopric in the 4th century.
The cathedral is in an exceptional state of preservation. The majority of the original stained glass windows survive intact, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century. The building's exterior is dominated by heavy flying buttresses which allowed the architects to increase the window size significantly, while the west end is dominated by two contrasting spires – a 105-metre (349 ft) plain pyramid completed around 1160 and a 113-metre (377 ft) early 16th-century Flamboyant spire on top of an older tower. Equally notable are the three great façades, each adorned with hundreds of sculpted figures illustrating key theological themes and narratives.
Since at least the 12th century the cathedral has been an important destination for travellers – and remains so to this day, attracting large numbers of Christian pilgrims, many of whom come to venerate its famous relic, the Sancta Camisa, said to be the tunic worn by the Virgin Mary at Christ's birth, as well as large numbers of secular tourists who come to admire the cathedral's architecture and historical merit.
One of the most beautiful and mysterious cathedrals in the world is the famous Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France.
Forty-four magnificent stained-glass windows, including three rose windows, tell the story of the world from creation to the day of judgment. The 12th Century labyrinth in the nave paving is the largest and best preserved surviving example of a medieval labyrinth in France.
Who were the architects, the so called Masters of the Compasses? Where did they get the courage and confidence to build such a complex and magnificent cathedral as Chartres?
18 Chartres Cathedral Part 2 - Secrets in Plain Sight 4:55
Secrets In Plain Sight is an awe inspiring exploration of great art, architecture, and urban design which skillfully unveils an unlikely intersection of geometry, politics, numerical philosophy, religious mysticism, new physics, music, astronomy, and world history.

Exploring key monuments and their positions in Egypt, Stonehenge, Jerusalem, Rome, Paris, London, Edinburgh, Washington DC, New York, and San Francisco brings to light a secret obsession shared by pharaohs, philosophers and kings; templars and freemasons; great artists and architects; popes and presidents, spanning the whole of recorded history up to the present time.

As the series of videos reveals how profound ancient knowledge inherited from Egypt has been encoded in units of measurement, in famous works of art, in the design of major buildings, in the layout of city streets and public spaces, and in the precise placement of obelisks and other important monuments upon the Earth, the viewer is led to perceive an elegant harmonic system linking the human body with the architectural, urban, planetary, solar, and galactic scales.
https://youtu.be/wfObQbY2Tww

Rise of the University
European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century.[10] The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception.[11] Later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University in Kraków) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne, University of Erfurt). In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.[12]
The first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna (1088), the University of Paris (c. 1150, later associated with the Sorbonne), and the University of Oxford (1167).
The University of Bologna began as a law school teaching the ius gentium or Roman law of peoples which was in demand across Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against empire and church. Bologna's special claim to Alma Mater Studiorum[clarification needed] is based on its autonomy, its awarding of degrees, and other structural arrangements, making it the oldest continuously operating institution[7] independent of kings, emperors or any kind of direct religious authority.[13][14]
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
The conventional date of 1088, or 1087 according to some,[15] records when Irnerius commences teaching Emperor Justinian's 6th century codification of Roman law, the Corpus Iuris Civilis, recently discovered at Pisa. Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organisingthemselves into 'Nationes', divided between that of the Cismontanes and that of the Ultramontanes. The students "had all the power … and dominated the masters".[16][17]
In Europe, young men proceeded to university when they had completed their study of the trivium–the preparatory arts of grammar, rhetoric and dialectic or logic–and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.
All over Europe rulers and city governments began to create universities to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions. Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to this understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts.[18]
The rediscovery of Aristotle's works–more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated –fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had already begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these works represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history.[19] Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotle's works "a turning point in the history of Western thought."[20] After Aristotle re-emerged, a community of scholars, primarily communicating in Latin, accelerated the process and practice of attempting to reconcile the thoughts of Greek antiquity, and especially ideas related to understanding the natural world, with those of the church. The efforts of this "scholasticism" were focused on applying Aristotelian logic and thoughts about natural processes to biblical passages and attempting to prove the viability of those passages through reason. This became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students.
Sapienza University of Rome is the largest university in Europe and one of the most prestigious European universities.[21]
The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, although the northern (primarily Germany, France and Great Britain) and southern universities (primarily Italy) did have many elements in common. Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures, disputations and examinations. Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics; while Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna were used for medicine. Outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter. Italian universities focused on law and medicine, while the northern universities focused on the arts and theology. There were distinct differences in the quality of instruction in these areas which were congruent with their focus, so scholars would travel north or south based on their interests and means. There was also a difference in the types of degrees awarded at these universities. English, French and German universities usually awarded bachelor's degrees, with the exception of degrees in theology, for which the doctorate was more common. Italian universities awarded primarily doctorates. The distinction can be attributed to the intent of the degree holder after graduation – in the north the focus tended to be on acquiring teaching positions, while in the south students often went on to professional positions.[22] The structure of northern universities tended to be modeled after the system of faculty governance developed at the University of Paris. Southern universities tended to be patterned after the student-controlled model begun at the University of Bologna.[23] Among the southern universities, a further distinction has been noted between those of northern Italy, which followed the pattern of Bologna as a "self-regulating, independent corporation of scholars" and those of southern Italy and Iberia, which were "founded by royal and imperial charter to serve the needs of government."[24]
Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made these Mediterranean universities much different to Islamic madrasas, controlled as they were by a religious authority. Madrasas were generally smaller and individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree.[25] A minority view, represented by scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasahs became universities.[26][27] None of the madrasahs blossomed into an institution such as a medieval, European University. George Makdisi and others,[28] in fact, argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world.[29] Numerous other scholars regard the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.[30][31]
Many scholars (including Makdisi) have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the religious madrasahs in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, and the Middle East (during the Crusades).[32][33][34] The majority view of scholars see this argument as overstated.[35] Lowe and Yasuhara have recently drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context.[36]
The Catholic Church: Builder of Civilization - The University System, Ep 5 [Part 2], 9:56
EWTN's series on the Catholic Church, hosted by Dr. Thomas E. Woods, Jr.
The Catholic Church has long been the protector of knowledge and learning.
http://youtu.be/VMeFawTXhOQ

Who is the Dumb Ox?
St. Thomas Aquinas, Genius and Saint, 2:53
A brief story of the life of St Thomas Aquinas. Up to this day he is revered as the great Doctor of the Church for having delivered such crucial concepts for the development of sacred theology and church philosophy.
http://youtu.be/547O4Oum_Ak

Last Words of Saint Louis IX, King of France, 1270, 7:44
King Louis IX, a saint and King of France, is well known for his exploits in the Crusades. He was also one of the most respected, trusted rulers of the thirteenth century. Here we take a look at his last words as he lay dying during the Eighth Crusade, left to his son, Philip III of France. This testament is found in Jean of Joinville's Life of Saint Louis.
http://youtu.be/abWzoFlLAXQ








11 Centers of Culture COURT AND CITY IN THE LARGER WORLD 363

    Developments in China 364

        The Tang Dynasty in Chang’an, “The City of Enduring Peace” (618–907 ce) 365

        The Song Dynasty and Hangzhou, “The City of Heaven” (960–1279 ce) 367

        The Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) 368

    Indian and Southeast Asian Civilizations 369

        Buddhist Art and Architecture 373

        Hindu Art and Architecture 374

    Japan: The Court, The Military, and Spiritual Life 376

        The Rise of Court Life in Japan and the Coming of the Fujiwara 376

        The Heian Period: Courtly Refinement 378

        The Kamakura Period (ca. 1185–1392): Samurai and Shogunate 381

    The Cultures of Africa 383

        Ife Culture 384

        Benin Culture 386

        West African Music 387

        East Africa: The Zagwe Dynasty 388

        The Swahili Coast 388

        Great Zimbabwe 389

    The Cultures of Mesoamerica and South America in the Classic Era 391

        Monte Albán and Zapotec Culture 392

        Teotihuacán 392

        Mayan Culture 394

        The Post-Classic Era: Toltecs and Aztecs 396

        The Cultures of South America 397

    READINGS

        11.1 Poems by Li Bai and Du Fu 401

        11.1a Poems by Li Bai and Du Fu 366

        11.2 from Marco Polo, Travels 367

        11.3 from Murasaki Shikibu, Diaries 379

        11.4 Ki no Tomonori, “This Perfectly Still” 379

        11.5 from Sei Shonagon, The Pillow Book, “Hateful Things” 402

        11.5a from Sei Shonagon, Pillow Book, “Elegant Things” 379

        11.6 from Jacob Egharevba, A Short History of Benin 386

        11.7 from Popol Vuh: The Great Mythological Book of the Ancient Maya 395

    FEATURES

        CLOSER LOOK Guo Xi’s Early Spring 370

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Spanish and the Fate of the Inca and Aztec Capitals 399

12 The Gothic Style FAITH AND KNOWLEDGE IN AN AGE OF INQUIRY 405

    Saint-Denis and the Gothic Cathedral 406

        Chartres Cathedral 409

        Stained Glass 409

        Gothic Architecture 410

        Gothic Sculpture 416

        Music in the Gothic Cathedral: Growing Complexity 417

    The Rise of the University 418

        Héloïse and Abelard 419

        The Romance of the Rose 419

        The Education of Women 420

        Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism 420

    The Radiant Style and the Court of Louis IX 421

        The Gothic Style in the French Ducal Courts 423

        The Miniature Tradition 423

    The Gothic in Italy 426

        The New Mendicant Orders 427

    READINGS

        12.1 from Jean de Meun, Romance of the Rose 433

        12.2 from Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 421

        12.3 from Bonaventure of Bagnoreggio, Legenda Maior 429

        12.4 Saint Francis of Assisi, “Canticle of the Sun” 430

    FEATURES

        MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Rib Vaulting 411

        CLOSER LOOK The Stained Glass at Chartres 412

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE Representing the Human 431


Week 6 Discussion Option A

"Angkor and Benin" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Compare Angkor (and its temple, Angkor Wat) in southeast Asia (ca. 1100s-1200s AD) with the city of Benin in West Africa (ca 1400s AD), and discuss differences, similarities, and religious ideals in each place. Identify a modern day religious or political center that these call to mind.
Explore
Angkor and Benin Southeast Asia and West Africa

Week 6 Discussion Option B

"Europe’s Cathedral Architecture" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Identify the key functions of stained glass windows in the Gothic style in Europe's cathedral architecture. Identify two (2) differences between the Romanesque and Gothic cathedral structures, and discuss which you prefer and the reasons why. Identify one (1) existing structure (the closer to your home the better) that is Romanesque or Gothic, and explain the features that support your identification.
Explore
Gothic Style of Cathedral Architecture
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Incas build the remote Machu Picchu, high in the Andes? Given Answer: Correct As a royal retreat for a ruler Correct Answer: As a royal retreat for a ruler out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the conquering Spanish build churches on the Inca temple foundations? Given Answer: Correct To emphasize Christian control of the native sites Correct Answer: To emphasize Christian control of the native sites out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Tibetan Buddhist monks create the rolled-up cloth paintings thangkas? Given Answer: Correct Instructional aids Correct Answer: Instructional aids out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What immediate act by the first shogun, Yoritomo, defined his rule? Given Answer: Correct Land grants to his followers Correct Answer: Land grants to his followers out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Mesoamerican cultures view Teotihuacán as a holy site? Given Answer: Correct It was their mythic place of origin Correct Answer: It was their mythic place of origin out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What religious relic does Chartres Cathedral house? Given Answer: Correct The tunic Mary wore when she gave birth to Christ Correct Answer: The tunic Mary wore when she gave birth to Christ out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What relic did Louis IX purchase on Crusade in Constantinople to display at Sainte-Chapelle? Given Answer: Correct Christ's crown of thorns Correct Answer: Christ's crown of thorns out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Florentine families donate chapels to the mendicant churches? Given Answer: Correct To guarantee the families' salvation Correct Answer: To guarantee the families' salvation out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals? Given Answer: Correct The organ Correct Answer: The organ out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct On whose method did Peter Abelard base his teaching? Given Answer: Correct Socrates Correct Answer: Socrates
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Benin build the massive earthwork walls and moats around their capital city? Given Answer: Correct As protection from raiding elephants Correct Answer: As protection from raiding elephants out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Heian women write using the new, purely Japanese system, hiragana? Given Answer: Correct The court discouraged shows of education in Chinese by women Correct Answer: The court discouraged shows of education in Chinese by women out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Tibetan Buddhist monks create the rolled-up cloth paintings thangkas? Given Answer: Correct Instructional aids Correct Answer: Instructional aids out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What "world's first" is Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji considered to be? Given Answer: Correct Novel Correct Answer: Novel out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct What development enabled the Chinese to build suspension bridges and pagodas? Given Answer: Correct Iron- and steel-casting Correct Answer: Iron- and steel-casting out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What religious relic does Chartres Cathedral house? Given Answer: Correct The tunic Mary wore when she gave birth to Christ Correct Answer: The tunic Mary wore when she gave birth to Christ out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what exploration was a driving force in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? Given Answer: Correct The meaning of being human Correct Answer: The meaning of being human out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals? Given Answer: Correct The organ Correct Answer: The organ out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why was light vital to Saint Denis's design? Given Answer: Correct It is the physical and material manifestation of God Correct Answer: It is the physical and material manifestation of God out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What from Chartres Cathedral survived the devastating fire of 1194? Given Answer: Correct Mary's tunic and a window portraying her Correct Answer: Mary's tunic and a window portraying her
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct After the Han dynasty fell in 220 CE, why did the Chinese reject Confucianism for Buddhism? Given Answer: Correct They blamed Confucianism for civil and cultural dysfunction Correct Answer: They blamed Confucianism for civil and cultural dysfunction out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Tibetan Buddhist monks create the rolled-up cloth paintings thangkas? Given Answer: Correct Instructional aids Correct Answer: Instructional aids out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the conquering Spanish build churches on the Inca temple foundations? Given Answer: Correct To emphasize Christian control of the native sites Correct Answer: To emphasize Christian control of the native sites out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct According to the text, which of the following are given as qualities upon which Japanese Heian court women were judged? Given Answer: Correct Their speech and writing skills Correct Answer: Their speech and writing skills out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct What immediate act by the first shogun, Yoritomo, defined his rule? Given Answer: Correct Land grants to his followers Correct Answer: Land grants to his followers out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Abelard castrated and forced to seek sanctuary in a monastery? Given Answer: Correct He fell in love with and impregnated a student Correct Answer: He fell in love with and impregnated a student out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Gothic cathedrals contain stained-glass programs? Given Answer: Correct To tell Bible stories to a mostly illiterate audience Correct Answer: To tell Bible stories to a mostly illiterate audience out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why were so many of the cathedrals called Notre Dame ("Our Lady")? Given Answer: Correct They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven Correct Answer: They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What from Chartres Cathedral survived the devastating fire of 1194? Given Answer: Correct Mary's tunic and a window portraying her Correct Answer: Mary's tunic and a window portraying her out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why was Bruges, in Flanders, such a desirable place to live in the late Middle Ages? Given Answer: Incorrect It was one of the few European cities untouched by plague Correct Answer: Its people earned the highest wages in northern Europe
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Song painters value landscape above other subjects? Given Answer: Correct It embodied the principle behind all things Correct Answer: It embodied the principle behind all things out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Incas build the remote Machu Picchu, high in the Andes? Given Answer: Correct As a royal retreat for a ruler Correct Answer: As a royal retreat for a ruler out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct What development enabled the Chinese to build suspension bridges and pagodas? Given Answer: Correct Iron- and steel-casting Correct Answer: Iron- and steel-casting out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Heian women write using the new, purely Japanese system, hiragana? Given Answer: Correct The court discouraged shows of education in Chinese by women Correct Answer: The court discouraged shows of education in Chinese by women out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Africa's Ife people consider their king's head of supreme importance? Given Answer: Correct It was home of the spirit Correct Answer: It was home of the spirit out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct On whose method did Peter Abelard base his teaching? Given Answer: Correct Socrates Correct Answer: Socrates out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What from Chartres Cathedral survived the devastating fire of 1194? Given Answer: Correct Mary's tunic and a window portraying her Correct Answer: Mary's tunic and a window portraying her out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Who created the first crèche? Given Answer: Correct St. Francis of Assisi Correct Answer: St. Francis of Assisi out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why were so many of the cathedrals called Notre Dame ("Our Lady")? Given Answer: Correct They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven Correct Answer: They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why did the Florentine families donate chapels to the mendicant churches? Given Answer: Incorrect [None Given] Correct Answer: To guarantee the families' salvation
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why was blood sacrifice central to Aztec culture? Given Answer: Correct The sun, moon, and earth needed human blood for sustenance Correct Answer: The sun, moon, and earth needed human blood for sustenance out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Africa's Ife people consider their king's head of supreme importance? Given Answer: Correct It was home of the spirit Correct Answer: It was home of the spirit out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct What earlier structure inspired the pagoda design? Given Answer: Correct Indian stupas Correct Answer: Indian stupas out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why is a dancing Shiva commonly portrayed within a circle of fire? Given Answer: Incorrect To represent the mystical state dancing creates Correct Answer: To symbolize his creative and destructive powers out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct According to the text, which of the following are given as qualities upon which Japanese Heian court women were judged? Given Answer: Correct Their speech and writing skills Correct Answer: Their speech and writing skills out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What two subjects did Scholasticism seek to reconcile? Given Answer: Correct Christian faith and classical reason Correct Answer: Christian faith and classical reason out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why were Santa Croce, the Franciscan church, and Santa Marie Novella, the Dominican church, located at opposite ends of Florence? Given Answer: Correct To emphasize the rivalry between the two orders Correct Answer: To emphasize the rivalry between the two orders out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Who designed the Abbey of Saint-Denis's renovation and thus began the Gothic style? Given Answer: Correct Abbot Suger Correct Answer: Abbot Suger out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why was light vital to Saint Denis's design? Given Answer: Correct It is the physical and material manifestation of God Correct Answer: It is the physical and material manifestation of God out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What religious relic does Chartres Cathedral house? Given Answer: Correct The tunic Mary wore when she gave birth to Christ Correct Answer: The tunic Mary wore when she gave birth to Christ
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct In what area of Italy are Siena and Florence located? Given Answer: Correct Tuscany Correct Answer: Tuscany out of 3 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Scrovegni family build and then hire Giotto to decorate Arena Chapel in Padua? Given Answer: Correct To atone for their flagrant usury Correct Answer: To atone for their flagrant usury out of 3 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why is the Virgin Mary's crown in Simone Martini's Maestrá significant? Given Answer: Correct It establishes her as both a sacred and a secular queen Correct Answer: It establishes her as both a sacred and a secular queen out of 3 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct In the Arena Chapel frescoes, what is Giotto the first artist since antiquity to depict? Given Answer: Correct People from behind Correct Answer: People from behind out of 3 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Dante place Judas, Brutus, and Cassius in the lowest level of his hell? Given Answer: Correct They were traitors Correct Answer: They were traitors out of 3 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct How did Brunelleschi construct his dome without temporary wooden scaffolding? Given Answer: Correct The dome's ribs function as support, so scaffolding is part of the design Correct Answer: The dome's ribs function as support, so scaffolding is part of the design out of 3 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Cosimo de' Medici found the Platonic Academy in Florence? Given Answer: Correct To provide a place for the study and discussion of Plato's works Correct Answer: To provide a place for the study and discussion of Plato's works out of 3 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why were the Medici the most powerful family in Florence from 1418-1494? Given Answer: Correct They were bankers to the papacy Correct Answer: They were bankers to the papacy out of 3 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What were the Renaissance humanists aiming to understand? Given Answer: Correct The nature of humanity and its relationship to the natural world Correct Answer: The nature of humanity and its relationship to the natural world out of 3 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What 150-year time period in Italy did nineteenth-century historians label the Renaissance? Given Answer: Correct Mid fourteenth to early sixteenth Correct Answer: Mid fourteenth to early sixteenth
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why is the camel in Giotto's Adoration of the Magi not exactly realistic? Given Answer: Correct It has blue eyes Correct Answer: It has blue eyes out of 3 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why were Siena's guilds able to rise to such levels of power? Given Answer: Correct Siena was an important manufacturing city Correct Answer: Siena was an important manufacturing city out of 3 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the flagellants believe Europe was devastated by plague? Given Answer: Correct God's wrath against human sins Correct Answer: God's wrath against human sins out of 3 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct According to legend, who founded Siena? Given Answer: Correct Remus's sons, Senius and Aschius Correct Answer: Remus's sons, Senius and Aschius out of 3 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Chaucer complete only 22 of his planned 120 Canterbury Tales? Given Answer: Correct He died Correct Answer: He died out of 3 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct What implicit lesson does Mantega's Camera Picta send to Ludovico Gonzaga, ruler of Mantua? Given Answer: Correct A ruler always is in the public eye Correct Answer: A ruler always is in the public eye out of 3 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why were the Medici the most powerful family in Florence from 1418-1494? Given Answer: Correct They were bankers to the papacy Correct Answer: They were bankers to the papacy out of 3 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct According to legend, what originally had stood on the site of the baptistery? Given Answer: Correct A Roman temple to Mars Correct Answer: A Roman temple to Mars out of 3 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Florentines drive the Medici family from the city in 1494? Given Answer: Correct Piero de Medici formed an unpopular alliance with the French king Correct Answer: Piero de Medici formed an unpopular alliance with the French king out of 3 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What 150-year time period in Italy did nineteenth-century historians label the Renaissance? Given Answer: Correct Mid fourteenth to early sixteenth Correct Answer: Mid fourteenth to early sixteenth
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct What does the moat surrounding the Hindu temple Angkor Wat represent? Given Answer: Correct The oceans Correct Answer: The oceans out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct What fundamental tool of civilization did the Classic Era Mesoamerican cultures lack? Given Answer: Correct The wheel Correct Answer: The wheel out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the conquering Spanish build churches on the Inca temple foundations? Given Answer: Correct To emphasize Christian control of the native sites Correct Answer: To emphasize Christian control of the native sites out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What do the Yoruba people believe their king links? Given Answer: Correct The gods and ancestral heroes Correct Answer: The gods and ancestral heroes out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct What regional samurai clan overthrew the Heians and began the Kamakura Period? Given Answer: Correct Minamoto Correct Answer: Minamoto out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why is the Jesse tree a common stained-glass motif? Given Answer: Correct It establishes Mary's royal lineage from King David Correct Answer: It establishes Mary's royal lineage from King David out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals? Given Answer: Correct The organ Correct Answer: The organ out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Louis IX design the royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle with two entrances? Given Answer: Correct So the royal family could enter at a higher level Correct Answer: So the royal family could enter at a higher level out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Abelard castrated and forced to seek sanctuary in a monastery? Given Answer: Correct He fell in love with and impregnated a student Correct Answer: He fell in love with and impregnated a student out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Why was "Gothic" as applied to France's new architecture originally a derogatory term? Given Answer: Correct The Goths had destroyed classical traditions Correct Answer: The Goths had destroyed classical traditions