Tuesday, February 14, 2006

World History: Girondists, the Mountain, the Plain

The Girondists were still major voice but gradually lost control over next few months during the Radical phase of the Revolution to another group of Jacobins known as The Mountain (because they sat high in Convention Hall) - They were prepared to work with the Sans-Cullottes. Maximilien Robespierre one of leaders.
Political groups here were
the Girondists [or Brissotins] (name from region deputies supposed to have come from) the Mountain, (name from their seats high in the Assembly Hall) the Marais - the plain.(name from their seats low in the Assembly Hall) There were now 9 months of political struggle in the Convention.
The Mountain Takes Over
The population of Paris was still not happy - there was inflation due to war + paper money. This was made use of by the Mountain - whose main difference with the Girondists was that they would work with the mob. May/June 2 1793 New insurrection - the mob demanded the expulsion of the Girondist members. The Mountain seizes control in the Convention. They passed a new Democratic Constitution - June 22 - in cold storage until the war was over. They appointed a new Committee of Public Safety- June 1793 This body was to rule France for the next year. XIII. The Rule of the Committee for Public Safety July 1793-July 1794
A ruthless and effective government - Convention and ministers official government, but CPS had all power.
The Committee of Public Safety
- from the Mountain
Herault de Sechelles - a noble Jeanbon Saint-Andre - Protestant pastor Saint Just - wanted a Spartan state Couthon - a follower of Robespierre Prieur, of the Marne - from the Marais

World History, French Revolution Supplement

The French Revolution: Liberalism and Radicalism
Introduction: This Week's Goals Text Multimedia Sources Outline Web Exercise Discussion Questions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Introduction: This Week's Goals
The French Revolution marks a crucial phase in the creation of the modern world. The Revolution swept away the Ancien Regime, which despite its modernizing methods of government, based political power on rule of a monarch, and replaced it with a series of governments that tried to apply political principles derived from the Enlightenment. The Revolution also led to a 25 year period of war and conflict in Europe, a period that was both destructive and innovatory. In this section you should:
Louis XVI (b.1754-r.1774-1796) Marie Antoinette (1755-1796) Jean Paul Marat (1743-1795) Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) Napoleon (1769-1821, r. 1799-1814) Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) Edmund Burke (1729-1797) Sources
Cahier of the Third Estate of Dourdan, March 29, 1789 Abbé Sieyes: What is the Third Estate? Reading Guide - Early French Revolution The Tennis Court Oath, June 20, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man, 26 August, 1789 Decree Abolishing Feudalism, 1789 Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790 Proclamation of the Duke of Brunswick, 1792 The Marseillaise Maximilian Robespierre (1758-94): On the Festival of the Supreme Being, 1794 Maximilian Robespierre (1758-94): Terror and Virtue, 1794 Reading Guide Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791 Edmund Burke (1729-1797): Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1791 Napoleon Bonaparte: Account of the Situation of the Empire, 1804
I. Introduction
So far we have looked at people and ideas, at social history and intellectual history. Not at what a lot of you might have expected as history, but we are looking at how the modern world came about in all its complexity.
Now however, we are going to look at the series of events which make up the French Revolution. To begin with we are going to look at causes and origins, at how previous intellectual, social and political elements all contributed to it.
There is a lot of information here, so keep the following central points in mind:
Why the the French Revolution was important
It brought the People to the forefront of politics set the model for later revolutions, and changed the political map of Europe forever. Chronology - Sketch of Events
1788-89 French State undergoes a massive revolution in politics but also in society and the way people think. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 was the catalyst for the Revolution. 1789-1792 - Liberal Revolution 1792-1794 - Radicalization 795-1799 - Ineffective Reaction 1799-1815 - Napoleon II. The Causes of the French Revolution
Intellectual Social Political A. Intellectual Causes
The Enlightenment: scientific and philosophical thought had been generalized in the 18th Century. There was now a much larger intellectual class with the political ideas that the Enlightenment had spread around Europe.
What was later called Liberalism was popular.
Liberty - Human Rights/Natural Rights. The sovereignty of the people. Equality - meant equal rights for all under the Law. Liberals also wanted freedom from a state-controlled economy. Property was seen as sacred. These were middle class property owners by and large.
Assessment of Intellectual Causes
Intellectual causes are difficult to quantify in terms of their effects, but they are nonetheless important in effecting actions and ideologies of participants.
After Montesquieu, a republic as regarded as at least theoretically noble and possible.
Rousseau had an effect during the long but, as we shall see, most of the unrolling of the Revolution came in response to events; actual actions were often intensely pragmatic.
B. The American Revolution
The economic effects will be discussed later. Be aware here of the mythic effects of a free republic.
France had helped Americans vs. Britain and many Frenchmen, such as LaFayette, were to be important in both revolutions. Victory for the new USA was in 1783.
C. Social Causes
We have very good sources for the social problems before the Revolution: the Cahiers des doleances [Notebooks of Grievences] of 1788.
The Problem of the Estates System
First Estate: The Clergy 1% of pop, with 10% of land.They had wealth, land, privileges and they levied a tax on the peasantry, the tithe, which generally went to some remote bishop or monastery rather than the local parish priest.The First Estate was perhaps 100,000 strong. But note that there were many poor clergymen in this Estate, and they were going to support the Revolution. Second Estate: The Nobility2-5% of pop, with 20% of the land. They also had great wealth and taxed the peasantry: There was a "feudal" resurgence in 18th century. 400,000 people.The great division among the Nobility was between the Noblesse d'epee, dating from the Middle Ages, and the Noblesse de Robe: later nobles whose titles came from their possession of public offices. Third Estate: Everyone Else95-97% of the pop.There were some few rich members, the artisans and all the peasantry. These were also class divisions. In the modern world we only consider the Third Estate. Its Victory has been total. Subdivisions of the Third Estate
The Bourgeoisie8% of the pop, about 2.3 Million people, with 20% of Land. They often bought land and exploited the peasants on it. In Third Estate, the most important group politically was the Bourgeoisie. The Bourgeoisie had been growing throughout the century, to some extent encouraged by the monarchy. By 1788 it was very important and its members were well read, educated and rich (fivefold increase in trade 1713 -1789). But this important group had no say in running the country. The Peasantswith 40% of the land, formed the vast majority of population. There was population growth in this period: perhaps 3,000,000 people added over the century. Peasants paid the most tax: aristocrats did not pay. Peasants alone paid the taille. They alone had to give labor service to the State. They also had to pay the tithe, in kind, to the clergy. As well as these taxes, peasants had to give services to their Landlords: this is sometimes called `feudal' service. They also pay dues to their feudal (seigniorial) lord when they sold land that was in all other ways their own. Poverty was intense, but varied by region.Peasants farmed the land, and regard it as their own, but it was not legally theirs. What they wanted was to own their own property. This was radical only at to start with. Later it was to be a conservative desire.Note: Bourgeois leaders of the Revolution at first wanted to keep labor services etc. as they thought they were a form of property for the landlords. The Urban Poor of ParisArtisans - factory workers, journeymen. They very poor were probably less involved in politics. Artisans had different interests than the bourgeoisie. but they played important role at several points. They were the most politicized group of poor people, possibly due to high literacy.[Note: Literacy was comparatively high amongst all classes in northern France. This had the effect that everybody could imbibe the new ideas that came out in pamphlets.] Assessment of Class Division as a Cause
Despite the class divisions and tensions outlined here, the Revolution actually began as an aristocratic revolt against the monarchy, but two main groups of poor people did affected the revolution decisively.
D. Political Causes - The Run-Up to 1789
1. Successors to Louis XIV and The Weakening of Absolutism
Under Louis XIV flaws in theory of absolutism had been apparent: now they become obvious; the misuse of power, kings who couldn't rule.
2. Louis XV 1715-74
Succeeded at age 5. He was poorly educated and spent a life devoted to his mistresses.
The nobles began to regain some of the power they had lost to Louis XIV under the regency of the Duc D'Orleans, but in general the nobles proved incapable of governing.
In the Parlements nobles continued to struggle with the monarchy until the Revolution, a struggle that seriously weakened it.
Madame de Pompadour 1721-64 - for 20 years exercised her political intelligence for Louis XV.
Madame du Barry - just as ambitious, less clever
His famous lines was - "apres moi, le deluge"
3. Louis XIV 1774-1792
Louis XVI (b.1754-r.1774-1796) Marie Antoinette (1755-1796) Virtuous - but uninterested in government. [In his Diary July 14, 1789, he wrote: "Nothing", he meant he caught nothing hunting that day.]
4. Conflict with Parlements and Ruling Classes
Parlements were courts, not an assembly like the English Parliament. They had the power to register laws from King
There were 13 Parlements in all throughout France, but the Parlement of Paris was the most important.
They began to claim, with no really good reason, a right of veto. Traditionally a King could always override Parlements with a lit de justice.
The Duc D'Orleans had actually given the Parlements a veto during his regency. But Parlements had been abolished by Rene Maupeau (1714-1792) in the 1770s under Louis XV.
Louis XVI revived them 1774, in an attempt to be popular, when his new minister Maurepas thought they were a good thing since he had been a minister decades before when Parlements were less powerful.
This move was to prove fatal, given the financial problems Louis XVI faced later, when Parlements became centers of resistance to the King.
5. Louis XVI's Government
Louis XVI's government was not an old fashioned ancien regime. There were some reforms, that lead people who dislike the French Revolution to think that things may have turned out very differently.
One Example: In 1776 there was an edict commuting the corvee (labor service) under Minister Jacques Turgot (1721-81).
E. Problems with State Finances
This was what eventually presented the greatest problem to the French Monarchy.
Economic WeaknessThe Revocation of Edict of Nantes 1685 had struck a blow at French commerce. The Economy tottered for the next hundred years. Financially the origins of the Revolution go back to Louis XIV {but not because of the cost of Versailles]. Taxation ProblemsThe Richest were not taxed: i.e. the Nobles and Clergy. Taxes were indirect on poorest part of population. -the taille on peasant produce-the Gabelle - on salt-various trade tariffsThe basic problem was that in a rich country there was not enough income for the government to do its job.These taxes increased. It has been calculated that there was a 28% increase in some parts of country in Louis XVI's reign alone. But of course this affected the poor the worst. Dependence on loansThe banking system was not able to cope with the fiscal problems. It was the need for King to raise taxes that led to the calling of the Estates General. Cost of Mid Century WarsThe Seven Years War 1756-63 cost a lot. The American Revolution: France had more or less paid for the American War. The Cost of Versailles and the Royal household etc.Was NOT a big factor by the end of century - it used about 5% of revenue. Bankruptcy of the State.By 1780s the government was nearly bankrupt. Half of government income was going on paying debts (annual deficit 126 Million Livres.)(debt was almost 4 Billion Livres). But this was not greater than in UK or Holland. The problem was the government could not service the debt. Several ministers did try to put it back on a sound basis. France was not after all a poor country. Efforts to Fix Fiscal problems failed
Jacques Necker 1732-1802 was one such minister. The problem was that he had hidden the real problems, and made it difficult for later ministers to explain why higher taxes were needed. 1783: Charles Alexander de Calonne 1732-1802, Finance minister, raised loans to pay debts. By 1786 he did not think Parlements would register another loan. III. Events Leading to Calling of Estates General
This began as an aristocratic attempt to get more power from the king.
A. Calonnne's Plan
Louis XVI and Calonne had an economic reform plan to tax landed property. It was based on provincial assemblies and allowed no evasion by nobles.
[Note that monarchs were the modernizers until the French Revolution only afterwards did they become archaic, and supported by their hitherto enemies, the nobles and the clergy]
B. Opposition
This was opposed by the noblesse de Robe in the Parlements - they just did not want to be taxed.
C. Assembly of Notables 1787
An "Assembly of Notables" was called to outflank the parlements. It was not the same as Estates General. But the notables in criticized Calonne's plans and demanded a greater role for the aristocracy in government.
The Assembly of Notables also said the government had no right to demand new taxes, and that an Estates General (last called 1614) must be called again.
The King was forced to dismiss Calonne.
Plus, he had problems as the parlements had felt threatened by the calling of the Assembly of Notables, which was originally a way to get round the objections and blocks that the Parlements had been raising. They also demanded an Estates General.
The new minister Etienne Charles Lomenie de Brienne (1727-1794) Archbishop of Toulouse - spent a year trying to get the Parlements to accept change without an Estates General.
D. 1788 Coup d'etat of Parlements
The Parlement of Paris rejects Kings attempts to force change, so King abolishes Parlements.
The King said registration of laws now to be in a plenary court for the whole of France.
There was anarchy/revolts throughout France. This forced the calling of an Estates General.
So the E.G. was called as a response to nobles' rejection of a modernization plan.
IV. The Calling of the Estates General
The representative body of the Three Estates was the Estates-General.
Called in July 1788 (last met 1614), to meet in 1789. This was the crucial step: the end of absolutism Parlements were recalled and asked on how the Estates General should be conducted (Sept 25 1788), said it should be done in the same way as in 1614. This disgusted the Third estate, who would only have 1/3 of votes. Royal Council - Dec 1788 - said Third Estate would twice as many reps as the other two.
This was the catalyst for a lot of political excitement.
V. Political Developments in Fall 1788- Spring 1978
There was a rapid discussion of ideas, more radical than anything in the Enlightenment. The weeks after 25th Sept 1788 saw most radical change of all.
The most famous pamphlet was by the Abbé Sieyes 1748-1835- "What is the Third Estate?"
-Everything-What has it been until Now? - Nothing-What does it ask? - to become something
The ideas feed on themselves. This is part of the structure of revolutions: a long period of preparation, then developments at an intense speed leading to conclusions none of those at the beginning could have envisaged.
At just the moment it thought it was victorious, the nobles faced a real and new revolution which would sweep it away.
Cahiers des Doleances
A national survey of people' opinions was compiled between the calling of the Estates General and its assembly.
Objections to current system from Parish of St.Vaast, March 1789
Lettres de Cachet (i.e. wanted due process) Nation should agree to its own taxes E.G. every 4 years (i.e. objected to no consultation) Taxes equally on all classes, inc. Nobles and clergy Third estates to have justices in the Parlements NB NO call for a republic in any Cahier But some reports of peasants already believing that they were free of manorial dues.
The Estates General Meets May 5th 1789
Third Estate probably ready to strengthen hand of King vs. nobles and clergy
There is a background of rising bread prices from 1788-89 - people in Paris being radicalized by this at just the right moment (leads into next lecture…)
VI. Historians' Debates about the Causes
A. Traditionally Bourgeoisie seen as having vital role + promoting its economic interests.
B. Revisionists claim Bourgeois interests did not differ from those of the upper class. [explain revisionist/traditionalist approach in historiography]
C. There were liberals and conservatives among the nobles + But in 1789 still no republicans in France. but all were looking for a way to control power of monarchy.
Evaluation of Causes
Finances the immediate cause of calling of Estates General But not the whole story - social conditions - bad, but not so bad the people could not act + for first time in modern Europe an ideology which gave a place to the people. You must decided : Could the revolution have succeeded without the energies of the masses demanding bread? Could it have succeeded without the ambitions of the middle class ? Could it have been successful without the ideological underpinning of the philosophes? All these were more important than the immediate causes, but that should not be underplayed. VII. The Liberal Revolution
A. The Estates General May 1789 - July 1789
King still in Charge
Estates General met May 5 1789 at Versailles
Third Estate had twice as many Reps (agreed in Dec)Its reps were largely lawyers and Govt officials Still disputes over voting - e.g. should all estates meet together or separately. The Third Estate kept being slighted - it refused to sit alone. The other Estates invited to join with it on June 1st. B Events
The Third Estate Declares itself National Assembly June 17th Tennis Court Oath June 20th 1789 The king opposed it but majority of the clergy some nobles joined it. June 27th the King capitulated. National assembly takes name NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY National Constituent Assembly July 1789 - 1791
A Nominal Absolute Monarchy State Church with Priests paid by State CREATES A LIBERAL REVOLUTION C. The King's Fatal Decision
Louis tried to re-assert his authority - with an army near Versailles - 18,000 troops-Marie Antoinette advised him to attack it. -King acts stupidly - tries to undermine National Assembly but not effectively - creates anxiety amongst its supporters - The King abandoned the bourgeoisie, which monarchs had supported for a century and now supported the nobility Now to revolt against the nobility the Third Estate also had to revolt against the King. But Two Mass Uprisings of the Masses saved the Nat. Assembly D. Revolt of the Poor of Paris
Rising bread prices 1788-89 - riots already in the spring of 1789 Paris politicized by the elections to the E.G. - had continued to meet after elections. Paris mob storms the Bastille - JULY 14 1789Basically a prison, but not used very much by 1789 -raided to find weapons for revolutionary militias growing up in Paris troops fired into crowd, killing 98 - crowd storms fortress - kills troops Symbolic importance: First re-direction of the Revolution by pop of Paris-Also caused similar disturbances in other cities Militias take name NATIONAL GUARD - led by LafayetteTake Tricolor as flag (Blue and red for Paris, white for the bourbon king) E. Revolt of the Peasants - revolts from Spring 1789
In July - Massive revolts throughout France -The Great Fear - fear of royal troops -Destruction of lots of medieval documents Forced the National Assembly to abolish "feudal" dues-August 4th 1789-there was a sort of carnival of self-sacrifice amongst the nobility + the rich bourgeoisie-all feudal dues, rights and tithes After this the Peasantry had a very quite and almost conservative role - it had what it wanted - LAND. But it was the economic conditions that had made the Revolution take on such vast proportions. F. Ideological Actions of the National Constituent Assembly
August 4th Laws -All French now subject to the same laws. Abolished the "feudal regime" + Tithes + hunting rights + venal offices (explain)Peasants supposed to pay compensation - but this requirement was abolished under radical rev. in 1793. Declaration of the Rights of Man - August 27th 1789[Discuss in Class - Where did the Ideas in it come from]Printed in 1000s of leaflets and distributed around France.IMPORTANCE OF PROPAGANDA Ideals-equality before the law-due process (art 7)-natural rights - liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression (art 2)-sovereignty resides in the Nation (art 3)-law is an expression of the General Will (art.6)-freedom of religion (art 10) [Jews as well, for 1st time)-free speech (art 11)-separation of powers (art 16)-Enlightenment ideas + American declarations of rights (e.g. Virginia in 1776) G King and Government Move to Paris - October 6th
Forced by the Poor Women of Paris Made government function under threat of mob violence but France was now to peaceful for almost 3 years VIII. The National Constituent Assembly's Governing
It faced massive problems of control. It would not repudiate the state debt (since many of its members were men of property and were owed money). It also had to find a way to rule France now that the power of the monarch was in shreds.
A. Administration - the Reforming of France
Provinces replaced by 83 Departments Same sort of courts and laws applied throughout France. B. Economic Liberalism
Gets rid of tariffs - unlimited economic freedom Suppresses guilds and forbids workers associations - Chapelier Law (6/14/1791) -remained law in France for 3/4 of a century. C. The State Debt
The solution was to attack the Church - (ref. Voltaire and philosophes): the nationalization of Church lands Problem was many people loyal to Church and this action made the Revolution unpopular in many quarters. this was a serious blunder the émigrés begin to leave Also a split between anticlericals and pro-clericals has been at center of French life ever since. Printed bonds - assignats based on value of Church land - became used as money. D. The Church: Civil Constitution of the Clergy July 1790
Made bishoprics same as departments Priests and bishops to be elected + paid by state (anyone could vote - including atheists - Church seen as part of the state - i.e. no separation of Church and State) As well as all this, religious orders were abolished. The Assembly required an oath from the clergy - to oppose the pope - only half did so + 7 bishops The Pope condemned the Revolution,liberalism, & the Rights of Man - began attack on liberalism for next century. E. Constitution of 1791
This was what the National Constituent Assembly was for.
One Chamber House Only men paying tax could vote Only 50,000 would qualify to be electedi.e. less than the number of the nobility Members of National Assembly not eligible for election. The King's Actions Destabilize the Liberal Revolution
The King was becoming more and more impotent.
June 20 1791 - Louis XVI tried to flee, but was stopped at Varennes and brought back June 24 a virtual prisoner.
The attitude of the King made the constitutional monarchy of the 1791 Constitution impossible to work. There was no strong executive provided for apart from the King's ministers.
The Legislative Assembly
Constitutional Monarchy: War is promoted to solve domestic problems: Still a state Church Took over October 1 1987.
It was to prove ineffective. This eventually led to a radicalization of the Revolution.
IX. Reaction to Revolution Abroad
A. Intellectuals
Most Intellectuals and philosophes praised it: Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, Beethoven B. Conservatives opposed it
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) and 2 Edmund Burke - Reflections on the French Revolution 1790 (i.e. before the Terror). This is interesting as the foundation of modern conservatism is also a result of French Rev. Burke is not a supporter of tyranny or despotism, rather he says in opposition to liberals -people are not good - they are what they are and you cannot make things better over night Populism should not be trusted Good government is going to come about through long experience and should not be overthrown Government is complicated and simple schemes can never be satisfactory- There also a longing for how things were that goes with all conservatism C. Thomas Paine: The Rights of Man 1791 - response to Burke
D. Mary Wollstonecraft Vindication of the Rights of Woman 1792 and Olympe de Gouge The Rights of Women 1791 in France]
French Rev did not really address rights of women. e.g. voting was only for men.
E. The Revolution also upset other monarchs
although they were not unhappy to see France weakened. But they did not want revolution to spread -
This was the end of Enlightened Despotism. There were attempts all over Europe to stop reform movements
1793 & 1795 - Poland was dismembered
X. The Wars Begin
A. 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz August 27
- threatens invasion by Austria and Prussia - not really a threat as GB would not join in B. War Period - Begins April 1792
This was beginning of a long period of war which forms a background to everything for the next 30 or so years. In retaliation to Dec. of Pillnitz the French Deputies (in Assembly) declare war on Austria - 20th Apr 1792 There was pressure from democratic exiles from other countries
Radicals thought a successful War would bring them support. Louis XVI supported the war - he hoped a loss would restore his position - as did many monarchist members of the Leg Assembly. [Robespierre opposed the war as he saw danger of defeat] C. The French armies were soon retreating - this caused radicalization at Home.
XI. The Radical Revolution
Music: Ca Ira Music: The Marseillaise A. Political Infighting in the Legislative Assembly
Idea of left and Right - origins in the meetings of the Legislative Assembly.
Different Factions
-Monarchists - inc. Lafayette -The Jacobins - a sort of elitist political club-wanted a republic - met in a Dominican priory (Jacobin a name for OPs) One group of Jacobins - known as Girondists assumed leadership - (at first led by Jacque-Pierre Brissot 1754-93. sometimes known as Brissotins) April 20 1792 -declared war on Austria thinking that it would bring most radical revolutionaries to power. -- BEGINNING OF THE RADICALIZATION OF REVOLUTION
B. The Second Revolution
Jean Paul Marat (1743-1795) and dead Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) and 2 The Revolution became much more radical in 1792. Losses in the war radicalized the pop of Paris and the rest of France.
A number of things contributed to this - apart from the unpopularity of defeat.
C. The War, the Monarchy and the Press
The Prussian Army pushed into France as far as Verdun -in July the Duke of Brunswick issued a threat to Paris if the King was hurt. The Girondists themselves blamed the monarchy and Marie Antoinette for secret intrigues and this put the monarchical constitution under strain. There was absolute freedom of the press - and this waged a campaign of denunciation vs. the government Marat and his Ami du Peuple was prominent as a radical here. D. Process of Radicalization
This popular agitation was transformed into something powerful by two factors.
-The arrival of volunteer National Guardsmen from all over France in July (8th) [volunteers from Marseilles come singing the Marseillaise] -The political organization of Paris into a Commune and 48 Sections - all centers of insurrection. E. Events
August 10th 1792 Attack on Tuileries PalacePeople of Paris + Vol attack the Tuileries Palace King had to take refuge with the Legislative Assembly.He deserted his Swiss Guard - 800+ killed. September 1792 September Massacres1200 prisoners are murdered in Paris jails as counter-revolutionaries. F. The Sans-Culottes [The "KMart Crowd"?]
Paris artisans, shopkeepers, wage earners and factory workers. Name comes from the fact they wore long trousers not the knee breeches (culottes) favored by the middle and professional classes. They wanted immediate relief from hunger, resented all social inequality, and were suspicious of representative government. They also opposed the unregulated economy so beloved of all the m/c revolutionaries, including the Jacobins. They compelled the Legislative Assembly to agree to call a new assembly to write new democratic constitution - this body was to be called the Convention. XII. The Rule of the Convention - 1792-95
A. Creation
This was elected by universal male suffrage - but only 7 1/2% of electorate voted. (not best atmosphere for a free election)
It first met September 21 1792 and declares France a Republic as its first act
The Girondists were still major voice but gradually lost control over next few months to another group of Jacobins known as The Mountain (because they sat high in Convention Hall) - They were prepared to work with the Sans-Cullottes. Maximilien Robespierre one of leaders.
Political groups here were
the Girondists [or Brissotins] (name from region deputies supposed to have come from) the Mountain, (name from their seats high in the Assembly Hall) the Marais - the plain.(name from their seats low in the Assembly Hall) There were now 9 months of political struggle in the Convention.
B. Fighting the War
The War with Austria and Prussia which had radicalized the revolution was still going on.
The revolution was saved by the slowness and weakness of Prussian and Austrian preparation - they could certainly have won at first. They were too busy in the East digesting Poland.
Aug 1792 - LaFayette defects to Austrians - sees no point in fighting monarchist cause in France. 20th September 1792 - Battle of ValmyGeneral Dumouriez - beats the Prussians - effectively gives the Revolution breathing space. [Make it clear I am going ahead of domestic developments here. ] Valmy was the effective start of the French Revolutionary Wars - the attempt by France to spread the Rev across Europe. When successful it provided loot for the government. Autumn 1792 - Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) is attacked By November Brussels is in French hands November 1792 - Savoy is annexed November 1792 - the Convention offers to help all revolutionary groups in Europe. Dec 15 1792 - The Convention abolishes feudalism in occupied territory - beginning of restructuring of Europe. January 1793 - Danton proclaims the doctrine of Natural Frontiers - ie the Rhine, a la Louis XIV. Feb 1 1793 - growing Anglophobia reflected in declaration of war vs. England and Netherlands. By March Spain was also dec. an enemy. March 1793 - By now France was at War with all of Europe April 1793 - Dumouriez defects to Austria - aware he could not restore monarchy in France. C:. Domestic Politics In the Convention
Now return to what was going on in France and the move to the control by the radical Committee of Public Safety
The Convention at first had no strong leadership. Condemnation and Execution of the KingThis was necessary consequence of August 10th, and the King's treachery over the war - The Mountain had found Louis XVI's correspondence to Austria.The condemnation of King also put Girondists in a bind - if they supported it they lost moderate support, if they opposed it they lost patriot support. Robespierre saw this.The King was tried as Citizen Capet - [should have been Bourbon.] Vote to Condemn -28 absent, 321 other Penalties, 13 Death with a respite, 361Death now a maj. of 1. No one thought Louis was innocent.King executed 21 Jan 1793 Counter Counter-Revolutionary ActivityBy March 1793 there were counter-revolts going on esp. in conservative Catholic areas, especially in the Vendee. [see Map Handout]There was a great concern in the Convention, still under Girondist control, about counter revolution. -it strengthened laws against émigrés.-Revolutionary Tribunals were set up-A decree was passed condemning to death all rebels taken in the act.-March 21 1793 - Watch Committees set up in every area
The point here is that the moderates had in fact set up the structure of the Terror by Spring 1793. D. The Committee of Public Safety 6th April 1793
Set up to supervise, for Convention, the executive. It was given its own funds:
-100,000 livres to pay agents
-100,000 livre for secret purposes
At first middle men were elected - Jacque Danton (1759-1794)
E. Committee of General Security
was also set up to fight the War abroad.
F. The Mountain Takes Over
The population of Paris was still not happy - there was inflation due to war + paper money. This was made use of by the Mountain - whose main difference with the Girondists was that they would work with the mob. May/June 2 1793 New insurrection - the mob demanded the expulsion of the Girondist members. The Mountain seizes control in the Convention. They passed a new Democratic Constitution - June 22 - in cold storage until the war was over. They appointed a new Committee of Public Safety- June 1793 This body was to rule France for the next year. XIII. The Rule of the Committee for Public Safety July 1793-July 1794
A ruthless and effective government - Convention and ministers official government, but CPS had all power.
The Committee of Public Safety
- from the Mountain
Herault de Sechelles - a noble Jeanbon Saint-Andre - Protestant pastor Saint Just - wanted a Spartan state Couthon - a follower of Robespierre Prieur, of the Marne - from the Marais
Barere de Viezac Robert Lindet added in July
Maximilien Robespierre (1753-1794)-he was not a dictator - a lawyer from Arras - "he believed everything he said" - for him principles were everything, Men nothing. Influenced by Rousseau and his ideas on virtue. added in August
Lazare Carnot (1753-1823) - in charge of military Prieur, of the Cote d'Or added in September
Billaud-Varrenne Collot d'Herbois - the only mob orator -both were known as men of blood
A. Problems Facing the Committee for Public Safety
The Counter revolt and the war with Europe
i.e. same as before June takeover It dealt with the war - by military effectiveness and the internal revolt with the terror But there was more - this was a dedicated group - it aimed to restructure society in the most revolutionary manner. The War and the Terror must be seen in this light as a national mission against evil inside and outside France. B Total War
The CPS dealt with military threat by first use in modern times of total war - the whole country was put on a war footing (cf. small ancien regime armies)
Carnot led the effort
23 August 1793 the levee en masse - conscripted males into the army There was a planned economy to supply the war + to aid the poor and keep their support. September 17 Maximum price rules established. Assignats stopped falling in value in year of CPS control. By Spring 1794 an Army of 800,000 - the largest ever assembled, until then, by European power. A citizen army, fighting for ideals, as opposed to its opposing armies, which were often made up of serfs. C. The Reign of Terror or the Republic of Virtue
Revolts around France - esp. Vendee, Brittany and Normandy
July 13 1793 Marat, a radical killed by Charlotte Corday - made revolutionaries feel threatened. Height of Terror from Fall 1793 to July 1794 Marie-Antoinette + Royal Family, then aristocrats, then Girondists, then 1794 moves to provinces and includes peasants and sans-cullottes, then in Spring 1794 even includes republicans like Danton The CPS also opposing even more extreme groups from among sans-cullotes - known as Hebertists June 10 - Law of 22 Prairalconviction without evidence was now allowed Large increase in numbers killed in last month of Terror. Terror fiercest in those areas of rebellion + Pariscirca. 25,000-40,000 killed/300,000 arrested It was intentional, not unplanned D. The New Culture
Fashions- followed Roman and/or sans-cullotish style. New CalendarConvention began dating form Year One when it abolished the Monarchy. A system of new months adopted on November 10th 1793Messidor, Thermidor, Fructidor, Vendemiaire, Brumaire, Frimaire, Nivose, Pluviose, Ventose, Germinal, Floreal, Prairal-beginning from Sept 22, 1792, Day after monarchy abolished. -every 10th day as rest day (not good for workers)-Aim was to blot out the cycle of Sundays and Saint's daysIt was part of dechristianisation effort. New ReligionRevolution had been anti-clerical from the start -ref. Enlightenment- Civil Const. of Clergy.-In November 1793 - The Convention outlawed the worship of God (where is tolerance ?)-Notre Dame made a Temple to Reason - ceremonies were conducted by the Commune of Paris.-November 10 Cult of Reason begun - alienated Christians Made direct efforts to close Churches throughout France.-[Dechristianisation opposed by Robespierre - toleration of Catholics was ordered by CPS under his orders.]-Robespierre thought this not sufficient as effective religion. -May 7 1794 Cult of the Supreme Being proclaimed -Deism + cultic festivals celebrating republican virtues - humanity, liberty etc. -June 8 Rob. leads a massive public Festival of Supreme Being. Emphasizes the attempt to restructure the whole civilization. XIV Reaction and the Rise of Napoleon
A. The Thermidorean Reaction (1795-1799)
A. The Reign of TerrorWas not popular in the long run -It was genuinely terrifying - it got out of hand and malicious accusations were made. -episode of the rafts at Nantes and 2000 killed B. -also politicians feared for their own heads when Robespierre made a threatening speech on July 26th. -also should note that Robespierre's fascination with the new religion did not endear him to many in the Convention. C. Robespierre - Condemned to the Guillotine in the Convention - 9th of Thermidor (July 27th 1794) -executed July 28th 1794 B. The New Government - The Directory
A. The DirectoryThe Directory was a 5 man executive body - aim was to avoid dictatorship and excessive democracy. This was a four-year period of lack of strong government and a series of coup d'etats. The leaders were not strongly ideological, but did not want to turn the clock back. B. The new people in control were again rich bourgeois liberals - chief aim was to perpetuate their own rule. -Girondist deputies allowed to take seats-Paris Commune outlawed-Law of 22 Prairal revoked-People involved in the Terror were now attacked-the White Terror-economic liberalism revived + inflation C. A frivolous culture came into being - fashions etc. Salons re-opened (recall - story of relatives of terror victims going to parties wearing red scarves around their neck) D. There was also a revival of Catholicism-although cult of reason and the new calendar were kept. E. 1795 August 22 - Constitution of the Year III-The first formally constituted Republic.-But this was a totally different world from only six years before (1789)-property and wealth, not birth were now important.-France now had great national consciousness - no more could "L"etat, c'est moi" ever be said.-Peasants now were a major landowning group in society. -The Sans-cullottes were removed from political life.Riots by the poor were now put down - October 1795 - a Paris mob was put down. (note - one of the organizers was black.)-Napoleon commanded the cannon.The Poor had been victims of the Terror so some loss of fervor for revolution. F. Political pressures on the Directory-There was continuing pressure from the left, from the old Jacobins + there were food riots.-There were strong movements to have the Monarchy restoredThe Monarchists actually won a majority in the election of 1797 - The Directory staged a coup against them, supported by Napoleon - Coup of 18 Fructidor/Sept 4, 1797-The problem for Monarchists was when Louis (XVII), the young son of Louis XVI died. The new legitimate heir to the Throne, was an unrepentant conservative who wanted to restore the 1789 constitution - not acceptable to the Peasants (who had gained land), or even the moderate Middle Class.-It was also not acceptable to Napoleon who had his own ambitions. -To keep control Directory increasingly depended on the Army - opens way to Napoleon. C. Expansion and Empire
The Military expansion begun under the convention continued, with help of CPS's war economy - great new generals had been brought to the fore in eight of Napoleons marshals.-March 1795 - Peace concluded with Prussia and Spain but war continued with GB and Austria. So Directory dependent on the military for stability Napoleon waits. XV. Summing Up the French Revolution
Before going on to look at Napoleon lets sum up the French Revolution
A. Three Periods
Liberal Revolution 1789-1792-Estates General - Nat. Assem. - Nat. Const. Assem - -Legislative Assembly Radical Revolution 1792-1794- The Convention - + Comm. Pub. Safety Thermidorean Reaction 1794-1799-The Directory B. Achievements of French Revolution
Liberal Rev. - end of Feudalism- Made the people important in politics- The old order was never re-established Radical Rev. - National army, Idea of a Nation at war-Metric system (Convention) + Abolishes Slavery in Colonies (Nap. rescinds) In General - In idea of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,Fraternity was new - leads to nationalism C. Problems of French Revolution
-It did not produce a stable government -The Reign of Terror -Rad. Rev - led to ideas of totalitarian democracy XVI. Napoleon and Romanticism
Napoleon (1769-1821, r. 1799-1814) and 2, 3, 4, 5 Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) Music
Ludwig van Beethoven: Third Symphony (Eroica) Biog: Born at Bonn, from 1792 worked at Vienna 1770-1827 Significance: Full development of the classical style in music.
A. Napoleon enters the scene
One of most successful Generals was Napoleon - he was in 1799 center of a plot to overturn the weak Directory. He was named First Consul in 1799 B. Military Successes under the Directory
Under the Directory we see that the military expansion begun under the convention continued - with help of CPS's war economy - great new generals had been brought to the fore - inc. 8 of Napoleons future marshals - as old officer class went into exile. -March 1795 - Peace concluded with Prussia and Spain but war continued with GB and Austria. So Directory was dependent on the military for stability at home and success abroad. One of most successful Generals was Napoleon.-First Triumph in defending Toulon in 1793He appealed to many, disgusted with the Directory, who looked for authority from above. One of these people was Abbé Sieyes (wrote What is the Third Estate in 1789), who concocted a plan for a coup. Sieyes had idea of "Confidence from below, power from above." D. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
Napoleon's Life and Rise to Power
A. Origins - A Noble Corsican Family-Trained in armies of Ancien Regime -commissioned 1785-He was in favor of the Revolution. B. Character - He saw himself as a man of Destiny-A rationalist and an opportunist: a real man of his time.-A Romantic Streak - he compared himself to Alexander the Great and Caesar.-Was devoted to his family - he made them important all over Europe. E. Coup of 18 Brumaire - Napoleon Named First Consul 1799
The Coup did not go well.Napoleon Addressed the Assembly - he was shouted down and got apoplectic with anger He was saved by his brother Lucien calling in the army, who shooed away the deputies. Napoleon's account of this later was distorted - he failed not mention that Lucien saved him.Napoleon become one of three consuls. (Refer to use by all parties of classical names and ideas)-presents himself as saving the Republic New Constitution of the Year VIII-it appealed to republican theory (Checks and Balances)-it included a Council of State (ref. Louis XIV)-it actually made Napoleon ruler-approved by plebiscite (3,011,077 to 1,567)This may be regarded as then end of the French Revolution - Declaration to that effect in 1799-but in reality the rev. was over at Thermidor. F. Napoleon's Rule in France (1799-1814): The Consulate (1799-1804)
Napoleon maintained order in the state by his policies. [The point of this whole section] B. Liberal Policies - He worked out important compromises between competing groups-a. He employed people from all political groups. (e.g. Talleyrand) -b. The gains of the peasants were confirmed -c. He granted an amnesty to nobles-d. Decreed improved education.-e. He signed the Concordat of 1801 with Pope Pius VII - gave Catholics freedom of worship. It said Catholicism is Religion of most Frenchmen. State named bishops and paid priests. The Church gave up its claims on property. Clergy swore loyalty to the state. C. Conservative Order-a. Central government control of the Provinces. -b. He stopped the free press and free speech 1800-c. Ruthless in crushing opposition secret police developed. Murdered the Bourbon Duke of Enghien 1804-d. He stopped free elections - especially when he declared himself emperor D. CIVIL CODE 1804 = Napoleonic Code-Granted the Middle class equality-Safeguarded property rights-Abolished all Privileges of birth-Made state officials be chosen by merit-Gave men control over their wives-Labor unions forbiddenSet the tone of all later French life-legally egalitarian, socially bourgeois, and administratively bureaucratic. G. Napoleon's Rule in France (1799-1814): The Empire (1804-1814)
Napoleon used fears of a Bourbon comeback to get him self crowned Emperor. Yet another new constitution: also approved by plebiscite. Pope came to do it but Napoleon crowned himself-Story of Charlemagne in 800AD being crowned by pope and then having to support him.Restoration of a Quasi-nobility: Legion of Honor. 1809 Napoleon married Archduchess Marie Louise - as a more fitting wife for an emperor than Josephine, (supposedly she was sexually to much for him). H. Assessment Napoleon's Rule in France
-The Code was very worthwhile - applies French Roman Law throughout Europe. -He is often seen as a sort of Enlightened despot, rather than a successor of the Revolution.-He was accepted and supported as he kept order for the propertied class - perhaps tired of revolution. I. Military Conquests and Nemesis
Basic point is this - that the conditions that made his army fight well, when absent led to its defeat
A. Italy 1797 - N. defeats Austrian and Sardinian Armies. It was success here that made him popular at home. Despite the government by Directory - already at this stage he was making his own treaties, e.g. with the Pope and with Austria. B. Egypt - expansion to India envisaged - England seen as main foe. French here laid basis of Egyptology with a mapping of Egypt. But the expedition was not successful - Napoleon left for France in 1799 for the coup - and the army was not successful - the British controlled the sea. C. Military MethodsNapoleon was a military genius - but as he said after 60 battles he didn't know anything that he had not known before. His great skill was in the execution of warfare.He Built on-Improvements in military theory made during the Ancien regime in response to France's defeats in the Seven Years War - an emphasis on flexible formations in battle rather than fixed ones.-forces were divided into moderate sized units -each unit lived off the land/traveled light-speed and maneuver were used to bring hostile armies into battle - it was vital to time the uniting of the various bits of his army just right. -The great citizen army that was motivated to fight well, put together under the Comm. of Pub. Safety, and kept going by the Directory.-700,000 strong army D. Conquest of Europe1801 - Austria defeated1802 - Peace with GB1803 - William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806) decides Napoleon must be stopped -puts together Third Coalition E. War against Third Coalition (Aus. Russ. Swed. GB)-Lost Naval dominance to Britain at Trafalgar 1805 (Lord Horatio Nelson killed)(21 Oct) -Britain now had the dominance of the seas it was to keep for the next century. F. Napoleon Dominant in Europe1805 Austerlitz (Dec 2)(just after Trafalgar) -Napoleon gains Italy1806 Jena defeats Prussia (supposedly best army in Europe).1807 Treaty of Tilsit - Signed by Napoleon, by Alexander I of Russia (secretly) - whobecomes part of continental system. -French Territorial gains confirmed - and Russia reduced in size. G. The Grand Empire and the Continental SystemFrench controlled all of Continental Europe (achievement shows unrealized possibilities of France under the later Ancien Regime). -a. -1806 The Holy Roman Empire dissolved. Germany re-organized July 1806 as The Confederation of the Rhine.-b. A French Empire set up including land up to the Rhine and beyond.-c. New Kingdoms set up - Spain, Italy, Holland, Sweden - All with Napoleons family or followers on the throne. One relative became a Cardinal.-d. All the other state were, for the time being allies.-e The Napoleonic Code was imposed everywhere. -end of Feudalism + Local town oligarchies H. Continental System - Attempt to destroy GBs Trade dominance - Instituted in 1806 in the Berlin Decrees.Napoleon claimed he was liberating Europe from the English (a Nation of Shop keepers)-But GBs trade with America and The East meant it could survive. The system actually hurt European countries.[USA tries to take advantage in 1812 and take Canada - fails] I. Problems Begin-Spanish Revolt 1808 - over deposition of its Bourbon dynasty (still ruling in 1988) and opposition to the Church - the Peninsular War was to sap Napoleon's strength.-British Blockade-March on Moscow1810 Russians withdrew from the Continental system. and resume contact with GB.1812 Napoleon Attempts to march on Moscow, as his major continental opponent. Defeated by the Cold and snow and lack of supplies - part of his method had been for the army to live off the land - here there was nothing to live off- Russians used scorched earth policy. He was also defeated by the resistance put up by the entire Russian people - from the Tsar to the serfs. -also Tsar did not allow for any one decisive battle which was Napoleon's forte (Borodino 1812 not decisive) J. The Retreat from Moscow - 1812/1813Napoleon was unable to get together another army for six months. About 100,000 out of 600,000 survived. -still able to raise 350,000 in six months. K. The Opposition Becomes Effective - 1813-The Fourth Coalition, (Russia, Prussia, Austria, GB)-Prussia after defeat at Jena reorganized and modernized - some land reform. end of serfdom, calls to patriotism. 42,000 men trained each year - by 1813 it was strong again - army of 270,000.-The war is seen as a German War of Liberation. France defeated at the Battle of the Nations 1813 - at Leipzig in Germany-Allies take Paris in March 1814-Napoleon Abdicated 1814 - Exiled to Elba L. Congress of Vienna 1814 - to redraw Europe - will return to it - as Napoleon disrupted it by escaping from Elba. M. Elba, Waterloo Napoleon escaped from Elba 1815-Period known as the Hundred DaysBattle of Waterloo 1815-Defeated by the Prussians and English-Duke of Wellington leads English/Field Marshal von Blucher the Prussians-Hardened the Peace Settlement for France N. St. HelenaNapoleon sent to exile in St. Helena-note how he was treated by British. -died 1821 J. Napoleons effect on his Contemporaries and on History
A. Personal ImpactA hero to half of Europe a traitor to the rest. (Old Boney)Reaction of Beethoven - changes name of his 3rd Symphony to the EroicaBonapartism [Class discussion]-in Paris his campaigns are celebrated e.g. Gare d'Austerlitz, Avenue Wagram + His body is at Les InvalidesMany people yearned for a leader - Why ? B. Spread of French Revolutionary Ideals-French Soldiers were committed - liberal and French Rev. ideals were adopted by many.-Napoleon got rid of Feudalism in the countries he conquered.(But did not give the land to the peasants)-Abolished Established Churches + Monasteries.-The Code carried many of these ideas on after Nap. C. NationalismBut there was also a reaction to French Dominance as it became clear Napoleon's policies benefited France. There were also objections to his family becoming Kings and Queens all over Europe.-growth of Nationalism in other countries but based on French ideals (mention again idea of Fraternity in French Rev).-This was especially the case in Germany, where weakness was blamed on political division. D. A Changed Political Map of Europe-Holy Roman Empire Goes - Austria now its own thing 300 German States reduced to 39. [More Catholic states than Protestant ones disappeared - no Habsburg would again be elected emperor]-France becomes less important for 30 years-Britain's mastery of the seas now total - there is for first time no other maritime power for her to compete with (no Spain, Netherlands, or France) K. Summing-Up Napoleon
A Great Man? Whole Question of Great man in History ?[Great men or social forces? Does the hero actually change history?] Was Napoleon Admirable? Did he bring war and kill millions of people to satisfy his ego?Betrayer or confirmer of the French Rev.? Did he spread revolutionary ideals?Liberator of Europe or Tyrant?

AP Gov't Agenda for R, 16 February 2006, Presenter/Response

R, 16 February 2006

Part One
The Setting of the American System
Chapter 1 Constitutional Government
Constitutional Democracy: The Rule of Law
John Locke
Second Treatise, Of Civil Government
Political societies are formed because of the inadequacies of human existence in a state of nature. Natural law and natural rights shape the purposes and processes of government.

Framing the Constitution: Elitist or Democratic Process
John Roche
The Founding Fathers: A Reform Caucus in Action

AP Gov't

AP Gov’t

HW Review, p. 75
Informal Changes
Ch. 4 The Supreme Court and the Constitution
Sec. 2 First Amendment Freedoms

p. 80 #1-3

World History, Ch. 19, Sec. 5 The End of an Era

Ch. 19, Section 5, The End of an Era

Ch. 19, Section 5, The End of an Era

1. Lesson Plan Focus
“Amazing Transformation”

The Continental System and the spread of nationalism led to rebellions against French rule. After defeats in Russia and at Leipzig and Waterloo, Napoleon lost power. European leaders at the Congress of Vienna sought to restore stability and order based on the status quo of 1792. They redrew national boundaries, restored monarchs, established a balance of power, and created the Concert of Europe.

2. In-class Instruct
There are five generalizations in this section:

1) Other nations in Europe benefited from the reforms of the French Revolution.
2) Nationalism was a major reason for Napoleon’s downfall.
3) Geography played an important role in Napoleon’s defeat in Russia.
4) The French people supported Napoleon.
5) The Congress of Vienna in 1815 achieved its goals.

As you read this section, find evidence that supports or disputes each generalization. Then write a paragraph in response to each. Your paragraphs should agree or disagree with each statement and provide pertinent facts to support your opinion.

3. Close
Ask students to bring in news stories about nationalism and its influence on world events today. These can be displayed around the classroom.

Guerilla warfare
p. 499
p. 501
p. 503

Map, p. 499
Review locations
Possible answer: Moscow was such a great distance from France that Napoleon would have trouble keeping his troops supplied.
Possible answer: Napoleon needed a navy to battle Britain and to defend French commerce.

p. 500
Answer to Caption. . .
Art and Literature
Possible answer: The darkness adds to the horror and sadness of the scene. The lantern creates a glow around the victims of the firing squad, emphasizing their nobility and suffering.

Interdisciplinary Connections
Artistic Protest
The Third of May, 1808 is one of the first paintings of social protest. Previously, artists portrayed war as a grand and glorious endeavor. Goya, however, emphasized the horror and inhumanity of war. His painting portrays Napoleon’s soldiers as a faceless and monstrous force shrouded in darkness. Light is used to focus attention on the victims of the war. The cruelty and horror of the mass execution are seen in the twisted and bloodied bodies of the dead. The terrible anticipation of imminent death is seen in outstretched arms and writhing, cowering bodies. In Goya’s painting, one sees the merciless nature of war.

p. 501
Answer to Caption. . .
Global Interaction
Possible Answer: The cartoonist was British. Since Britain was at war with France, he had little sympathy for the French army.

Napoleon on Napoleon
While on St. Helena, Napoleon reviewed his career in conversations with the Marquis Las Cases, who recorded them in Memorial. Napoleon believed that he had conquered Europe in self-defense. His conquests benefited those under his rule by bringing them his code of laws and other revolutionary reforms. If not for the jealousy of Britain and the hatred of the monarchs that he had overthrown, Europe under his guidance would have become a federation of free peoples, allied with enlightened France in eternal peace. Napoleon characterized Britain as a mischief-maker and pirate whose petty ambitions had destroyed a noble future for France and Europe.
Napoleon’s views can be contrasted with the view of the London Times, quoted in the following note.

Wretch and Villain
As Napoleon was departing for exile on St. Helena, the London Times reviewed his career in these words:
“This wretch has lived in the commission of every crime so long, that he has lost all sight of and knowledge of the difference that exists between good and evil, and hardly knows when he is doing wrong, except to be taught by proper chastisement. A creature who ought to be greeted by a gallows as soon as he lands. . . . It has been the constant trick of this villain, whenever he had got his companions into a scrape, to leave them in it, and seek his own safety by flight. In Egypt, in the Moscow expedition, and at Waterloo, such was his conduct.”

Which view, Napoleon’s or the Times, is closer to the truth based on your reading of the textbook?

p. 502
Answers to. . .
Geography and History
Review locations
the Netherlands
the Netherlands, Piedmont, Parma-Modena, Lombardy-Venetia, Kingdom of Norway and Sweden, Denmark, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

ActivityLearning Styles
Analyzing a Quotation
One of the most successful diplomats at the Congress of Vienna was Prince Maurice Talleyrand. His skillful maneuvering saved defeated France from harsh retribution and won it recognition as an equal among the powers of Europe. He was at Vienna, he said, ”not to collect trophies, but to bring the world back to peaceful habits.” Concerning the balance of power and the proper treatment of France, he said, “No arrangement could be wise that carried ruin to one of the countries between which it was concluded.”
After hearing these two quotations students should answer: 1) Why do you think Talleyrand was against the collecting of ”trophies?” 2) How was a balance of power in the best interests of France? 3) How might Talleyrand have felt and spoken differently if France had been one of the victorious countries?

HW, p. 503, #1, 3-4, Extra Credit #5-6.

Waterloo, p. 501
Von Metternich, p. 503
Concert of Europe, p. 503

3. Napoleon’s armies spread nationalism to the lands that they defeated. People saw Napoleon’s armies as foreign oppressors and resented efforts to impose French culture on all of Europe. Revolts erupted in many areas.

a) They wanted to restore stability, order, and peace by establishing a balance of power and returning to the status quo of 1793.
b) They restored monarchs to power, ringed France with strong countries, and created the Concert of Europe as a peacekeeping organization.

Answers may vary, but students should recognize that Napoleon and his armies spread the ideas of the French Revolution to the lands that they conquered.

6. Student letters and diaries should reflect an ability to recognize and express a historical viewpoint.