Monday, October 29, 2007
Natural law- pg. 545
social contract- pg. 546
natural right- pg. 546
philosophe- pg. 547
laissez faire- pg. 548
Thomas Hobbes- pg. 546
John Locke- pg. 546
Montesquieu- pg. 547
Voltaire- pg. 547
Diderot- pg. 547
Rousseau- pg. 547
Adam Smith pg. 548
pg.544 Reading Skills: draw a table like the one shown here. As you read the section, summarize each thinker's work and ideas.
pg. 544 Focus Question: What effects did Enlightenment philosophers have on government and society?
pg. 545 Check point : What convinced educated European to accept the powers of reason?
pg. 546 Check point: How did Hobbes and Lockediffer in their views on the role of government?
pg. 547 Check point: What topics were addressed by the philosophes in their Encyclopedia articles?
pg. 548 Check point: Why did Adam Smith support laissez faire?
Thinking Critically: 1. Draw Inferences- According to Locke, how should a land be governed? why do you think this is the case?
2. Identify Central Issues: Why does Locke say can happen if a government fails to protect the rights of its people?
pg. 547 Biography:
What did Voltaire attacked in his writings?
What did Montesque think was necessary to protect liberty?
pg. 547 Heated Debate: Compare the Beliefs of Rousseau and Voltaire.
Terms: pg. 550
salons- pg. 551
Baroque- pg. 552
Rococo- pg. 552
enlightened despot- pg. 553
Frederick the Great- pg. 553
Catherine the Great- pg. 553
Joseph II - pg. 553
Taking Notes pg 550
Reading Skills: Categorize on a sheet of paper, draw a concept web to help you record information from his section.
Focus Question: pg 550
As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political change took place?
Satire by Swift pg 551 Why did writers hide thier feelings about society?
pg. 550 Checkpoint: What did those opposed to Enlightenment ideas do to stop the spread of information?
Checkpoint pg 552
How did the arts and literature change as Enlightnment ideas spread?
pg. 553 Checkpoint : Why were the philosophes interested in sharing their beliefs with European rulers?
pg. 555 Checkpoint: During this time, why did change occur slowly for most Europeans?
Thinking Critically pg 556
Draw Inference: how do you think composing an opera is different form composing a symphony?
Determine Relevance: Why did operas appeal to composers and musicians during the Enlightenment?
Map Skills pg 553
Although the center of the Enlightenment was in France, the ideas of reform spread to the rulers of Austria, Prussia, Russia
locate (a) Paris (b) Prussia (c) Austria
Location: Which enlightened despot ruled farthest from Paris?
Draw Conclusions: According to the map, approximately how much of Europe was affected by the Enlightenment?
pg 553 Note Taking Reading Skill: Summarize Fill in a concept web like the one below with information about the enlightened despots and their contributions.
George III- pg 558
Stamp act- 560
George Washington- 560
Thomas Jefferson -560
Popular sovereignty- 560
Yorktown, Virginia- 561
Treaty of Paris- 561
James Madison- 562
Benjamin Franklin- 562
Federal republic 562
Map Skills pg. 558
cities in the english colonies were busy centers of trade and important to Britain's economy.
Locate (a) MFEMFEMFEMFE (b) Massachusetts (c) Boston
Region: Which colony had two separate pieces of land?
Analyze Information: What do almost all the colonial cities have in common based on the map? Why was this important?
pg. 559 Checkpoint: In what ways were the colonies already developing independence from britain?
pg 560 checkpoint: What Enlightenment ideas are reflected in the Declaration of Independence
pg. 561: Checkpoint: What advantages did the colonists have in battling Britain for their independence?
pg. 562 Checkpoint: Explain the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Biography pg. 560: how did Washington hold the army together throught difficult times?: What did the Framers of the Constitution have in common?: Why was Franklin admired in France?
Pg 560 Primary Source: Drafting the Declaration Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson.
Chapter 22--- Section 1
Otto Von Bismark: succeded where others had failed. he came from Prussia's Junker class, made up of conservative ladowning noble.
Chanceller: the highest official of a monarch.
Realpolitik: realistic politics based on the need of the state.
Annexed: took control of.
Napoleon raids German lands.
Bismark became prime minister
Prussia declares war in denmark and Austria
Birth of the German Empire.
1. Prussia: East Germany
Silesia: East Germany
2. Hanover was added to Prussia in 1866.
3. Because the empire was to late being added.
1. What was German Confederation? The German Conferation was a weak alliance headed by Austria.
2. What techniques did Bismark use to unify the German States? In 1886, Bismark invented an excuse to attack Autria. The Austro-Prussian war lasted just seven weeks and ended in a decisive Prussian victory. Prussia then annexed several other German States.
3. How was the new German government, drafted by Bismark, structured? A constitution drafted by Bismark set up two- house legisture. The Bundesrat, or upper house, was appointed by the rulers of the German states. The Keishstag, or lower house, was elected by universal male suffrage.
Chapter 22-----Section 2
Kulturkampf- a name, given to a struggle between the the Roman Catholic
Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's
efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical
appointments in the interest of the political policy of
centralization. pg. 698
William II- the second son of William the Conqueror who succeeded him as King of England; The new emperor was supremely confident in his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany. In 1890, he shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign. “There is only one master in the Reich,” he said, “and that is I.” pg. 699
social welfare- programs to help certain groups of people pg. 699
What factors did Germany possess that made industrialization possible there? pg. 697
-Germany became a industrial giant by the process of railroads and large companies. Also, ample iron and coal resources, the growing population, the much effort in the research and development of the sciences, and the discipline and education of the woorkforce helped the economy grow.
Why did Bismarck try to crush the Catholic Church and the Socialists? pg. 698
-Bismark wanted to crush the Catholic church because he thought that thier first loyalty was to the pope instead of Germany. He also wanted to crush socialist because he feared that socialist would undermine the loyalty of German workers and turn them toward revolution.
Why did William II ask Bismarck to resign in 1890? pg. 699
-William II asked Bismark to resign because he thought that his right to rule came from God.
A Political Game of Chess
This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.
How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church? pg. 698
-The cartoon reflects the relationship between Bismark and the Catholic Church by showing the how they both try to overcome each other with stragity and competion.
How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s? pg. 698
-It affect German policy by passing a law that gave the state the right to supervise Catholic education and approve appointed priest. Other laws closed some religious orders, expelled the Jesuits from Prussia, and made it madatory to get married by civil authority.
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) spent his early years on his father’s country estate. He worked briefly as a civil servant, but found the work boring. At 24, Bismarck resigned his post as a bureaucrat. “My ambition strives more to command than to obey,” the independent-minded young man explained.
The resignation did not end his career in government. While he was a delegate to a United Diet that was called by Prussian King Frederick William IV, Bismarck’s conservative views and passionate speeches in defense of government policies won him the support of the king. He then served as a diplomat to the German Federation. He became chancellor of the German empire in 1871, a position he held for 19 years. What path did Bismarck take to win political power? pg. 698
-Instead of getting power as a bureaucrat he resigned and became a delegate to the United Diet. He agreed with the government policies and won the support of the king. Soon he became chancellor of the German empire.
Chapter 22-------section 4
Francis Joseph- inherited the Hapsburg throne. He would rule until 1916, presiding over the empire during its fading days into World War I. pg. 706
Ferenc Deák-a moderate Hungarian leader, helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Dual Monarchy- the monarchy of Austria-Hungary pg. 707
What actions did Francis Joseph take to maintain power? pg. 706
-He mad some limited reforms, he granted a new constitution that set up a legislature. The reforms thus satisfied none of the other national groups that populated the empire.
How did Hungarians and Slavic groups respond to the Dual Monarchy? pg. 707
-Hungarians welcomed the Dual Monarchy, but other resented it. Restlessness increased amoung slavic groups. By the early 1900's, nationalist unrest often left the government paralyzed in the face of pressing politics and social problems.
How did the European powers divide up Ottoman lands? pg. 708
-Russia pushed South toward the Black sea and Istanbul, which Russia still calls constantinople. Austria-Hungary took control of the provinces of Bosina and Herzegovina.
In the late 1800s, the Balkans had become a center of conflict, as various peoples and empires competed for power.
(a) Black Sea-East of Romania (b) Ottoman empire-East of Greece (c) Serbia-West of Romania (d) Greece-South of Serbia (e) Austria-Hungary-North of
Which four large seas border the Balkan Peninsula? pg. 707
-The Adriatic Sea, The Aegean Sea, The Medditerranean Sea, and The Black Sea.
Identify Central Issues
Why do you think competing interests in the Balkans led the region to be called a powder keg? pg. 707
Because of a explosion that would or lead to WWI.
Chapter 22 Section 5
Describe the social structure that existed in Russia during the 1800s. pg. 711
-Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any change that would threaten their privledges. The middle class wass too small to have much influence. The majority of the Russians were serfs, or laborers bound to the land and to masters who controlled their fate.
How did Alexander III respond to the murder of his father? pg. 712
- He responded by reviving the harsh methods of Nicholas I. To wipe out liberals and revolutionaries he increased the power of the secret police, restored strict censorship, and exciled critics to Siberia. He then insisted on one language, Russian, and one church, Th Russian Orthodox. Many others were persecuted.
How did Russia industrialize? pg. 713
- They bagan to industrialize when focus was on economic development. Encourages the building of railroads to connect iron and coal mines with factories and to transport goods across Russia. Also secured foriegn capitals to invest in industry and transportation systems, such as the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which linked European Russia to the Pacific Ocean.
Why was Bloody Sunday a turning point for the Russians? pg. 714
-It was a turning point for them because workers wnet on strike, demanding shorter hours and better wages. Liberals called for a constitution and reforms to overhaul the government.
Chapter 23: The Growth of Western Democracies
Section 1: Democratic Reforms in Britain
In 1800s, Benjamin Disraeli and other political leaders slowly worked to bridge Britain’s “two nations” and extend democratic rights.
I. Reforming Parliament
§ In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and two political parties. Although members of the House of Commons were elected, less than 5% of the people had the right to vote. Wealthy nobles and squires, or country landowners, dominated politics and heavily influenced voters. The House of the Lords, made up of heredity nobles and high-ranking clergy, could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons.
1. Reformers Press for Change
§ Long standing laws kept many people from voting such as the Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants.
§ In 1820s, reformers pushed the end religious restrictions and Parliament finally granted them equal political rights.
§ During the Industrial Revolution, rural towns lost so many people that they had few or no voters, yet local landowners in these rotten boroughs sent member to parliament.
§ Populous new industrial cities had no seats distribute in parliament because they had not exist as population of centers.
2. Reform Act of 1832
§ Whig Party largely represented middle-class and business interests.
§ The Troy Party spoke for nobles, lands owners, and others whose interest and income were rooted in agriculture.
§ Parliament finally passed the Great Reforms Act in 1832 and its redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs.
§ Electorate is the body of people allowed to vote.
§ The Reform Act of 1832 did not bring full democracy, but it did give a greater political voice to middle class men.
3. The Chartist Movement
§ The reform bill did not help rural or urban workers. In 1830s, protester known as Chartists drew up the People’s Charter demanding:
1. universal male suffrage
2. annual parliamentary elections
3. salaries for members of Parliament
§ Secret ballots allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.
§ Their petitions were ignored.
II. The Victorian Age
§ From 1837 to 1901, Queen Victoria was a great symbol in British life. Her reign was the longest in British history. She exercised little political power but she set the tome for what is called Victorian Age.
1. Symbol of a Nation’s Value
§ Victorian ideals included duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and above all respectability.
§ She married a German prince, Albert, and they raised a large family
2. A Confident Age
§ Victoria, the empress of India and ruler of some 300 million subjects around the world, became a revered symbol of British might.
§ Victoria witnessed growing agitation for social reforms and as the Victorian Age continued reformers kept pushing toward greater social and economics justice.
III. A New Era in British Politics
§ Benjamin Disraeli forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party.
§ William Gladstone led the Whigs that evolved into the Liberal party.
§ Both Gladstone and Disraeli alternated as prime minster and fought for important reforms.
1. Expanding Suffrage
§ Disraeli and the Conservative Party pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867 by voting to many working class men.
§ In the 1880s, Gladstone and the Liberal Party extended suffrage. Reforms gave the vote to farm workers and most other men. The end of the centuries, male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist’s ambitions had been achieved.
§ Britain had truly transformed itself from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy, a form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by and responsible to the legislature, and also members of it.
2. Limiting the Lords
§ In the early 1900s, many bills passed by the House of Commons met defeat in the House of Lords.
§ In 1911, Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the Lords, including their power to veto tax bulls.
The government threatens to create enough new lords to approve the law, and the Lords backed down. The elected House of Commons would reign supreme.
Chapter 23: Growth in Western Democracies
Section 2: Social And Economic Reform in Britain
Between 1815 and 1914, Parliament responded to widespread discontent with a series of social and economic reforms.
I. Series of Reforms
§ Parliament passed a wide variety of important new laws. One of the most controversial measures involved the issue of free trade, or trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, and other restrictions.
2. Free Trade and the Corn Laws
§ In the early 1800s, Britain taxed foreign imports in order to protect local economics but supporters of free trade demanded an end to such protective tariffs.
§ Some British tariffs were repealed in the 1820s; however, a fierce debate erupted over the Corn Law, which imposed high tariffs on imported grain.
§ Farmers and wealthy landowners supported the Corn Law because they kept the price of British grain high. Free trader want Parliament to repeal, or cancel, the Corn Law. They argued that repeal of these laws would lower the price of grain, make bread cheaper for workers and open up trade in general.
§ Parliament finally repealed the Corn Law in 1846 after widespread crop failures swept many parts of Europe.
3. Campaign Against Slavery
§ During the 1700s, Enlightenment thinkers had turned the spotlight on the evils of the slave trade. British ships were carrying more Africans to the Americas than any other European country.
§ Abolition movement is the campaign against slavery and the slave trade.
§ In 1807, Britain became the first European power to abolish the slave trade. In 1833, Parliament passed a law banned a low banning slavery in all British colonies.
4. Crime and Punishment
§ Other reforms were aimed at the criminal justice system. In the early 1800s, more than 200 crimes were punishable by deaths.
§ Capital offenses included not only murder but also shoplifting, sheep stealing, and impersonating an army veteran.
§ Some juries refused to convict criminals because the punishments were so harsh. Executions were public occasions, and the hanging of a well-known murderer might attract thousands of curious spectators.
§ Reformers began to reduce the number of capital offenses. By 1850a, the death penalty was reserved for murder, piracy, treason, and arson.
§ Many petty criminals were transported to penal colonies, or settlements for convicts.
§ In 1868, Parliament ended public hanging and reforms improved prison conditions and outlawed imprisonment due to debt.
II. Victories for the Working Class
§ Parliament had begun passing laws aimed at improving social conditions as early as the 1840s.
2. Improving Working Conditions
§ Working conditions in the early industrial age were grim and often dangerous.
§ In the late 1800s, the government regulated many safety conditions in factories and mines and sent inspectors to see that the laws were enforced. Other laws set minimum wages and maximum hours of work.
3. The Growth of Labor Unions
§ Trade unions were made legal in 1825 but it remained illegal to go on strike until later in the century.
§ Besides winning higher wages and shorter hours for worker, union pressed for other laws to improve the lives of the working class.
4. Later Reforms
§ During the late1800s and 1900s, both political parties enacted social reforms to benefit the working class. Disraeli sponsored laws to improve public health and housing for workers in the cities. Under Gladstone, education act called for free elementary education for all children.
§ Another force for the reforms was the Fabian Society, a socialist organization founded in 1883. They promoted gradual change through legal means rather than by violence.
§ In 1900s, socialist and union members backed the formation of a new political party, which became the Labour Party. It surpassed the Liberal Party and became one of Britain’s two major parties.
§ In the early 1900s, Britain began to pass social welfare laws to protect the well being of the poor and disadvantaged.
III. The Struggle to Win Votes for Women
§ In Britain women struggled against strong opposition for the right to vote.
2. Suffragist Revolt
§ By the early 1900s, Emmeline Pankhurst, a leading suffragist, had become convinced that only aggressive tactics would bring victory. They collected petitions and organized huge pubic demonstrations.
§ When mass meeting and other peaceful efforts brought no results, some women turned to more drastic, violent protest. Some suffragist went on hunger strikes, risking their lives to achieve their goals.
3. Victory at Last
§ Even middle class women who disapproved of such radical and violent actions increasingly demanded votes for women. Parliament refused to grant women’s suffrage.
§ In 1918, Parliament finally grants suffrage to women over 30.
IV. Instability in Ireland
§ In the 1600s, English and Scottish settlers colonized Ireland, taking possession of much of the best farmland.
§ Irish never accepted English rule because they bitterly resented settlers, especially absentee landlords who owned large estates but did not live on them.
§ Irish peasants live in desperate poverty, while paying high rents to landlords living in England. Irish’s majority were Catholics and they had to pay tithes to support the Church of England.
2. Irish Nationalism
§ Nationalist leader Daniel O’Connell organized an Irish Catholic League and held mass meetings to demand repeal of unfair laws.
§ Britain slowly moved to improve conditions in Ireland. In 1829, Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation Act, which allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office.
3. Struggle for Home Rule
§ The famine of Ireland left them with a legacy of bitterness and distrust toward Britain. In the 1850s, come Irish militants organized the Fenian Brotherhood. Its goal was to liberate Ireland from British rule by force.
§ Charles Stewart Parnell rallied Irish members to Parliament to press home rule, or local self-government.
* Political parties were so deeply split over the Irish questions that they could not take care of other business. Gladstone ended the use of Irish tithe money to support the Anglican church and tried to ease the hardship of Irish tenant farmers.
Chapter 23: The Growth of Western Democracies
Section 4: Expansion of the United States
In the 1800s, the American economy was growing rapidly, offering jobs to newcomers. The Constitution and Bill of Rights held out the hope of political and religious freedom.
1. Territorial Expansion
* The U.S followed a policy of expansionism, or extending the nation’s boundaries.
* At first the U.S stretched only from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. In 1803, Pres. Thomas Jefferson brought the Louisiana territory from France. The Louisiana Purchase virtually doubled the size of the nations.
* By 1846, the U.S had expanded to include Florida, Oregon and the Republic of Texas. The Mexican added California and the Southwest.
* Americans claimed that their nation was destined to spread across the entire continent, from sea to sea. This was known to be Manifest Destiny.
* In 1867, it brought Alaska from Russia and in 1898 annexed the Hawaiian Islands.
2. Expanding Democracy
* Two crusades highlighted the limits of American democracy- the abolition movement and the women’s rights movement.
1. Calls for Abolition
* In the early 1800s, a few Americans began to call for an immediate and complete end to slavery.
* William Lloyd Garrisan pressed the antislavery cause through his newspaper, the Liberator.
* Frederick Douglass was born into slavery and escaped, and he spoke eloquently in the North about the evils of the system.
* Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin helped convince many northerners that slavery was a great social evil.
2. Women’s Right Movement
* In 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the first women’s right convention. It passed the resolution, based on the Declaration of Independence.
* The women’s right movement set as its goal equality before the law, in the workplace, and in education.
3. The Civil War and the Aftermath
* Lincoln opposed extending slavery into new territories. Southerners feared that he would abolish slavery altogether and that the federal government would infringe on their states’ rights.
1. North Verses South
* Most Southern states seceded, or withdraw, from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. This action sparked the Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865.
* The Southern fought fiercely to defend their cause. The Confederacy finally surrenders in 1865.
2. Challenges for African American
* Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, by which enslaved African Americans in the South were declared free. Three amendments to the Constitution banned slavery throughout the country and granted political rights to African Americans.
* In the South, state laws imposed segregation, or legal separation of the races, in hospital, schools, and in other public places. Other state laws imposed conditions for voters’ eligibility that, despite the 15th Amendment, prevented African Americans from voting.
4. Economic Growth and Social Reforms
* The U.S grew to lead the world in industrial and agricultural production. A special combination of factors made this possible including political stability, private property rights, a free enterprise system, an inexpensive supply of land and labor, and a growing network of transportations and communications technologies.
1. Business and Labor
* In factories, wages were low and conditions were often brutal. American workers organized labor unions such as the American Federation of labor because they sought for better wages hours and working conditions. Slowly, the workers made gains.
2. Populists and Progressives
* Farmers also organized themselves to defend their interests so in the 1890s, they joined city workers to support the new Populist Party. The Populist never became a major party, but their platform of reforms eventually became law.
* By 1900, reformers known as Progressive sought laws to ban child labor, limit working hours, regulate monopolies, and give voters more power. Also obtaining voting rights for women.
* American suffragists finally won the vote in 1920, when the 19th Amendment went into effects.
WHEN: Wednesday, November 14th, 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. (Doors open at 5:30 p.m.)
WHERE: WHYY, 150 N. 6th Street, Philadelphia.
COST: FREE AND OPEN TO THE PUBLIC! ($1 Parking after 5pm at AutoPark on 6th Street, between Arch & Market)
RSVP: http://pbsmail.org/whyy_e_services/events/unreasonableman/details.tcl. For questions or more information: email@example.com or 267-259-2059
Following the film, there will be an audience discussion about the two-party system in America led by Dick Polman, political columnist with the Philadelphia Inquirer.
Other participants will include Jim Musselman, a former Nader Raider who is featured in the film, and Dr. Sidney R. Waldman, a political science Professor at Haverford College and author of “America and the Limits of the Politics of Selfishness.”
This event is co-presented by ITVS, WHYY, Bread and Roses Community Fund, Committee of Seventy, League of Women Voters-Philadelphia, National Constitution Center, Philadelphia Student Voices and Scribe Video Center.
ITVS Community Cinema Events are FREE and Open to the Public and feature advanced screenings of films coming to PBS on independent Lens! ITVS partners with public television stations and local organizations to present films that engage audiences in some of today's key issues! For a complete calendar of events: http://www.myspace.com/communitycinemaphilly. AN UNREASONABLE MAN is coming to PBS on Independent Lens, Dec 2008: http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/unreasonableman/
The Committee of Seventy
8 Penn Center
1628 JFK BLVD
Philadelphia, PA 19103
p. 215-557-3600 ext. 124
Sunday, October 28, 2007
1. Centennial Exhibition
3. Alexander Graham Bell
4. Thomas Alva Edison
9. looms (factory)
11. Sam Slater
12. Eli Whitney
13. interchangeable parts
14. mass production
15. cash crop
20. Erie Canal
21. Dewitt Clinton
22. Cyrus McCormick
24. Promitory Point
28. Chisholm Trail
32. Iron Horse
33. Henry Bessemer
34. Andrew Carnegie
36. George Westinghouse
38. John D. Rockefeller
39. Cornelius Vanderbilt
40. J.P. Morgan
43. U.S. Maine
45. Western Hemisphere
47. clipper ships
51. spheres of influence
52. manifest destiny
53. Alfred Thayer Mahan
55. Queen Lydia Liliuokalani
57. William Randolf Hearst
58. Joseph Pulitzer
62. Open Door Policy
63. John Hay
64. guerilla war
65. Platt Amendment
66. Guantanamo Bay
67. Roosevelt Corollary
68. The Great White Fleet
Friday, October 26, 2007
Russian President Vladimir Putin has compared US plans for a missile shield in Europe to the Cuban missile crisis of the 1960s.
The crisis saw the US and Soviet Union go to the brink of nuclear war.
Mr Putin, at a summit with EU leaders in Portugal, said the situation was "technologically similar".
But he argued there would be no repeat because Russia and the US were "not enemies anymore... we are partners" and President Bush was a "personal friend".
The 1962 stand-off was triggered when US spy planes discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba, within striking distance of the American mainland.
Moscow's decision to deploy these weapons in Cuba was at the time seen as a response to the build-up of powerful US missiles in Europe.
Tensions were only defused when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the bases in return for guarantees that Washington would not attack communist Cuba.
US President George W Bush has said there is a "real and urgent" need for a missile shield in Europe as a defence against possible attack by Iran and countries in the Middle East.
His defence secretary suggested this week that the development of the bases in countries such as the Czech Republic and Poland could be slowed while Russian concerns were addressed.
President Putin said: "Let me recall how relations shaped up in a similar situation in the mid-1960s.
"Similar actions by the Soviet Union, when it deployed missiles in Cuba, provoked the Caribbean crisis. For us, technologically, the situation is very similar."
But he said the current tensions would not reach the pitch attained during the Cuban crisis.
"I agree completely with President Bush when he says that Russia and the US are not enemies anymore... we are partners. I am fully justified in saying that just as he calls me a friend, I can call him a personal friend too."
Mr Putin said Russia had put forward proposals in the area of security but "we have unfortunately not yet received any answers".
US state department spokesman Sean McCormack said there were "clear historical differences" with the Cuban crisis.
"I don't think that they are historically analogous in any way, shape or form."
EU leaders at the Portugal summit were hoping to speed progress towards a long-term agreement with Russia, that would extend to sensitive areas such as energy supplies.
The EU depends on Russia for a third of its energy needs and has seen gas supplies disrupted for two successive winters.
European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso confirmed a deal had been reached on sharing information on energy supplies to pre-empt sudden shortages.
"We have agreed today on a specific early warning mechanism to deal with problems in supply before they become a possible crisis," he said.
An agreement was also reached in Portugal on working together to curb the trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs and on raising the quota for Russian steel exports to the EU.
The US is adamant that the shield - a sophisticated link-up of radar and missile systems - is intended to catch missiles in mid-air if launched from places like Iran
BBC Europe editor Mark Mardell
Disagreements with Russia over human rights and foreign policy overshadowed the start of the summit, with Russia's envoy to the EU warning that Moscow didn't "want to listen to any lectures".
In separate appeals, both Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have urged EU leaders to speak firmly and with one voice about what the groups call the Kremlin's worsening human rights record.
The Kremlin also opposes the stance pursued by several EU members on Kosovo and Iran.
Russia opposes independence for the Serbian province of Kosovo and has also criticised recent moves to impose sanctions on Iran.
Story from BBC NEWS:
Published: 2007/10/26 21:21:05 GMT
© BBC MMVII
Wednesday, October 24, 2007
Chapter 23 Growth of Western Democracies: 1815–1914
Section 1 Democratic Reform in Britain
rotten borough-p. 723
secret ballot-p. 723
Queen Victoria-p. 724
Benjamin Disraeli-p. 725
William Gladstone-p. 725
parliamentary democracy-p. 725
How was the British Parliament reformed during the early 1800s? p. 723
What values did Queen Victoria represent and how did these values relate to economic reform? p. 724
How was Parliament reformed during the late 1800s and early 1900s? p. 725
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas As you read this section, complete an outline of the contents. p. 723
Section 2 Social and Economic Reform in Britain
abolition movement-p. 727
penal colony-p. 727
absentee landlord-p. 730
home rule-p. 730
How did abolition and criminal justice reform reflect Victorian values? p. 727
Describe several social welfare reforms during the 1800s and early 1900s. p. 728
Why do you think women disagreed about how best to gain suffrage? p. 729
How did English policies toward Ireland affect the cause of Irish Nationalism? p. 730
1. (a) What were some possible “pull” factors for Irish emigrants? (b) How do the “push” and “pull” factors for voluntary migration differ from those for involuntary migration?
2. Connections to Today Use news sources to read about an example of recent migration. Write a one paragraph summary of the migration including explanations of push and/or pull factors influencing the migration. p. 732
Section 3 Division and Democracy in France
Napoleon III-p. 734
Suez Canal-p. 734
Dreyfus affair-p. 736
What were some of the successes and failures of Napoleon III’s Second Empire? p. 734
What challenges did the Third Republic face during its 70 years in power? p. 735
In what ways was the Zionist movement a reaction to the Dreyfus case? p. 736
Describe two social reforms during the late 1800s and early 1900s in France. p. 737
Section 4 Expansion of the United States
Louisiana Purchase-p. 740
Manifest Destiny-p. 740
Describe the United States’ physical expansion during the 1800s. p 740
How did the abolition and women’s rights movements highlight the limits of American democracy? p. 741
What changes did the Civil War bring about for African Americans? p. 742
Describe the factors that helped the United States become an industrial and an agricultural leader. p. 743
Tuesday, October 23, 2007
October 23, 2007 (Computerworld) Whatever you do, please don't call Stephanie Lee a geek. Sure, she's majoring in information technology and marketing at Marquette University in Milwaukee, where she's a senior.
But she doesn't write code, she isn't gadget-crazed or Internet-obsessed, and she positively isn't interested in a career as a programmer or tech support jockey.
What Lee is interested in is strategy. During a high school summer internship, she was charged with finding a way for a manufacturing company to more efficiently track packages overseas. Lee combed the Web for research. She chatted up employees to understand the process and the pain points. She even came up with an ROI strategy that convinced upper management to adopt her technology choice to fix their problem.
The experience ignited a passion in Lee to pursue a career in IT. "I've known ever since I was 17 that IT is for me," says Lee. "Most people assume that IT [people are] stuck in front of a computer the entire time, coding away. They don't understand that that's only one small component to our tool set -- our role is so much broader than that."
Dream employee? Absolutely. Does that mean hiring managers can expect Lee's contemporaries to enter the workforce equipped with a similar grasp of the big-picture concepts of a career in IT?
Well, no, say IT executives, human resource professionals and computer science professors.
Members of Generation Y -- roughly, the group born between the early 1980s and the late 1990s -- are arriving on the job market armed with up-to-the-minute technology skills, but they're lacking in other areas, such as business communication skills, employers say. Moreover, many are wary of IT as a viable career choice.
Tech lifestyle or tech career?
Certainly, when it comes to considering a career in technology, Generation Y is more jaded than generations past. The number of freshmen pursuing a computer science track has fallen by 70% since 2000, according to the Computing Research Association. The reasons are myriad.
Would-be technologists are turned off by the tech crash of the early '00s, the shift of jobs overseas to outsourcing providers, and an overall perception of IT as a go-nowhere, nuts-and-bolts profession, observers say.
And the up-and-coming generation puts a premium on work/life balance, having seen firsthand the toll working around-the-clock took on its parents. As a result, they tend to shy away from jobs that demand the 40-hour-plus workweeks typical of IT.
This is the group that simultaneously IMs, blogs, surfs the Web and downloads podcasts. In the end, ironically, it might be this extreme comfort with technology that most deters these young people from pursuing IT as a favorable, even desirable, career.
"To another generation, IT was cool because no one else knew much about it," notes Kate Kaiser, associate professor of IT (and one of Lee's instructors) at Marquette. "This generation is so familiar with technology, they see it as an expected part of life" -- and therefore not worthy of consideration as a full-time career.
When she's not teaching, Kaiser is an academic liaison with and charter member of the Society for Information Management (SIM). One of her responsibilities there is to work with other universities, technology companies and IT professionals to try to alter the perceptions today's youth have of technology careers.
Another of Kaiser's responsibilities is to work with other SIM members and peer professors to modify the IT curriculum nationwide. The goal is to reflect the need for up-and-comers to have stronger business, communication and project management skills -- all areas where this latest generation comes up short. "People in IT today have to be more well rounded -- they can't just have technical expertise," Kaiser says.
Technical proficiency is an area where newbies certainly aren't lacking. While they may not possess the tech skills of old -- expertise in outdated areas like NetWare, Cobol, even ColdFusion programming -- this new generation packs a punch with mastery of things like HTML programming and a complete comfort level with business basics like Microsoft PowerPoint and Excel, not to mention Web 2.0 advances like blogging and social networking.
Today's young workers are far more likely than their older counterparts to try using these new social and Web-based tools to solve old business problems, and they have a strong team orientation, which lends itself to the virtual collaboration so vital for today's global economy.
"By and large, this generation is very fluent with technology and with a networked world," notes James Ware, executive producer at The Work Design Collaborative LLC, a Berkeley, Calif., consortium exploring workplace values and the future of the workforce. "They're comfortable working with people in remote locations, they're comfortable multitasking, and they're not afraid to go looking for stuff. They have a sense of all things possible."
IM-speak in an IT world
Communication and basic math and writing skills, on the other hand, are not Gen Y's strong suit. According to a survey of 100 human resource professionals by outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas Inc., although only 5% of college graduates overall were judged to be lacking in basic technical skills, more than half of entry-level workers possessed deficient writing skills and 27% were underperforming in critical thinking.
Some managers and academics attribute the skills gap to this generation's proclivity for cell-phone- and instant-messaging-induced "textspeak," regardless of whether it's for business or personal communication.
Other industry watchers view Generation Y's preference for virtual interaction in the digital world as a hindrance to developing face-to-face communications skills, a critical asset for a modern IT career. (See this article for more on what today's managers say are the hottest skills right now.)
"Part of the IT job is to teach others how to use technology, and the patience level of this generation is less than that of other workers," says Stephen Pickett, a longtime IT executive and current chairman of the SIM Foundation, a philanthropic organization dedicated to promoting IT as a career option. "We need to teach them how to talk to a leader -- how to relate to someone who's not as technically savvy as they happen to be. But all of that is learned behavior that can be changed."
Marquette's Kaiser has experienced Gen Y's communication shortcomings firsthand. She says some of her technology students often hand in work that isn't written in complete sentences, and their inclination to give an instantaneous response means they're less interested developing in writing and presentation skills.
"I'm not sure a lot of the technology things kids are doing promote their listening skills -- with IM or even Facebook, it's cryptic one-liners where they respond right away," Kaiser says. "And when you're writing with all this Web 2.0 stuff, no one cares how well you spell a word. It's a very different way of communication."
Chris Dodge is one student who certainly has his tech credentials in line. Thanks to his parents, both of whom worked in the tech sector, Dodge has been exposed to PCs since birth and knows enough to design and launch a blog, produce a podcast, or shoot, edit and post a YouTube video.
Dodge, now a sophomore at Georgetown University majoring in international politics at the School of Foreign Service, doesn't deny that his generation spends hours online in chat rooms or e-mailing and texting. But he takes exception to the suggestion that his generation's communication skills are compromised.
"Five minutes after [students] write their one-line text messages, they go to class and take five pages of notes or go back to their rooms and write 10-page research papers," he says. "I think the world is absolutely valuing speed over quality, but that doesn't mean we're incapable of appropriately expressing ourselves."
Worker Bee 2.0
The Generation Y crowd also has a different take on what it means to be an employee. While their parents may be company loyalists willing to put in long hours or pack up and move for the good of the business, not so for Generation Y.
These young people have seen firsthand the physical and emotional damage that working long hours can have on family life and health, say human resource experts. They also came of age witnessing the trauma of corporate downsizing and the outsourcing of technology-oriented positions to low-cost labor regions like India.
The new generation, therefore, is a lot less willing to bend to corporate politics and policies and has a certain air of entitlement when it comes to employment.
Generation Y, for instance, expects to be handed state-of-the-art technology (read: smart phone, laptop and wireless) as soon as they come on board, and they are less willing to start at the bottom rung and work their way up the corporate ladder.
"Generation Y is interested in wrangling their way through an organization, testing the waters and moving here or there if it so suits them," explains Jeff Alderton, principal for human capital at Deloitte Consulting LLC. "They're eventually going to get where they want to go, but in their way, not in the traditional fashion."
The new generation is also far bolder in asking for entitlements, whether it's a pay raise, training on the company's dime or simply time off. "They ask questions I never would have asked," says Mark Banks, vice president of human resources at Sciele Pharma Inc., an Atlanta-based pharmaceuticals company. "It's not about what they can do for you, but what as a company can you do to develop them."
One of the primary concerns of Generation Y is a flexible schedule and healthy work/life balance. This is a generation raised in the era of 24/7 connectivity, of wireless access and of being able to work wherever and whenever it suits them. The idea of trading in that flexibility for a structured workplace doesn't sit well with them.
Technology, they reason, is the enabler for letting people get their work done independently, without having to be in a certain place for a certain period of time.
"We have different expectations about what a work environment should be like," says Dodge. "I think a lot of us hope the age of the daily commute, the 9-to-5 workday and the cubicle farm are in the past. Certainly, with new technology, there is less of a need for the centralization of work production in an office, so long as the work gets done."
The SIM Foundation's Pickett isn't the only IT executive to say that kind of thinking is much too optimistic, if not downright deluded. Anyone looking to eventually reach a high-level management job in IT or finance -- or nearly any field, for that matter -- needs to be in the office, Pickett says. A lot.
"You can't develop relationships from afar or show leadership from afar. If you want to learn about the business, you pretty much have to be there," Pickett says. "To develop relationships with key executives, you've got to be in front of them. And you can't learn leadership skills unless you're watching how others lead."
Still, smart companies are aware of the misalignment and, where possible, are beginning to implement new policies and procedures to bring their work environments more in line with Generation Y's expectations.
Give 'Em What They Want
That's not to say companies should kowtow to the unreasonable demands of a new generation. Rather, they need to be open to embracing new work styles and finding some sort of middle ground.
"Large organizations that simply try to maintain their way of doing things in a monolithic fashion and which don't listen to and learn from younger folks are going to have problems attracting, retaining and motivating talent," says The Work Design Collaborative's Ware. "Companies have to change a bit."
Sciele Pharma is taking that message to heart. The company, where the average worker is in his mid-20s, equips its employees with state-of-the-art laptops and cell phones and has also implemented a variety of flexible work programs.
For instance, employees can adopt an alternative schedule, if approved by Banks and their managers, where they can work from home one day a week or come in between the hours of 6 a.m. and 9 a.m. and leave as early or late as they want, provided their work is done. Employees work 36.5-hour weeks, the company closes at 4 p.m. on Fridays, and workers are able to leave at noon the day before a holiday.
IT people in particular have the option of working from home. Those who have operational-type responsibilities -- monitoring and troubleshooting systems or doing EDI work, for example -- are encouraged to work at home a day or so a week and are given the equipment to make that happen, says David Bennett, IT director at Sciele Pharma. Those with development jobs are eligible to take advantage of flextime as well.
"Any job that lends itself to routine operations or where there is a need for a lot of solitary time to dig into a problem, [those employees] can work from home as long as it doesn't interfere with any planned meetings," Bennett says. "It creates benefits for the employee and the environment and makes for a better quality of life."
With quantifiable kinds of roles, Sciele can easily measure employees' results and hold them accountable, which in turn helps the company monitor whether its flextime arrangement is working, Bennett explains.
As progressive as Sciele Pharma may be, all of its work/life balance programs have essentially kept it in the hiring game but not necessarily given it an edge. "Employees today come in with these expectations," Banks says. "This has helped us retain our workforce, not attract a new workforce."
Stackpole has reported on business and technology for more than 20 years.
Bismarck Video Vocabulary: Due 24 October 2007, the printer has been down since last Thursday, you will need to print a copy yourself.
Bismarck Video Vocabulary
4. balance of power
5. Iron & Blood
13. Queen Victoria
14. prime minister
34. Franz Joseph
46. Sieg Heil
Sunday, October 21, 2007
MOSCOW (AFP) - Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev founded a new political movement on Saturday aimed at fighting democratic abuses in Russia, but not at challenging President Vladimir Putin's rule.
"We are putting our hopes in the efforts that Putin is making" to reform Russia, Gorbachev told some 200 delegates at the founding congress of the Union of Social-Democrats in central Moscow.
But Gorbachev, 76, who will lead the movement, also highlighted "negative tendencies," including a lack of real political debate, pressure being put on non-governmental groups and high levels of corruption.
"We are fighting for power, but only for power over people's minds," said Gorbachev.
His new movement is not a political party and will therefore not take part in parliamentary elections in December.
United Russia, the dominant party in the Russian parliament, is set for a landslide victory in the elections after Putin announced earlier this month that he would run as its top candidate.
The deadline for parties to register for the elections passed on October 17.
A statement issued by the movement said that "the potential for free democratic choice and political competition is being limited.... This is why social-democrats are uniting to fight for the values of freedom and fairness."
Gorbachev was the last general secretary of the Communist Party and is generally unpopular in Russia as he is associated with a period of political upheaval and economic collapse.
After his attempts at reforming Communism fell through and the Soviet Union broke apart in 1991, he became head of the Russian Social-Democratic Party, which failed to win any seats in the 2003 parliamentary elections.
He has received numerous awards in the West and is a frequent speaker at international events. He has a more visible public role in Russia as head of the Gorbachev Foundation, which funds charity and education.
In his speech on Thursday, Gorbachev praised Putin for not changing the country's constitution to allow himself to run for a third consecutive term, when his period in office runs out next year.
"The president was under pressure and the fact that he did not give in to it is important from the point of view of democracy," Gorbachev said, referring to calls for Putin to change the constitution.
Putin, who came to power in 2000, remains very popular in Russia as he is credited with the country's economic revival and with boosting Russia's role in world affairs.
Russians are to elect a new president in March 2008 but there is still uncertainty about what role Putin could play in Russia's political future and who his favoured successor might be.
Tuesday, October 16, 2007
FAQ; How do I look up vocabulary words? (You may need a Period 1 or Period 2 Code but the procedure is the same)
If you have an account:
Type in your User name and password:
If you don't have an account, you will have to create one:
Be sure to enter the correct class access code provided:
Once you accessed the Pearson success net site, scroll down the middle of the page to Research Center.
Once there, click on it, and you will have a dictionary, a thesaurus, etc. to look these terms up.
Try this and let me know how it goes, what you can't find, what questions you have etc.
Did you know?
In the next 8 seconds . . .
34 babies will be born.
[graphic indicating India – 5, China – 4, U.S. – 1]
What will the world be like . . .
. . . for them?
Name this country . . .
· Richest in the world
· Largest military
· Center of world business and finance
· Strongest education system
· Currency the world standard of value
· Highest standard of living
Great Britain. In 1900.
2006 college graduates
[graphic indicating U.S. – 1.3 million, India 3.1 million, China – 3.3. million]
How many 2006 college graduates in India speak English?
[graphic indicating 100%]
In 10 years it is predicted that the number on English speaking country in the world will be . . .
Who would have predicted this 60 years ago? (then 60 is replaced with 40, then 20]
Did you know?
According to the U.S. Department of Labor
1 in 4 workers has been with their current employer less than one year.
1 in 2 workers has been with their current employer less than five years.
The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that today’s learners will have . . .
10 to 14 jobs . . .
by their 38th birthday
Many of today’s college majors didn’t exist 10 years ago
What will they study 10 years from now?
Today’s 21-year-olds have:
Watched 20,000 hours of TV
Played 10,000 hours of video games
Talked 10,000 hours on the phone
And they’ve sent/received 250,000 emails or instant messages
More than 50% of U.S. 21-year-olds have created content on the web
More than 70% of U.S. 4-year-olds have used a computer
Years it took to reach a market audience of 50 million
[graphic indicating Radio – 38 years, TV – 13 years, Internet – 4 years]
Number of Internet devices in 1984: 1,000
1992 – 1,000,000
2006 – 600,000,000
Did you know?
We are living in exponential times
The first commercial text message was sent in December 1992
The number of text messages sent and received today . . .
exceeds the population of the planet
The Internet started being widely used by the general public in early 1995
1 out of 8 couples married in the U.S. in 2005 . . .
Revenue for eBay in 2006: $1.7 billion
eBay was founded in 1996
There were more than 2.7 billion searches performed on Google . . .
. . . this month
To whom were those questions directed B.G.?
[graphic from 0 in 2003 to almost 60,000,000 in 2006]
More than 230,000 new users signed up for MySpace . . .
If MySpace were a country . . .
it would be the 8th largest in the world
YouTube visitors since September 2005
[graphic from 0 in 2005 to well over 100,000,000 today]
Did you know?
There are more than 540,000 words in the English language . . .
about five times as many as during Shakespeare’s time
[graphic with the words: widget, web-surfer, blog, dot-commer, e-learner, Internet]
More than 3,000 books were published . . .
. . . today
The amount of technical information is doubling every two years
By 2010, it’s predicted to double . . .
every 72 hours
Third generation fiber optics has recently been tested that push 10 trillion bits per second down a fiber
That is 1,900 CDs or 150 million simultaneous phone calls every second
It’s currently tripling every six months
The fiber is already there, they’re just improving the switches on the end . . .
which means the marginal cost of these improvements is effectively . . .
Nearly 2 billion children live in developing countries
One in three never completes fifth grade
In 2005 the One Laptop per Child Project (OLPC) set out to provide laptops to these children
The first shipments should be in mid-2007
Kids who have never held a textbook will now hold the world
And be connected . . .
Predictions are that by the time
children born in 2007 are 6 years old,
a supercomputer’s computation capabilities
that of the human brain
And while predictions further out than 15 years are hard to do . . .
[graphic indicating 2049]
a $1,000 computer
will exceed the computing capabilities
of the human race
what does this all mean?
[graphic indicating: shift happens]
We are currently preparing students for jobs and technologies that don’t yet exist . . . in order to solve problems we don’t even know are problems yet.
“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” – Albert Einstein
Did you know . . .
There are students in China, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, and the USA who
[graphic switches from: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create, communicate, collaborate]
Ask Your Kids: Are you doing this in school?
Ask Your Principal: How are you helping my child become literate in the 21st century?
Ask Your School Board: Are you providing the resources and training necessary to prepare students to be successful in 21st century society?
Ask Your Elected Representatives: Now that you know all this, what changes should be made to current education legislation?
What’s your vision?
Did you know . . .
The original version of this presentation was created for a Colorado (USA) high school staff of 150 in August of 2006
to start a conversation about what our students need to be successful in the 21st century
By June 2007 it had started more than 5 million conversations around the world
And now that you know, we want you to join the conversation
Did you know?
Developed by Karl Fisch
with assistance from Scott McLeod
Designed by XPLANE
[graphic with Creative Commons copyright notice]
Monday, October 15, 2007
Messaging system companies offer effective electronic messaging systems that are essential tools of public safety on campus.
Mobile Campus Incorporated markets an advertiser-supported campus text-messaging system that is otherwise free to affiliated universities. This is a free service capable of immediately and simultaneously alerting students, university employees, and others via text messages on cell phones.
Netpresenter Incorporated is a XML-based screen-saver and pop-up notification service.
MIR3 provides emergency notification technology.
ClearTXT is a mobile messaging provider to keep students and faculty informed during emergencies.
Just in case, resources for a Uniform Disaster Plan, Lock Down Procedure
Uniform Disaster Plan
Lock Down Procedure
Chapter 22 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800-1914)
Section 1 Building a German Nation
Identify several events that promoted German unity during the early 1800s.
Explain how Bismarck unified Germany.
Analyze the basic political organization of the new German empire.
Otto von Bismarck - came from Prussia’s Junker class, made up of conservative landowning nobles. Bismarck first served Prussia as a diplomat in Russia and France. In 1862, King William I made him prime minister. Within a decade, the new prime minister had become chancellor, or the highest official of a monarch, and had used his policy of “blood and iron” to unite the German states under Prussian rule. p. 694
chancellor- the highest official of a monarch; prime minister p.694
Realpolitik- realistic politics based on the needs of the state p. 694
annex- add a territory to an existing state or country p. 694
kaiser- emperor of Germany p. 694
Reich- German empire p. 694
In the early 1800s, people living in German-speaking states had local loyalties. By the mid-1800s, however, they were developing a national identity.
(a) Prussia (b) Silesia (c) Bavaria (d) Schleswig
What area did Prussia add to its territory in 1866? p. 694
Why do you think Austrian influence was greater among the southern German states than among the northern ones? p. 694
War and Power
In 1866, Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke analyzed the importance of Prussia’s war against Austria. Why, according to von Moltke, did Prussia go to war against Austria? p. 694
What was the German Confederation? p. 693
What techniques did Bismarck use to unify the German states? p. 694
How was the new German government, drafted by Bismarck, structured? p. 695
Section 2 Germany Strengthens
Describe how Germany became an industrial giant.
Explain why Bismarck was called the Iron Chancellor.
List the policies of Kaiser William II.
Kulturkampf- a name, given to a struggle between the the Roman Catholic Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical appointments in the interest of the political policy of centralization. p. 698
William II- the second son of William the Conqueror who succeeded him as King of England; The new emperor was supremely confident in his abilities and wished to put his own stamp on Germany. In 1890, he shocked Europe by asking the dominating Bismarck to resign. “There is only one master in the Reich,” he said, “and that is I.” p. 699
social welfare- programs to help certain groups of people p. 699
What factors did Germany possess that made industrialization possible there? p. 697
Why did Bismarck try to crush the Catholic Church and the Socialists? p. 698
Why did William II ask Bismarck to resign in 1890? p. 699
A Political Game of Chess
This political cartoon shows Otto von Bismarck and Pope Pius IX trying to checkmate each other in a game of chess.
1. How does this cartoon reflect the relationship between Bismarck and the Catholic Church? p. 698
2. How did the conflict between church and state affect German politics in the 1870s? p. 698
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) spent his early years on his father’s country estate. He worked briefly as a civil servant, but found the work boring. At 24, Bismarck resigned his post as a bureaucrat. “My ambition strives more to command than to obey,” the independent-minded young man explained.
The resignation did not end his career in government. While he was a delegate to a United Diet that was called by Prussian King Frederick William IV, Bismarck’s conservative views and passionate speeches in defense of government policies won him the support of the king. He then served as a diplomat to the German Federation. He became chancellor of the German empire in 1871, a position he held for 19 years. What path did Bismarck take to win political power? p. 698
Section 3 Unifying Italy
List the key obstacles to Italian unity.
Understand what roles Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played in the struggle for Italy.
Describe the challenges that faced the new nation of Italy.
Camillo Cavour-was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and ruled it throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy (besides a small six-month resignation from the post). Cavour died only three months after the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome included in the kingdom. p. 702
Giuseppe Garibaldi- Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state p. 702
anarchist- someone who wants to abolish all government p. 703
emigration- migration from a place; movement away from their homeland p. 703
What forces hindered Italian unity? p. 701
What steps did Camillo Cavour take to promote Italian unity? p. 702
What problems did Italians experience after unification? p. 703
Section 4 Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
Describe how nationalism contributed to the decline of the Hapsburg empire.
List the main characteristics of the Dual Monarchy.
Understand how the growth of nationalism affected the Ottoman empire.
Francis Joseph- inherited the Hapsburg throne. He would rule until 1916, presiding over the empire during its fading days into World War I. p. 706
Ferenc Deák-a moderate Hungarian leader, helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary p. 707
Dual Monarchy- the monarchy of Austria-Hungary p. 707
What actions did Francis Joseph take to maintain power? p. 706
How did Hungarians and Slavic groups respond to the Dual Monarchy? p. 707
How did the European powers divide up Ottoman lands? p. 708
In the late 1800s, the Balkans had become a center of conflict, as various peoples and empires competed for power.
(a) Black Sea (b) Ottoman empire (c) Serbia (d) Greece (e) Austria-Hungary
Which four large seas border the Balkan Peninsula? p. 707
3. Identify Central Issues
Why do you think competing interests in the Balkans led the region to be called a powder keg? p. 707
1. (a) Is nationalism a positive force? Explain your answer. (b) What event or events in recent years brought out nationalistic feelings among Americans? Why? p. 709
2. Connections to Today
Do library research to identify an example of nationalism today. p. 709
Section 5 Russia: Reform and Reaction
Describe major obstacles to progress in Russia.
Explain why tsars followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction.
Understand why the problems of industrialization contributed to the outbreak of revolution.
colossus- giant p. 711
Alexander II- came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War. His reign represents the pattern of reform and repression used by his father and grandfather, Alexander I and Nicholas I. The Crimean War had broken out after Russia tried to seize Ottoman lands along the Danube River. Britain and France stepped in to help the Ottoman Turks, invading the Crimean peninsula that juts into the Black Sea. The war, which ended in a Russian defeat, revealed the country’s backwardness. Russia had only a few miles of railroads, and the military bureaucracy was hopelessly inefficient. Many felt that dramatic changes were needed pg. 712
Crimean War- war fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Turks from 1853–1856 p. 712
emancipation- granting of freedom to serfs or slaves p. 712
zemstvo- local elected assembly set up in Russia under Alexander II p. 712
pogrom- violent attack on a Jewish community p. 712
refugees- a person who flees from home or country to seek refuge elsewhere, often because of political upheaval or famine p. 712
Duma- elected national legislature in Russia p. 714
Peter Stolypin-Stolypin soon realized that Russia needed reform, not just repression. To regain peasant support, he introduced moderate land reforms. He strengthened the zemstvos and improved education. Unfortunately, these reforms were too limited to meet the broad needs of most Russians, and dissatisfaction still simmered. Stolypin was assassinated in 1911. Several more Dumas met during this period, but new voting laws made sure they were conservative. By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy, but one simmering with unrest.
Describe the social structure that existed in Russia during the 1800s. p. 711
How did Alexander III respond to the murder of his father? p. 712
How did Russia industrialize? p. 713
Why was Bloody Sunday a turning point for the Russians? p. 714
Tuesday, October 09, 2007
Turkish university students chant slogans as they carry a banner that reads: "Murderer of Mehmetcik is America" during a protest against recent attacks by Kurdish rebels, Istanbul, Turkey, Tuesday, Oct. 9, 2007. Turkey said Tuesday it had given instructions to prepare for a possible cross-border military operation into Iraq to chase separatist Kurdish rebels. Kurdish rebels have killed 15 soldiers in separate attacks in the past two days, increasing anger in the country over the insurgents' ability to find refuge in neighboring Iraq.
As Turkey goes so goes the moderate Middle East. Turkey is ready to send troops into Iraq now that Ankara approves possible cross-border military operations to chase Kurds.
In an action that is not going to please the U.S. and will not help lead the Middle East towards stability, the Turkish government is poised to cross the border into Iraq now that Turkish military troops have been killed.
The decision came in a meeting between Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and officials from his ruling party.
It is possible that the United States and Iraqi Kurds could take definitive action against the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK.
In the last 10 days, more than two dozen people — including soldiers and civilians — were killed in southeastern Turkey in attacks by PKK rebels. Labeled a terrorist group by the U.S. and the European Union, it has fought government forces since 1984 in clashes that have claimed tens of thousands of lives.
The decision of Turkey is key because if they act hastily this will jeopardize ties with Western allies.
Turkish soldiers targeted suspected escape routes used by fighters and tracked rebels in the Gabar, Cudi, Namaz and Kato mountains in operations that began after 13 soldiers were killed in an ambush Sunday. Two more soldiers died in explosions Monday.
Turks are naturally furious that PKK rebels, labeled a terrorist organization by the U.S., can carry out attacks on Turkish soil and then slip across the border to mountain hideouts in the predominantly Kurdish region of northern Iraq. Turkey can retaliate by closing the border with northern Iraq, hurting the economy of the landlocked region.
Internal Turkish debates center on the problematic relationship that Erdogan’s party has with its opponents. Erdogan has a situation with his own military, which has put the Islamic-rooted government on notice it will not tolerate any effort to undermine Turkey’s secular traditions.
The PKK is branded a terrorist organization by the U.S. and the European Union. Its war with Turkey has claimed tens of thousands of lives.
Monday, October 08, 2007
Section 1 The Industrial Revolution Spreads
Lesson Plan Focus
During the 1800s, the US, Japan, and several European countries joined Britain in the Industrial Revolution. New machines and scientific advances helped business grow. Large companies developed new ways to get the capital that they needed. The leaders of big business created monopolies and trusts that controlled entire industries.
In small groups students should imagine that they are living in the 1800s and are members of a commission that will decide the contents of a time capsule. The time capsule, scheduled to be opened by people of the twenty-first century, should reveal the changes that the industrialized world experienced in the 1800s. The time capsule should include about 15 items. It may include artifacts, maps, graphs, photographs, art works, and documents. Each commission should list the contents of its time capsule. They should also write a clear description of the nature and significance of each item. Then, each group can present their list to the larger group.
As an exercise, write potential test questions based on the information included in this section.
HW, Section 1 Review
World History, Chapter 21 Section 2 The World of Cities
Lesson Plan Focus
Advances in medicine raised life expectancy in the 1800s. The population of cities oared as people flocked to urban centers for jobs. New wealth enabled cities to provide improved living conditions and cultural opportunities. For the poor, however, life in urban slums remained
harsh. Conditions for workers gradually improved as the efforts of labor unions and government leaders brought reforms.
Students are divided into groups. Outlining the information in Section 2, students are to imagine that they are tour guides in a city of the time. Their assignment is to plan a tour of a typical city of the late 1800s. Make the tour as realistic and interesting as possible. Note the
place to visit and an accompanying script (text) telling them what to say about each place visited. The tour should visit both rich and poor areas.
Write two paragraphs describing life in a European city of the late 1800s. One paragraph should be from the perspective of a middle-class/upper-class person, and the second paragraph from the perspective of a working-class person.
Section 2 Review
Chapter 21 Section 3 Changing Attitudes and Values
Lesson Plan Focus
During the 1800s, wealthy industrialists and the old nobility comprised the upper class. The influential middle class consisted of professionals, shop owners, and office workers. Peasants and industrial workers made up the lower class. A strict code of behavior guided middle-class life. Women, meanwhile, struggled to gain political and economic rights. During this era, scientific advances challenged traditional beliefs.
Students are to imagine that they are reporters for a newspaper or magazine of the 1800s that is devoting a special issue to the changing attitudes and values in society. There will be four groups:a) Write advice columns telling readers how to act, dress, and speak in middle-class society;b) Write editorials defending or opposing women’s efforts at social reform;c) Write articles about the many changes taking place in education;d) Debate the issues between science and religion.
Each group may read their articles aloud to the class.
Students should be able to discuss how the attitudes and values of the late 1800s have survived or changed in Western society.
Section 3 Review
Chapter 21 Section 4 A New Culture
Lesson Plan Focus
In the 1800s, the arts were dominated by two very different movements. Reacting against the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the romantic movement embraced vibrant emotions, heroism, and glorification of the past. Realism, meanwhile, emerged as an attempt to show the harsh
realities of the real world. In the visual arts, impressionists and post-impressionists presented their own views of the world.
Today’s group activities are for the purpose of creating a festival that celebrates the arts of the 1800s. Each group will assume responsibility for one art genre. Romantic literature, art, and/or music, Realistic literature or art, Women’s literature, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism.
Each group should write a general introduction for the genre that they will present. Also, each item in their collection should be preceded with an oral introduction.
Students should write responses: Which of the artists, writers, and musicians presented in the festival affected me most? Why?
HW Section 4
Sunday, October 07, 2007
Friday, October 05, 2007
Thursday, October 04, 2007
You can work on a packet of hand-outs to be turned in at the end of the period.
Wednesday, October 03, 2007
Monday, October 01, 2007
Technology & Learning's Digital Photo Contest for Kids
Sponsored by Adobe Digital Kids Club
DEADLINE: OCT. 19
Technology & Learning invites K-12 students to participate in the sixth annual digital photography contest. The competition, open to all K-12 students, challenges you to capture - and share - your unique vision of the world in a "Digital Diary - Through My Lens." If you have an artistic side, you also have the option to digitally enhance your photos with your favorite imaging software. The best digitally enhanced photo wins a special prize from Adobe. Other prizes include a digital camera, Adobe Photoshop Elements, and more!
Students are welcome -- and encouraged -- to enter as many photos as they wish.
For more information, such as rules, guidelines, tips and to view last year's winners visit:
Portraits of Learning.
Technology & Learning
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1111 Bayhill Dr., Suite 125
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