Monday, October 29, 2007

Mid-Term Assessment STUDY GUIDE

Mid-Term Assessment Study Guide

Chapter 17


Natural law- pg. 545

social contract- pg. 546

natural right- pg. 546

philosophe- pg. 547

laissez faire- pg. 548

Thomas Hobbes- pg. 546

John Locke- pg. 546

Montesquieu- pg. 547

Voltaire- pg. 547

Diderot- pg. 547

Rousseau- pg. 547

Adam Smith pg. 548

pg.544 Reading Skills: draw a table like the one shown here. As you read the section, summarize each thinker's work and ideas.

pg. 544 Focus Question: What effects did Enlightenment philosophers have on government and society?

pg. 545 Check point : What convinced educated European to accept the powers of reason?

pg. 546 Check point: How did Hobbes and Lockediffer in their views on the role of government?

pg. 547 Check point: What topics were addressed by the philosophes in their Encyclopedia articles?

pg. 548 Check point: Why did Adam Smith support laissez faire?

Thinking Critically: 1. Draw Inferences- According to Locke, how should a land be governed? why do you think this is the case?

2. Identify Central Issues: Why does Locke say can happen if a government fails to protect the rights of its people?

pg. 547 Biography:


What did Voltaire attacked in his writings?


What did Montesque think was necessary to protect liberty?

pg. 547 Heated Debate: Compare the Beliefs of Rousseau and Voltaire.

Terms: pg. 550

censorship- pg.551

salons- pg. 551

Baroque- pg. 552

Rococo- pg. 552

enlightened despot- pg. 553

Frederick the Great- pg. 553

Catherine the Great- pg. 553

Joseph II - pg. 553

Taking Notes pg 550

Reading Skills: Categorize on a sheet of paper, draw a concept web to help you record information from his section.

Focus Question: pg 550

As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political change took place?

Satire by Swift pg 551 Why did writers hide thier feelings about society?

pg. 550 Checkpoint: What did those opposed to Enlightenment ideas do to stop the spread of information?

Checkpoint pg 552

How did the arts and literature change as Enlightnment ideas spread?

pg. 553 Checkpoint : Why were the philosophes interested in sharing their beliefs with European rulers?

pg. 555 Checkpoint: During this time, why did change occur slowly for most Europeans?

Thinking Critically pg 556

Draw Inference: how do you think composing an opera is different form composing a symphony?

Determine Relevance: Why did operas appeal to composers and musicians during the Enlightenment?

Map Skills pg 553

Although the center of the Enlightenment was in France, the ideas of reform spread to the rulers of Austria, Prussia, Russia

locate (a) Paris (b) Prussia (c) Austria

Location: Which enlightened despot ruled farthest from Paris?

Draw Conclusions: According to the map, approximately how much of Europe was affected by the Enlightenment?

pg 553 Note Taking Reading Skill: Summarize Fill in a concept web like the one below with information about the enlightened despots and their contributions.


George III- pg 558

Stamp act- 560

George Washington- 560

Thomas Jefferson -560

Popular sovereignty- 560

Yorktown, Virginia- 561

Treaty of Paris- 561

James Madison- 562

Benjamin Franklin- 562

Federal republic 562

Map Skills pg. 558

cities in the english colonies were busy centers of trade and important to Britain's economy.

Locate (a) MFEMFEMFEMFE (b) Massachusetts (c) Boston

Region: Which colony had two separate pieces of land?

Analyze Information: What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map? Why was this important?

pg. 559 Checkpoint: In what ways were the colonies already developing independence from britain?

pg 560 checkpoint: What Enlightenment ideas are reflected in the Declaration of Independence

pg. 561: Checkpoint: What advantages did the colonists have in battling Britain for their independence?

pg. 562 Checkpoint: Explain the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights.

Biography pg. 560: how did Washington hold the army together throught difficult times?: What did the Framers of the Constitution have in common?: Why was Franklin admired in France?

Pg 560 Primary Source: Drafting the Declaration Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson.

Chapter 22--- Section 1


Otto Von Bismark: succeded where others had failed. he came from Prussia's Junker class, made up of conservative ladowning noble.

Chanceller: the highest official of a monarch.

Realpolitik: realistic politics based on the need of the state.

Annexed: took control of.

Kaiser: emperor.

Reich: empire.


Napoleon raids German lands.
Bismark became prime minister
Prussia declares war in denmark and Austria
Birth of the German Empire.


1. Prussia: East Germany

Silesia: East Germany

Bavaria: South

Schleswig: Northern.

2. Hanover was added to Prussia in 1866.

3. Because the empire was to late being added.


1. What was German Confederation? The German Conferation was a weak alliance headed by Austria.

2. What techniques did Bismark use to unify the German States? In 1886, Bismark invented an excuse to attack Autria. The Austro-Prussian war lasted just seven weeks and ended in a decisive Prussian victory. Prussia then annexed several other German States.

3. How was the new German government, drafted by Bismark, structured? A constitution drafted by Bismark set up two- house legisture. The Bundesrat, or upper house, was appointed by the rulers of the German states. The Keishstag, or lower house, was elected by universal male suffrage.

Chapter 22-----Section 2

Section 2

Kulturkampf- a name, given to a struggle between the the Roman Catholic
Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's
efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical
appointments in the interest of the political policy of
centralization. pg. 698

William II- the second son of William the Conqueror who succeeded him as King of England; The new emperor was supremely confident in his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany. In 1890, he shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign. “There is only one master in the Reich,” he said, “and that is I.” pg. 699

social welfare- programs to help certain groups of people pg. 699


What factors did Germany possess that made industrialization possible there? pg. 697

-Germany became a industrial giant by the process of railroads and large companies. Also, ample iron and coal resources, the growing population, the much effort in the research and development of the sciences, and the discipline and education of the woorkforce helped the economy grow.

Why did Bismarck try to crush the Catholic Church and the Socialists? pg. 698

-Bismark wanted to crush the Catholic church because he thought that thier first loyalty was to the pope instead of Germany. He also wanted to crush socialist because he feared that socialist would undermine the loyalty of German workers and turn them toward revolution.

Why did William II ask Bismarck to resign in 1890? pg. 699

-William II asked Bismark to resign because he thought that his right to rule came from God.

Political Cartoon
A Political Game of Chess

This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.

How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church? pg. 698

-The cartoon reflects the relationship between Bismark and the Catholic Church by showing the how they both try to overcome each other with stragity and competion.

How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s? pg. 698

-It affect German policy by passing a law that gave the state the right to supervise Catholic education and approve appointed priest. Other laws closed some religious orders, expelled the Jesuits from Prussia, and made it madatory to get married by civil authority.

Otto von Bismarck

Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) spent his early years on his father’s country estate. He worked briefly as a civil servant, but found the work boring. At 24, Bismarck resigned his post as a bureaucrat. “My ambition strives more to command than to obey,” the independent-minded young man explained.

The resignation did not end his career in government. While he was a delegate to a United Diet that was called by Prussian King Frederick William IV, Bismarck’s conservative views and passionate speeches in defense of government policies won him the support of the king. He then served as a diplomat to the German Federation. He became chancellor of the German empire in 1871, a position he held for 19 years. What path did Bismarck take to win political power? pg. 698

-Instead of getting power as a bureaucrat he resigned and became a delegate to the United Diet. He agreed with the government policies and won the support of the king. Soon he became chancellor of the German empire.

Chapter 22-------section 4

Section 4

Francis Joseph- inherited the Hapsburg throne. He would rule until 1916, presiding over the empire during its fading days into World War I. pg. 706

Ferenc Deák-a moderate Hungarian leader, helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
pg. 707

Dual Monarchy- the monarchy of Austria-Hungary pg. 707


What actions did Francis Joseph take to maintain power? pg. 706

-He mad some limited reforms, he granted a new constitution that set up a legislature. The reforms thus satisfied none of the other national groups that populated the empire.

How did Hungarians and Slavic groups respond to the Dual Monarchy? pg. 707

-Hungarians welcomed the Dual Monarchy, but other resented it. Restlessness increased amoung slavic groups. By the early 1900's, nationalist unrest often left the government paralyzed in the face of pressing politics and social problems.

How did the European powers divide up Ottoman lands? pg. 708

-Russia pushed South toward the Black sea and Istanbul, which Russia still calls constantinople. Austria-Hungary took control of the provinces of Bosina and Herzegovina.

Map Skills

In the late 1800s, the Balkans had become a center of conflict, as various peoples and empires competed for power.


(a) Black Sea-East of Romania (b) Ottoman empire-East of Greece (c) Serbia-West of Romania (d) Greece-South of Serbia (e) Austria-Hungary-North of


Which four large seas border the Balkan Peninsula? pg. 707

-The Adriatic Sea, The Aegean Sea, The Medditerranean Sea, and The Black Sea.

Identify Central Issues

Why do you think competing interests in the Balkans led the region to be called a powder keg? pg. 707

Because of a explosion that would or lead to WWI.

Chapter 22 Section 5


Describe the social structure that existed in Russia during the 1800s. pg. 711

-Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any change that would threaten their privledges. The middle class wass too small to have much influence. The majority of the Russians were serfs, or laborers bound to the land and to masters who controlled their fate.

How did Alexander III respond to the murder of his father? pg. 712

- He responded by reviving the harsh methods of Nicholas I. To wipe out liberals and revolutionaries he increased the power of the secret police, restored strict censorship, and exciled critics to Siberia. He then insisted on one language, Russian, and one church, Th Russian Orthodox. Many others were persecuted.

How did Russia industrialize? pg. 713

- They bagan to industrialize when focus was on economic development. Encourages the building of railroads to connect iron and coal mines with factories and to transport goods across Russia. Also secured foriegn capitals to invest in industry and transportation systems, such as the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which linked European Russia to the Pacific Ocean.

Why was Bloody Sunday a turning point for the Russians? pg. 714

-It was a turning point for them because workers wnet on strike, demanding shorter hours and better wages. Liberals called for a constitution and reforms to overhaul the government.

Chapter 23: The Growth of Western Democracies
Section 1: Democratic Reforms in Britain

In 1800s, Benjamin Disraeli and other political leaders slowly worked to bridge Britain’s “two nations” and extend democratic rights.

I. Reforming Parliament

§ In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and two political parties. Although members of the House of Commons were elected, less than 5% of the people had the right to vote. Wealthy nobles and squires, or country landowners, dominated politics and heavily influenced voters. The House of the Lords, made up of heredity nobles and high-ranking clergy, could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons.

1. Reformers Press for Change

§ Long standing laws kept many people from voting such as the Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants.

§ In 1820s, reformers pushed the end religious restrictions and Parliament finally granted them equal political rights.

§ During the Industrial Revolution, rural towns lost so many people that they had few or no voters, yet local landowners in these rotten boroughs sent member to parliament.

§ Populous new industrial cities had no seats distribute in parliament because they had not exist as population of centers.

2. Reform Act of 1832

§ Whig Party largely represented middle-class and business interests.

§ The Troy Party spoke for nobles, lands owners, and others whose interest and income were rooted in agriculture.

§ Parliament finally passed the Great Reforms Act in 1832 and its redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs.

§ Electorate is the body of people allowed to vote.

§ The Reform Act of 1832 did not bring full democracy, but it did give a greater political voice to middle class men.

3. The Chartist Movement

§ The reform bill did not help rural or urban workers. In 1830s, protester known as Chartists drew up the People’s Charter demanding:

1. universal male suffrage

2. annual parliamentary elections

3. salaries for members of Parliament

§ Secret ballots allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.

§ Their petitions were ignored.

II. The Victorian Age

§ From 1837 to 1901, Queen Victoria was a great symbol in British life. Her reign was the longest in British history. She exercised little political power but she set the tome for what is called Victorian Age.

1. Symbol of a Nation’s Value

§ Victorian ideals included duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and above all respectability.

§ She married a German prince, Albert, and they raised a large family

2. A Confident Age

§ Victoria, the empress of India and ruler of some 300 million subjects around the world, became a revered symbol of British might.

§ Victoria witnessed growing agitation for social reforms and as the Victorian Age continued reformers kept pushing toward greater social and economics justice.

III. A New Era in British Politics

§ Benjamin Disraeli forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party.

§ William Gladstone led the Whigs that evolved into the Liberal party.

§ Both Gladstone and Disraeli alternated as prime minster and fought for important reforms.

1. Expanding Suffrage

§ Disraeli and the Conservative Party pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867 by voting to many working class men.

§ In the 1880s, Gladstone and the Liberal Party extended suffrage. Reforms gave the vote to farm workers and most other men. The end of the centuries, male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist’s ambitions had been achieved.

§ Britain had truly transformed itself from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy, a form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by and responsible to the legislature, and also members of it.

2. Limiting the Lords

§ In the early 1900s, many bills passed by the House of Commons met defeat in the House of Lords.

§ In 1911, Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the Lords, including their power to veto tax bulls.

The government threatens to create enough new lords to approve the law, and the Lords backed down. The elected House of Commons would reign supreme.

Chapter 23: Growth in Western Democracies

Section 2: Social And Economic Reform in Britain

Between 1815 and 1914, Parliament responded to widespread discontent with a series of social and economic reforms.

I. Series of Reforms

§ Parliament passed a wide variety of important new laws. One of the most controversial measures involved the issue of free trade, or trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, and other restrictions.

2. Free Trade and the Corn Laws

§ In the early 1800s, Britain taxed foreign imports in order to protect local economics but supporters of free trade demanded an end to such protective tariffs.

§ Some British tariffs were repealed in the 1820s; however, a fierce debate erupted over the Corn Law, which imposed high tariffs on imported grain.

§ Farmers and wealthy landowners supported the Corn Law because they kept the price of British grain high. Free trader want Parliament to repeal, or cancel, the Corn Law. They argued that repeal of these laws would lower the price of grain, make bread cheaper for workers and open up trade in general.

§ Parliament finally repealed the Corn Law in 1846 after widespread crop failures swept many parts of Europe.

3. Campaign Against Slavery

§ During the 1700s, Enlightenment thinkers had turned the spotlight on the evils of the slave trade. British ships were carrying more Africans to the Americas than any other European country.

§ Abolition movement is the campaign against slavery and the slave trade.

§ In 1807, Britain became the first European power to abolish the slave trade. In 1833, Parliament passed a law banned a low banning slavery in all British colonies.

4. Crime and Punishment

§ Other reforms were aimed at the criminal justice system. In the early 1800s, more than 200 crimes were punishable by deaths.

§ Capital offenses included not only murder but also shoplifting, sheep stealing, and impersonating an army veteran.

§ Some juries refused to convict criminals because the punishments were so harsh. Executions were public occasions, and the hanging of a well-known murderer might attract thousands of curious spectators.

§ Reformers began to reduce the number of capital offenses. By 1850a, the death penalty was reserved for murder, piracy, treason, and arson.

§ Many petty criminals were transported to penal colonies, or settlements for convicts.

§ In 1868, Parliament ended public hanging and reforms improved prison conditions and outlawed imprisonment due to debt.

II. Victories for the Working Class

§ Parliament had begun passing laws aimed at improving social conditions as early as the 1840s.

2. Improving Working Conditions

§ Working conditions in the early industrial age were grim and often dangerous.

§ In the late 1800s, the government regulated many safety conditions in factories and mines and sent inspectors to see that the laws were enforced. Other laws set minimum wages and maximum hours of work.

3. The Growth of Labor Unions

§ Trade unions were made legal in 1825 but it remained illegal to go on strike until later in the century.

§ Besides winning higher wages and shorter hours for worker, union pressed for other laws to improve the lives of the working class.

4. Later Reforms

§ During the late1800s and 1900s, both political parties enacted social reforms to benefit the working class. Disraeli sponsored laws to improve public health and housing for workers in the cities. Under Gladstone, education act called for free elementary education for all children.

§ Another force for the reforms was the Fabian Society, a socialist organization founded in 1883. They promoted gradual change through legal means rather than by violence.

§ In 1900s, socialist and union members backed the formation of a new political party, which became the Labour Party. It surpassed the Liberal Party and became one of Britain’s two major parties.

§ In the early 1900s, Britain began to pass social welfare laws to protect the well being of the poor and disadvantaged.

III. The Struggle to Win Votes for Women

§ In Britain women struggled against strong opposition for the right to vote.

2. Suffragist Revolt

§ By the early 1900s, Emmeline Pankhurst, a leading suffragist, had become convinced that only aggressive tactics would bring victory. They collected petitions and organized huge pubic demonstrations.

§ When mass meeting and other peaceful efforts brought no results, some women turned to more drastic, violent protest. Some suffragist went on hunger strikes, risking their lives to achieve their goals.

3. Victory at Last

§ Even middle class women who disapproved of such radical and violent actions increasingly demanded votes for women. Parliament refused to grant women’s suffrage.

§ In 1918, Parliament finally grants suffrage to women over 30.

IV. Instability in Ireland

§ In the 1600s, English and Scottish settlers colonized Ireland, taking possession of much of the best farmland.

§ Irish never accepted English rule because they bitterly resented settlers, especially absentee landlords who owned large estates but did not live on them.

§ Irish peasants live in desperate poverty, while paying high rents to landlords living in England. Irish’s majority were Catholics and they had to pay tithes to support the Church of England.

2. Irish Nationalism

§ Nationalist leader Daniel O’Connell organized an Irish Catholic League and held mass meetings to demand repeal of unfair laws.

§ Britain slowly moved to improve conditions in Ireland. In 1829, Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation Act, which allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office.

3. Struggle for Home Rule

§ The famine of Ireland left them with a legacy of bitterness and distrust toward Britain. In the 1850s, come Irish militants organized the Fenian Brotherhood. Its goal was to liberate Ireland from British rule by force.

§ Charles Stewart Parnell rallied Irish members to Parliament to press home rule, or local self-government.

* Political parties were so deeply split over the Irish questions that they could not take care of other business. Gladstone ended the use of Irish tithe money to support the Anglican church and tried to ease the hardship of Irish tenant farmers.

Chapter 23: The Growth of Western Democracies
Section 4: Expansion of the United States

In the 1800s, the American economy was growing rapidly, offering jobs to newcomers. The Constitution and Bill of Rights held out the hope of political and religious freedom.

1. Territorial Expansion

* The U.S followed a policy of expansionism, or extending the nation’s boundaries.

* At first the U.S stretched only from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. In 1803, Pres. Thomas Jefferson brought the Louisiana territory from France. The Louisiana Purchase virtually doubled the size of the nations.
* By 1846, the U.S had expanded to include Florida, Oregon and the Republic of Texas. The Mexican added California and the Southwest.
* Americans claimed that their nation was destined to spread across the entire continent, from sea to sea. This was known to be Manifest Destiny.
* In 1867, it brought Alaska from Russia and in 1898 annexed the Hawaiian Islands.

2. Expanding Democracy

* Two crusades highlighted the limits of American democracy- the abolition movement and the women’s rights movement.

1. Calls for Abolition

* In the early 1800s, a few Americans began to call for an immediate and complete end to slavery.
* William Lloyd Garrisan pressed the antislavery cause through his newspaper, the Liberator.
* Frederick Douglass was born into slavery and escaped, and he spoke eloquently in the North about the evils of the system.
* Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin helped convince many northerners that slavery was a great social evil.

2. Women’s Right Movement
* In 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the first women’s right convention. It passed the resolution, based on the Declaration of Independence.
* The women’s right movement set as its goal equality before the law, in the workplace, and in education.

3. The Civil War and the Aftermath

* Lincoln opposed extending slavery into new territories. Southerners feared that he would abolish slavery altogether and that the federal government would infringe on their states’ rights.

1. North Verses South
* Most Southern states seceded, or withdraw, from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. This action sparked the Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865.
* The Southern fought fiercely to defend their cause. The Confederacy finally surrenders in 1865.

2. Challenges for African American

* Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, by which enslaved African Americans in the South were declared free. Three amendments to the Constitution banned slavery throughout the country and granted political rights to African Americans.
* In the South, state laws imposed segregation, or legal separation of the races, in hospital, schools, and in other public places. Other state laws imposed conditions for voters’ eligibility that, despite the 15th Amendment, prevented African Americans from voting.

4. Economic Growth and Social Reforms

* The U.S grew to lead the world in industrial and agricultural production. A special combination of factors made this possible including political stability, private property rights, a free enterprise system, an inexpensive supply of land and labor, and a growing network of transportations and communications technologies.

1. Business and Labor
* In factories, wages were low and conditions were often brutal. American workers organized labor unions such as the American Federation of labor because they sought for better wages hours and working conditions. Slowly, the workers made gains.

2. Populists and Progressives

* Farmers also organized themselves to defend their interests so in the 1890s, they joined city workers to support the new Populist Party. The Populist never became a major party, but their platform of reforms eventually became law.
* By 1900, reformers known as Progressive sought laws to ban child labor, limit working hours, regulate monopolies, and give voters more power. Also obtaining voting rights for women.
* American suffragists finally won the vote in 1920, when the 19th Amendment went into effects.

Upcoming Attraction, Ch. 23 Test 7, Wednesday

This is the last test before Mid-Term Assessment.

American Government Presentation

A student project on American government.

EC: Summarize and report back on the documentary

ITVS Community Cinema-PHILADELPHIA Presents AN UNREASONABLE MAN, a documentary by Stephen Skrovan & Henriette Mantel that takes an unsparing look at Ralph Nader, one of the most important and controversial political figures of our time.

WHEN: Wednesday, November 14th, 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. (Doors open at 5:30 p.m.)

WHERE: WHYY, 150 N. 6th Street, Philadelphia.

COST: FREE AND OPEN TO THE PUBLIC! ($1 Parking after 5pm at AutoPark on 6th Street, between Arch & Market)

RSVP: For questions or more information: or 267-259-2059

Following the film, there will be an audience discussion about the two-party system in America led by Dick Polman, political columnist with the Philadelphia Inquirer.

Other participants will include Jim Musselman, a former Nader Raider who is featured in the film, and Dr. Sidney R. Waldman, a political science Professor at Haverford College and author of “America and the Limits of the Politics of Selfishness.”

This event is co-presented by ITVS, WHYY, Bread and Roses Community Fund, Committee of Seventy, League of Women Voters-Philadelphia, National Constitution Center, Philadelphia Student Voices and Scribe Video Center.

ITVS Community Cinema Events are FREE and Open to the Public and feature advanced screenings of films coming to PBS on independent Lens! ITVS partners with public television stations and local organizations to present films that engage audiences in some of today's key issues! For a complete calendar of events: AN UNREASONABLE MAN is coming to PBS on Independent Lens, Dec 2008:

Nina Bloch

Office Administrator

The Committee of Seventy

8 Penn Center


Suite 1002

Philadelphia, PA 19103

p. 215-557-3600 ext. 124

f. 215-557-3608

c. 267-738-4807