Monday, November 02, 2009

WH II: 2 November 2009

Current Events:

Peter Gadiel of 9/11 Families for a Secure America is discussed on Bill O'Reilly concerning a new memorial for Peter's son who was murdered in the 9/11 attacks. Peter is insistent that the memorial in Kent, Connecticut state that his son was killed by Muslim terrorists. According to O'Reilly, the city is objecting on the grounds of political correctness.

Americans may have noticed that all nineteen of the hijackers on 9/11 were Muslims. On the other hand, Obama has declared 9/11 an Interfaith Day of Service. The details of the Day are explained and how State Department employees are to be sensitive to the religious requirements of Islam.

The focus of the Interfaith Day is Islamic. The action request asks State personnel to support mosques: “Organize a food-drive for the end of Ramadan with religious leaders and citizens in Muslim communities to donate to a local mosque or community.” And it directs State personnel to a handy “list of Ramadan 2009 outreach materials for Muslim communities.”

While it is using American taxpayer money the State Department is organizing donation drives for mosques during the 9/11 anniversary.

Obama stated at his White House Ramadan dinner:
“Islam, as we know, is part of America. Together we have a responsibility to foster engagement grounded in mutual interest and mutual respect.” He said that this was one of his fundamental commitments as president both at home and abroad. "That is central to the new beginning that I’ve sought between the United States and Muslims around the world and that is a commitment that we can renew once again during this holy season.”
The following is the U.S. Department of State guidelines.


REF: 09 STATE 77580

1. This is an action request (Para 4). The Department encourages posts to consider organizing an Interfaith Day of Service in their host countries as a way to commemorate the anniversary of the tragic events of September 11, 2001.

2. President Obama called for interfaith service to foster collaboration between people across the world in his Cairo speech: "Indeed, faith should bring us together. And that's why we're forging service projects in America to bring together Christians, Muslims, and Jews. Around the world, we can turn dialogue into interfaith service, so bridges between peoples lead to action -- whether it is combating malaria in Africa, or promoting relief after a natural disaster."

3. Interfaith service has been an inextricable part of Americans' dedication to serving others, which as early as 1831 was identified as a distinctive American characteristic by Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville. In State 77580, Secretary Clinton specifically encouraged Department of State employees to support President Obama's domestic United We Serve campaign that embraces this tradition of community service. By participating in an Interfaith Day of Service, posts have the unique opportunity to expand the domestic commemoration of 9/11 as the National Day of Service and Remembrance -- as signed into law by President Obama on April 21, 2009 -- into a global initiative.

4. ACTION REQUEST: Posts are encouraged to plan an Interfaith Day of Service to commemorate 9/11 that would send a message of goodwill, cooperation, and shared interest to their host countries and their religious communities. To accommodate posts in countries where Muslims may be observing Ramadan until/about September 19, posts are requested to plan an Interfaith Day of Service between September 11 and October 18, 2009. We encourage you to bring together leaders of different religious backgrounds and identify jointly a priority project. Those leaders would encourage their members to join mission employees and resident Americans in working together on a community project. We request that posts keep their regional bureaus informed of their 9/11 commemoration plans so that the information can be made available to interested USG officials and agencies.

5. Sustainability is a key theme of President Obama's United We Serve campaign and Secretary Clinton's remarks at the Global Philanthropy Forum where she announced the appointment of the Special Representative for Global Partnerships (S/GPI) and described the Department's role as a convener, catalyst, and collaborator by fostering public-private partnerships with groups such as faith-based organizations. The Interfaith Day of Service is an opportunity for posts to expand their contact bases, initiate long-term partnerships with civil society, and spread goodwill in observing September 11, 2001. Some programming ideas and suggestions are listed in paragraph six, however posts are encouraged to be creative based on the needs, religions/sects, and opportunities in their country.

6. Programming Ideas
- Meet with interfaith leaders or an interfaith organization before the Interfaith Day of Service to identify a local development issue. For example, Interfaith Youth Core and Tony Blair's Faith Foundation collaboratively identified malaria as a problem in Africa and supported a service project for youth to raise funds and show the film "The Story of a Bed Net" in their faith communities.

- Form local partnerships:

- Organize a food-drive for the end of Ramadan with religious leaders and citizens in Muslim communities to donate to a local mosque or community, such as this activity in Dubai in 2008: 5998096393&ref=search.

- Partner with universities or secondary schools to organize a day of awareness-raising, school clean-up, park rehabilitation, or a donation drive that includes students from different faith traditions.

- Work with the Red Cross/Red Crescent or a local hospital to promote the giving of blood and partner with different religious leaders to involve their congregations.

- Organize a free music workshop for a neighborhood where

STATE 00089406 002 OF 002

musicians from different faiths can share their traditions. This event could be a good way to promote a longer term arts education project, for example. - Set up an interfaith sports competition for youth that includes interfaith teams and incorporates skill-building activities.

- Organize a writing competition at a local school on respect for people of all faiths.

7. Resources
- Communities@State's new Religion and Global Affairs Community can be a resource for posts to submit service ideas. Washington can help connect posts to an interfaith and/or youth organization active in their host countries. Posts can participate in the Community at: es/new_community_r.html

- The Global Partnership Initiative (S/GPI) has developed new tools and talking points for the Department's efforts at the nexus of faith and foreign policy. These can be accessed on the intranet at, on the internet at, or by contacting Rob Lalka (

- The Office of the Special Representative for Muslim Communities (S/SRMC) can be a resource. Contact information: tel. 202-647-7710 or via email SSRMC

- INFOCENTRAL is a repository of information that all posts can use for outreach. A list of Ramadan 2009 outreach materials for Muslim communities can be found at: rights/democracy--human-rights/archive/ramadan - focuses on the theme of American Giving in several articles: iving&filter=0&entqr=3&ud=1&sort=date%3AD%3AL%3Ad1&output=x ml_no_dtd&lr=lang_en&client=americagov&proxystylesheet=amer icagov&getfields=*&site=americagov&Submit.x=40&Submit.y=14 -, the United We Serve website, lists service opportunities in the U.S. that could provide ideas for similar activities at posts.

8. Reporting
IIP would appreciate a brief description of any plans for an interfaith service activity sent to your IIP policy officer in advance of the event. Following the event, IIP could potentially use photos and text about the activity on the English or language versions of and/or a social networking platform. Photos should be e-mailed to The subject line will become the title of the photo. The body of the e-mail should include:

A description of the photo which will become the caption A photo credit in parentheses at the end of the description A carriage return followed by: tags: #service

If you have any questions about uploading photos, please contact Jason Katz ( Please report your activities on Mission Activity Tracker and to your regional bureaus.

9. This is an exciting opportunity to answer the President's call to interfaith service and the Secretary's commitment to partnerships. We hope posts will find the Interfaith Day of Service a beneficial way to commemorate September 11 abroad and to promote goodwill in their host countries. 10. Minimize considered. CLINTON BT #9406


Today's lesson plan and HW is available on the blog:


The Shanawiki page ( has updated class information.

The online version of a portion of the Textbook is available.

LibraryThing has bibliographic resources.

I moved the "Blog Archive" to the top right on the blog page so it should be easier to find the daily lesson, HW, and other class material.

Sr. has advised students to check online teaching materials (as we have been doing since the first day of school).

Chapter 11 Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

End of the Terror

As chaos threatened, politicians turned to Napoleon Bonaparte, a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy. The politicians planned to use him to advance their own goals. To their dismay, however, before long Napoleon would outwit them all to become ruler of France.


What changes occurred after the Reign of Terror came to an end?

By 1799, the 10-year-old French Revolution had dramatically changed France. It had dislodged the old social order, overthrown the monarchy, and brought the Church under state control.

New symbols such as the red “liberty caps” and the tricolor confirmed the liberty and equality of all male citizens. The new title “citizen” applied to people of all social classes. All other titles were eliminated.

Before he was executed, Louis XVI was called Citizen Capet, from the name of the dynasty that had ruled France in the Middle Ages. Elaborate fashions and powdered wigs gave way to the practical clothes and simple haircuts of the sans-culottes.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Description: Louis le dernier

Louis XVI of France wearing a phrygian cap, drinking a toast to the health of the sans-culottes. Etching and mezzotint, with watercolor. Scanned from a photographic slide.

Captions, in English:

"Long live the nation" (from bottle to mouth)


Louis XVI, having put on the Phrygian cap, cried 'long live the nation'. He drank to the health of the sans-culottes and affected a show of great calm. He spoke high-sounding words about how he never feared the law, that he had never feared to be in the midst of the people; finally he pretended to play a personal part in the insurrection of June 20. Well! The same Louis XVI has bravely waited until his fellow citizens return to their hearths to wage a secret war and extract his revenge.

Date: 1792 Source: Library of Congress Author: unknown Permission Public domain: This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. Summary: Cabinet des médailles de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, France Description: Attis as a child, wearing the Phrygian cap. Parian marble, 2nd century AD, probably during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.
Nationalism Spreads

Revolution and war gave the French people a strong sense of national identity. In earlier times, people had felt loyalty to local authorities. As monarchs centralized power, loyalty shifted to the king or queen. Now, the government rallied sons and daughters of the revolution to defend the nation itself.

Nationalism, a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country, spread throughout France. The French people attended civic festivals that celebrated the nation and the revolution. A variety of dances and songs on themes of the revolution became immensely popular.

By 1793, France was a nation in arms. From the port city of Marseilles (mahr say), troops marched to a rousing new song. It urged the “children of the fatherland” to march against the “bloody banner of tyranny.” This song, “La Marseillaise” (mahr say ez), would later become the French national anthem.

Revolutionaries Push For Social Reform

Revolutionaries pushed for social reform and religious toleration. They set up state schools to replace religious ones and organized systems to help the poor, old soldiers, and war widows. With a major slave revolt raging in the colony of St. Domingue (Haiti), the government also abolished slavery in France’s Caribbean colonies.

Reading Check


How did the French revolutionary army help to create modern nationalism?

The Directory

The Executive Directory (French: Directoire exécutif) was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. The period of this regime (2 November 1795 until 10 November 1799), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) era, constitutes the second to last stage of the French Revolution.

The Directory and the French Revolution itself came to an end with the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799) in which General Napoléon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory and replaced it with the Consulate.

In November 1799, France was suffering the effects of military reverses brought on by Bonaparte's adventurism in the Middle East. The looming threat of opportunistic invasion by the Second Coalition had provoked internal unrest, with Bonaparte stuck in Egypt. A return to Jacobinism seemed possible.

The coup was first prepared by the Abbé Sieyès, then one of the five Directors. Bonaparte returned from Egypt a hero to the public despite his reverses. Sieyès believed he had found the general indispensable to his coup. However, Bonaparte promptly began a coup within the coup. Ultimately, the coup brought to power Bonaparte, not Sieyès.

The plan was, through the use of troops conveniently arrayed around Paris, first to persuade the Directors to resign, then to persuade the two Councils to appoint a pliant commission to draw up a new constitution.

On the morning of 18 Brumaire, members of the Council of Ancients sympathetic to the coup warned their colleagues of a Jacobin conspiracy. Bonaparte was charged with the safety of the French government.

By the following day, the deputies had worked out that they were facing an attempted coup rather than being protected from a Jacobin rebellion or even by Napoleon. Faced with their recalcitrance, Bonaparte stormed into the chambers accompanied by a small escort of grenadiers. He met with heckling in both houses; he was first jostled, then outright assaulted. Ultimately, military force also dispersed the legislature.

The Consulate was declared, with Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Roger Ducos as consuls.

The lack of reaction from the streets proved that the revolution was, indeed, over. In the words of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, "A shabby compound of brute force and imposture, the 18th Brumaire was nevertheless condoned, nay applauded, by the French nation. Weary of revolution, men sought no more than to be wisely and firmly governed." Resistance by Jacobin officeholders in the provinces was quickly crushed, twenty Jacobin legislators were exiled, and others were arrested.

Bonaparte completed his coup within a coup by the adoption of a constitution under which the First Consul, a position he was sure to hold, had greater power than the other two. None could prevent his creating an empire

Reading Check


Describe the government that replaced the National Convention.

The Radical Revolution

HW send to

1. Did the French Revolution live up to the revolution's ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity? Write a paragraph in support of your opinion.

Bibliographic References

The Sans-Culottes
by Albert Soboul.

The Vendee: A Sociological Analysis of the Counter-Revolution of 1793
by Charles Tilly.

The Crowd in the French Revolution (Galaxy Books) by George Rude