Wednesday, December 07, 2005

Ch. 18 Section 4 America as a World Power, Geography Spotlight: The Panama Canal

Ch. 18 Section 4 America as a World Power

1. To explain Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world.
2. To describe how Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America.

Focus & Motivate
Starting With the Student
· How do you resolve a conflict between friends?
· How might the U.S. try to resolve a conflict between two countries? What about a civil conflict within another country?

More About . . .
Joseph Bucklin Bishop
The N.Y. newspaper reporter Bishop spent a decade in Panama. He provided vivid, eyewitness accounts of life in the Canal Zone. At the end of the project, Bishop returned home and eventually became Roosevelt’s official biographer.

Objective 1 Instruct
Teddy and the World
Starting With the Student
Roosevelt was one of the most colorful figures who ever held the office of President. What is your impression of him or anecdotes you have heard about him?

Discussing Key Ideas
· President Roosevelt helps negotiate an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
· During Roosevelt’s administration, the U.S. begins constructing the Panama Canal.
· The Roosevelt Corollary strengthens U.S. dominance in Latin America.

Key Player
Critical Thinking: Drawing Conclusions
What adjectives might describe Roosevelt?
Possible answers: energetic, outspoken, and confident.

How did Roosevelt’s personality and leadership style affect the image of the U.S.?

More About . . .
Roosevelt and the Canal
Roosevelt considered the Panama Canal the greatest accomplishment of his presidency. He denied any role in planning the revolution that freed Panama from Colombia. Yet he later claimed, “I took the canal zone and let Congress debate, and while the debate goes on the canal does also.”

Now & Then
U.S. Intervention
Starting With the Student
If you were president, under what circumstances would you send U.S. troops into a foreign country?

Discussing Key Ideas
· Although isolationism is a recurrent them in U.S. history, so too is intervention into the affairs of other nations.
· The overriding reasons for U.S. intervention abroad are to protect its economic interests, oppose aggression, and provide humanitarian relief.
· The U.S. intervened in Cuba to halt Spain’s aggression and expand its empire, while its main interest in sending troops to Nicaragua was economic.
· America acted in the Persian Gulf to protect its economic interests and stop aggression, while U.S. troops entered Somalia to provide humanitarian relief.

Objective 2 Instruct
Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy
Discussing Key Ideas
· Wilson’s policy of missionary diplomacy pressures nations in the Western Hemisphere to establish democratic governments.
· Wilson refuses to recognize governments that come to power through violence.
· U.S. intervention in Mexico increases anti-American feelings there.

More About. . .
President Wilson was less of an economic imperialist than his predecessors, stating that “The force of America is the force of moral principle. . . there is nothing that she loves, and . . . there is nothing else for which she will contend.” However, Wilson firmly believed in imparting his moral values to other countries, particularly in Latin America. He once declared, “I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men.”

More About. . .
Wilson’s Foreign Policy
In addition to intervening in Mexico, Wilson dispatched U.S. troops to several other Latin American countries. In 1915, he sent U.S. marines to put down revolts in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. American forces controlled the Dominican Republic until 1924 and Haiti until 1934. However, President Wilson did not always seek solutions to foreign problems through military means. His administration also negotiated thirty treaties that promoted arbitration of international disputes.

More About. . .
Pancho Villa
Despite his disdain for the U.S., Villa was fond of American automobiles—and it was while driving one that the former rebel leader met his death. On a July day in 1923—three years after he “retired” from fighting—Villa was driving around his small town in his Dodge sedan. A pedestrian shouted his name, and Villa slowed down to acknowledge him. The shout was actually a signal to gunmen hiding in a house along the road. The assassins opened fire and gunned down Villa.

Another Perspective
Intervention in Mexico
Critical Thinking:
Why do you think Edith O’Shaughnessy’s opinion might be more valid than that of others?
Possible Response: Because she was an eye-witness to the effects of U.S. intervention in Mexico.

Roosevelt defined America’s role as a world power by making the U.S. dominant in Latin America. Wilson added a moral dimension to American foreign policy by making the U.S. responsible for enforcing democratic values in other nations.

Geography Spotlight
The Panama Canal: Funnel for Trade

1. To summarize the development of the Panama Canal.
2. To identify the benefits of building the Canal.

Focus & Motivate
What characteristics would a work need to do the work of digging the Canal?
Possible Responses: Patience, physical strength, the ability to work as a team.

More About. . .
The Panama Canal
In 1882, the French had tried to carve out a canal through Panama. Heading up the project was Ferdinand Marie De Lesseps, who had directed the construction of Egypt’s Suez Canal—which opened in 1869. The Panama endeavor quickly ran into problems. A group of dishonest politicians who supported De Lesseps stole large amounts of money from the canal company. French engineers lacked the proper tools to complete the huge digging job. In addition, scientists did not yet know how to combat the region’s deadly viruses. De Lessep’s company went bankrupt in 1889 and shortly thereafter abandoned the canal project.

Discussing Key Ideas
· Cutting nearly 8,000 miles off the sea journey from N.Y. to San Francisco, the Panama Canal greatly enhanced world trade and America’s role in it.
· The difficult construction of the Canal took a decade and was completed in 1914.

History From Visuals
Reading the Images
· Are there alternative routes other than the Canal? Are they better routes?

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