Ch. 14, Geography Spotlight
To trace the environmental effects of industrialization in Cleveland, Ohio.
To generalize the effects of industrialization on the environment.
Focus & Motivate
Starting with the Student
Consider environmental problems affecting your city or region, Olney, Cheltenham, Feltonville, etc.
What are the causes of the problems?
What is being done, or should be done, to correct them?
More About. . .
Founded in 1796 by Moses Cleaveland, for whom the city is named, Cleveland, Ohio, began to grow appreciably after the Erie Canal opened in New York State in 1825. The canal completed an all-water route from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Erie. More canals—and then railroads—made Cleveland a shipping hub in the Great Lakes area and prompted John D. Rockefeller to found the Standard Oil Company there. For a time Cleveland’s Euclid Avenue was one of America’s most luxurious addressees, lined with the mansions of wealthy industrialists.
Starting With the Student
What are the positive and negative effects eliminating environmental hazards might have on the local economy.
Positive—Revitalizing industries such as fishing and boating, making it safer to ship goods, making the area more attractive for businesses to settle or remain ether; Negative—Forcing industries to update their equipment and finance cleanup costs, possibly leading to layoffs, relocation, or even bankruptcy.
Discussing Key Ideas
Expanding industry rapidly turns rural Cleveland into a booming city in the second half of the 19th century.
Industrial expansion helps improve the lives of urban workers but also creates pollution that endangers their health and safety.
History From Visuals
Reading the Images
Why might John D. Rockefeller have chosen the location he did for his Standard Oil Company?
Possible Responses: The accessibility of both railroad lines and water transportation in the form of the Cuyahoga River and canals.
There is an irony of a river on fire and the incredible quantities of oil that must have accumulated to cause the Cuyahoga to go up in flames three times.
Interact with History
Possible Answer: Industrial development led to a transformation of a rural landscape to a mostly urban one. As a result, some aspects of people’s lives such as transportation and housing, improve, but the overall pace of life increased, with possible effects on their health. In addition, industrialization created noicse and polluted both air and water.
Researching an Urban Environment
Standards for Evaluation
Reports should. . .
Include up-to-date information from recent books and periodicals, reliable Internet sources, government agencies, or environmental organizations.
Present information in a logical order.
Include visual materials, such as charts, graphs, or photographs.
Ch. 14 Primary Texts:
Horatio AlgerThe Two Acre Lot, 1856
Samuel GompersOn the Goals of Trade Unions, 1883
Jennie CurtissHow Women Are Treated by the Pullman Company, 1894
New York Timesfrom 141 Die in Factory Fire, 1911