Ch. 20, Section 4, New Ways of Thinking
What economic ideas helped shape the industrial age?
What reforms did individual thinkers urge?
How was socialism linked to the Industrial Revolution?
Vocabulary, p. 530
Read intro, p. 520
1. Lesson Plan Focus
The Industrial age gave rise to economic philosophies such as Utilitarianism, Socialism, and Communism. Individual thinkers offered a variety of opinions on what government should do to improve social and economic conditions. Socialists condemned the evils of industrial capitalism and urged radical changes in the way the economy operated.
Choose one of the following and write a position paper in which you explain that thinker’s point of view:
John Stuart Mill
Students should use the text and library resources to set forth the philosophy of the person assigned. Be prepared to read your papers to the class and to answer any question that you or the other students might have.
Illustrate the viewpoint of the chosen philosopher in a cartoon or a poster.
Caption, p. 521
Answer to Caption. . .
Political and Social Systems
Malthus believed in the unrestricted “laws of the free market.” He urged families to have fewer children. He also felt that war, disease, and famine would check population growth.
Caption, p. 523
Answer to Caption. . .
Possible Answer: In London’s urban slums, Marx may have witnessed the poverty and hardships endured by the working class. In London’s better neighborhoods, he may have witnessed the wealth and luxuries of the bourgeoisie. The unequal conditions may have influenced his philosophy.
In the United States today, people continue to debate the degree to which government should intervene to alleviate social and economic problems. The debate touches upon such specific issues as social security, welfare programs, environmental protection laws, affirmative action laws, school lunch programs, and the like.
One of these issues or one of your own choosing can be the focus for a debate on how much government should intervene to improve social and economic conditions. The class can be divided into two groups. One group will argue in favor of government intervention and the other group will argue against it. Time can be allotted to develop and organize arguments. Before the debate, the rules of debate will be covered.
Writing a Letter
Imagine that you are an English textile worker who has just finished reading The Communist Manifesto. Write a letter to a co-worker in which you describe Marx’s ideas. In your letter, explain whether you agree or disagree with Marx’s theories.
Section 4 Review
1. a) Malthus, p. 520
b) “iron law of wages, p. 521
c) John Stuart Mill, p. 522
d) Utopians, p. 522
e) The Communist Manifesto, p. 522
3. a) Successful businesspeople of the middle and upper classes supported free market ideas; b) Since they were successful, they saw no need for government intervention in the economy.
4. Utopian socialist proposed the creation of self-sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in common.
5. a) Marx believed that economics was the driving force in history and that history was a continuous struggle between the “haves” and the “have nots.” b) Marx underestimated the powerful influence of national loyalties on the working class. As the standard of living rose, class conflict lessened.
6. Answers will vary. Student’s answers should reflect an understanding of the theory that they select.
7. Students’ work should reflect an ability to compare perspectives and to organize ideas in a concise format.