Government Shuts 7 Year Old's Lemonade Stand; No Permit
HW is past due.
Final assessment review; the Final is scheduled for 9 June. The Final will consist of 50 multiple-choice questions, two Short Answer (there are three to choose from) questions, and a Required Essay.
p. 628ff, Ch. 20 Cold War and Postwar Changes 1945-1970
Confrontation of the Superpowers
p. 632, The Truman Doctrine
The Berlin Airlift
p. 632, The Marshall Plan
p. 635, The Cuban Missile Crisis
Inforgraphic: The Cuban Missile Crisis
p. 635, Vietnam and the Domino Theory
p. 638, Picturing History, Sputnik
Duck and Cover
Reading/Listening Skill: Compare Use the chart to compare the impacts of modern science and technology.
p. 644, Economic Miracles: Germany and Japan
Peace Comes to Japan
p. 646, Youth Protest in the 1960s, "The Times They Are A-Changin'"
Mario Savio: Sproul Hall Steps, December 2, 1964, 1:26
Campus Unrest in late 1960s & early 1970s at UCLA, Inauguration, Communist professor teaching, Angela Davis, 6:31
p. 646, The United States in the 1960s
p. 646, John F. Kennedy
Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You: the inaugural address of John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Walter Cronkite announces death of JFK, 5:44
p. 646, The Johnson Administration
McGovern Warns Obama of LBJ Legacy, 3:40
In 1964, President Johnson said of Vietnam that I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think that we can get out. Its just the biggest damn mess I ever saw.'' Yet Johnson escalated the conflict and America became bogged down in Southeast Asia for more than a decade. Former Senator George McGovern recently sat down with ANP and said that President Obama runs the risk, like Johnsons Great Society, of hobbling his ambitious domestic goals if he continues to send troops into Afghanistan.
pp. 647, 651, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream"
I have a Dream Speech, 2:18
By 1956, a gifted preacher, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had emerged as a leader of the civil rights movement. This movement aimed to extend equal rights to all Americans, and particularly African Americans. King organized boycotts and led peaceful marches to end segregation in the United States. In 1963, King made a stirring speech.
Americans of all races joined the civil rights movement. Their courage in the face of sometimes brutal attacks stirred the nation’s conscience. Asians, Latinos, Native Americans, and other groups joined African Americans in demanding equality. The U.S. Congress outlawed public segregation, protected voting rights, and required equal access to housing and jobs. Poverty, unemployment, and discrimination still plagued many African Americans. However, some were elected to political office or gained top jobs in business and the military.
MARTIN LUTHER KING, Jr.
The Republican, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929–1968), was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and grew up in the segregated American South. He earned a doctorate in divinity in 1955 and became a minister at a church in Montgomery, Alabama. Beginning that year, King helped lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott to protest segregation on the city’s buses. In the years that followed, King emerged as the most respected leader of the American civil rights movement. He was repeatedly attacked and jailed for his beliefs. He helped organize the massive March on Washington, D.C., for civil rights in 1963. He gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech at this event. King lived to see the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1965 that outlawed segregation. However, he was killed in 1968 by an assassin. How did King’s actions show courage?
In contrast to the natural rights tradition in the U.S. based on the idea that we are "endowed by the Creator with certain inalienable (natural) rights," in 1948, UN members approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights based on human ideals. The Declaration stated that all people are entitled to basic rights “. . . without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” In 1975, nations signing the Helsinki Accords guaranteed such basic rights as freedom of speech, religion, and the press as well as the rights to a fair trial, to earn a living, and to live in safety. Despite such agreements, human rights abuses—ranging from arbitrary arrest to torture and slavery—occur daily around the world.
The United Nations is an international organization whose responsibilities, along with its membership, have expanded greatly since 1945. In addition, it deals with political, social, economic, and cultural issues. Other international organizations deal specifically with economic issues. The World Bank, for example, offers loans and advice to developing nations. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established after World War II. Its goal is to promote international monetary cooperation and encourage global economic growth. It also monitors economic development and provides advice to developing nations. Other organizations include nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). NGOs, which are usually not affiliated with governments, perform a variety of functions including monitoring human rights, disaster relief, and economic development.
p. 648, The Emergence of a New Society
Ch. 21 The Contemporary Western World 1970-Present
p. 656, "Tear Down This Wall"
Ronald Reagan- "Tear Down This Wall," 4:00
In the 1980s, President Reagan and the Republican Party called for cutbacks in taxes and government spending. They argued that cutting taxes was the best way to improve opportunities for Americans. Congress ended some social programs, reduced government regulation of the economy, and cut taxes. At the same time, however, military spending increased.
The combination of increased spending and tax cuts greatly increased the national budget deficit, or the shortfall between what the government spends and what it receives in taxes and other income. To deal with the deficit, Republicans pushed for deeper cuts in social and economic programs, including education, welfare, and environmental protection.
p. 661, Revolutions in Eastern Europe
Some Europeans have had mixed feelings about the changing economic and social makeup of the European Union (EU). Most of the EU’s Eastern European members have weaker economies than their Western European neighbors, the result of years of communist control. Older members of the EU fear that these nations will weaken the EU’s economy overall. Other Europeans worry about the changing religious demographics of the EU. Many Eastern European nations have large Muslim populations—especially Turkey, currently a candidate nation. Some Europeans are concerned that if the EU changes too much too quickly, it will be less stable.
Turkish people hold red and blue balloons, symbolizing Europe and Turkey, to celebrate Turkey’s decision to apply to the EU.
With the end of the Cold War, the Warsaw Pact dissolved. As the nations of Eastern Europe made the transition to democratic, capitalist states, most wanted to join NATO. Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic joined in 1999, soon followed by other countries. In 2002, a NATO-Russia Council was set up.
p. 661, Poland, Lech Walesa, Roman Catholic Church
The European Union
By 2005, 25 countries had joined the EU.
(a) The Netherlands (b) Turkey (c) Germany (d) Croatia
Which nations are applicant nations?
How does geography help explain why these nations applied for EU membership later than many other nations?
p. 668, The U.S. Domestic Scene
p. 668, Nixon and Watergate
Watergate Scandal, 3:29
p. 669, The Carter Administration
"Crisis of Confidence" Speech July 15, 1979, 2:08
World Oil Resources and Consumption
World oil resources are distributed—and consumed—unequally.
(a) China (b) Saudi Arabia (c) Iraq (d) Iran
Which nations contain major oil reserves and are also major oil consumers?
Given what you have read about the developing world, which nations are likely to become major oil consumers in the future?
In the 1980s, bank interest rates rose while the world economy slowed. Developing nations that had borrowed capital to modernize were hard hit. As demand for their goods fell, poor nations could not repay their debts or even the interest on their loans. Their economies stalled as they spent their income from exports on payments to foreign creditors.
The debt crisis hurt rich nations, too, as banks were stuck with billions of dollars of bad debts. To ease the crisis, lenders lowered interest rates, gave some nations more time to repay loans, or even canceled debts. In return, they required debtor nations to adopt reforms such as privatizing state-run industries. They argued that more efficient private enterprises would bring prosperity in the long run.
America’s growing dependence on the world economy brought problems. In the early 1970s, a political crisis in the Middle East led to decreased oil exports. Oil prices soared worldwide. Waiting in long lines for scarce and expensive gasoline, Americans became aware of their dependence on imported oil and on global economic forces.
In America and in the other industrialized democracies, which were even more dependent on imported oil, higher prices for oil left businesses and consumers with less to spend on other products. The decades of postwar prosperity ended with a serious recession in 1974. During the 1970s and 1980s, the world’s economies suffered a series of recessions alternating with years of renewed prosperity.
In 1973 and 1974, a reduction in the supply of oil led to shortages and higher prices for gasoline. In the photos above, motorists wait on line to fill up with scarce gasoline.
p. 669, The Reagan Revolution
Ronald Reagan 1984 TV Ad: "Its morning in America again," 1:00
Revisiting the Reagan Revolution -- A Book Release Party Featuring Dr. Steven Hayward, 4:08
In the latter half of the twentieth century, Russia and the United States built up arsenals of nuclear weapons. When the Cold War ended, those weapons still existed. At the same time, chemical and biological weapons threatened global security.
In 1968, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) was signed by Russia, the United States, and 60 other countries. The purpose of the treaty was to ensure that nuclear weapons did not proliferate, or rapidly spread, to nations that had no nuclear weapons. By 2000, 187 nations in total had signed the treaty.
Today, the NPT is the most globally accepted arms control agreement. Yet it does not in itself guarantee that nuclear weapons won’t be used. Four nations have not signed the treaty—India, Pakistan, Israel, and Cuba. Some nations that have signed it get around it by buying or selling nuclear technology or materials rather than actual weapons. And some nations—including Iran and North Korea—are suspected of buying or selling nuclear weapons even though they are treaty members. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) monitors nations regularly to check that they comply with the treaty.
When the Soviet Union collapsed, stockpiles of nuclear weapons and materials remained throughout its former territory. Unfortunately, preventing those materials from being mishandled has proven difficult. The unstable Russian government has not had the funds or the means to dismantle or secure the materials properly. At the same time, it is feared that those who worked in nuclear facilities, or those who have access to them, including smugglers, may be tempted to sell materials or knowledge to interested buyers.
In recent years, the United States and Europe have increased funding to help Russia to secure its nuclear weapons. In the 1990s, Russia and the United States also signed several treaties meant to assure that both countries reduce their arsenals of nuclear and other weapons. However, both countries have backed off from their commitment to these treaties in recent years, citing national security issues.
As you have read, weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) include nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Nuclear weapons include the atom bomb, first used by the United States in World War II. Biological weapons refer to disease-carrying organisms, such as smallpox, or toxins that can be released into the air or into water supplies. Chemical weapons refer to chemical toxins, such as nerve gas and mustard gas, which was first used in World War I.
WMDs were used in warfare for much of the 1900s. However, in the 2000s they took on a new danger. Terrorist groups began to use them for their own purposes. And “rogue states”—nations that ignore international law and are seen as a threat to their neighbors and the world—saw them as a way to both defend themselves and increase their power. Often, rogue states are dictatorships that brutally mistreat their own citizens or attack their neighbors.
p. 672, The Growth of Terrorism
p. 672, 9/11
Michael Scheuer on "Inside 9/11," 4:27
Chemical, nuclear, and biological weapons are distributed throughout the world.
(a) Sudan (b) North Korea (c) Israel (d) India.
Which nations have stockpiles of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons?
3. Draw Inferences
Locate nations with suspected weapons. Why might a nation choose to be secretive about its stores of dangerous weapons?
The use of violence, especially against civilians, by groups of extremists—sometimes sponsored by governments that protect and fund them—to achieve political goals is called terrorism. Terrorists’ goals range from releasing political prisoners to gaining territory. In the last two centuries, terrorists have launched repeated assaults on society. They have bombed buildings, slaughtered civilians, police, and soldiers, and assassinated political leaders. Terrorists generally have not been able to achieve their greater goals with violence. However, they have succeeded in inflicting terrible damage and generating widespread fear.
Terrorist groups use headline-grabbing tactics to draw attention to their demands. They might attack railway stations in Italy, release nerve gas in the subways of Tokyo, or blow themselves up as “suicide bombers” to kill Israeli civilians. Despite government efforts to prevent attacks, terrorists successfully set off a number of bombs in London in July 2005.
Particular regional terrorist groups have operated for decades. Several of them are located in the developed world, for example, in Europe. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) used terrorist tactics to force Britain to give up Northern Ireland. The ETA, a Basque terrorist group, seeks to compel the Spanish government to allow the Basque region in the Pyrenees to secede. These and other groups committed bombings, shootings, and kidnappings to force their governments to change their policies.
Terrorist groups operate in many other regions. The Tamil Tigers in the island republic of Sri Lanka combine guerrilla warfare with terrorist bombings to achieve their goal of founding a separate state. In Latin America, groups like the Shining Path in Peru have used violence and killings to overthrow the government and set up their own regimes.
Increasingly, Islamism has become a training ground and source for terrorism. The establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 sparked anger among many Arabs. In 1964, a group of Arabs founded the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), with the goal of creating an independent Palestinian state. Although the PLO officially renounced terrorism in 1988, other Palestinian groups, such as Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, practice terror to achieve their ends.
The Lebanese group Hezbollah formed after Israel invaded Lebanon. Originally, its goal was to oust Israel from Lebanon. Another stated goal is the destruction of Israel. Although it is a strong political party in Lebanon today, Hezbollah has been designated a terrorist organization by the United States and other countries.
Islamism refers to the religious belief that society should be governed by Islamic law. A historical precedent for it was the Arab nationalism that helped nations in the Middle East come together after a history of European colonialism. This nationalism was strengthened by the creation of Israel as well as by a backlash against the presence of foreign powers in the oil-rich region. Islamism was encouraged by a lack of basic resource development and infrastructure in many Arab nations. Islamists made Israel or Western nations scapegoats for their problems. In the past few decades, terrorist attacks have increased against these scapegoats.
Many governments have been heavily influenced by Islamism, including Iran and Saudi Arabia. Both of these nations have provided financial support for terrorist organizations. In other nations, such as Libya, Algeria, Egypt, and Turkey, Islamist groups have used violence in an attempt to gain power and take over the government.
One powerful Islamist group is called al Qaeda (ahl ky duh), which means “the Base” in Arabic. The leader of al Qaeda is Osama bin Laden, the son of a rich Yemeni family who moved to Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden had helped the warlords of Afghanistan drive the Soviets out of their country in the 1980s. In the 1990s, he mobilized al Qaeda to expel American business interests, political influence, and military power from his own country, Saudi Arabia. By the new millennium, he was providing aid, training, and money to scattered terrorist groups from Morocco to Indonesia. His goals had expanded to include aid for Palestinian terrorists fighting Israel and the expulsion of American power from the entire Middle East.
Early al Qaeda attacks on American interests occurred in Asia and Africa. Terrorists blew up two American embassies in East Africa in 1998 and damaged an American naval vessel in a port on the Arabian peninsula in 2000. But the major blow came when al Qaeda terrorists struck inside the United States itself.
On the morning of September 11, 2001, teams of terrorists hijacked four airplanes on the East Coast. Passengers challenged the hijackers on one flight, which crashed on the way to its target. But one plane plunged into the Pentagon in Virginia, and two others slammed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York. More than 2,500 people were killed in the attacks.
p. 675, Popular Culture
p. 675, Elvis, Beatles
Elvis Presley - Sun Records History, 2:08
Sun Studio was opened by rock pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 3, 1950. It was originally called Memphis Recording Service, sharing the same building with the Sun Records label business. Reputedly the first rock-and-roll single, Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' "Rocket 88" was recorded there in 1951 with song composer Ike Turner on keyboards, leading the studio to claim status as the birthplace of rock & roll. Blues and R&B artists like Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Little Milton, B.B. King, James Cotton, Rufus Thomas, and Rosco Gordon recorded there in the early 1950s.
Rock-and-roll, country music, and rockabilly artists, including unknowns recording demos and others like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Charlie Feathers, Ray Harris, Warren Smith, Charlie Rich, and Jerry Lee Lewis, signed to the Sun Records label recorded there throughout the latter 1950s until the studio outgrew its Union Avenue location. Sam Phillips opened the larger Sam C. Phillips Recording Studio, better known as Phillips Recording, in 1959 to take the place of the older facility. Since Sam had invested in the Holiday Inn Hotel chain earlier, he also recorded artist starting in 1963 on the label Holiday Inn Records for Kemmons Wilson.
In 1969, Sam Phillips sold the label to Shelby Singleton, and there was no recording-related or label-related activity again in the building until the September 1985 Class of '55 recording sessions with Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash, produced by Chips Moman.
Compilation of Beatles footage from Granada TV's archives from 1962-1965. First shown on UK TV in 1985, Part 1, 8:17
COUSIN BRUCIE - Saturday Night Party (Dec. 5, 1963) WABC, 10:01
Here's 77 WABC's Cousin Bruce Morrow again - this time from December 5, 1963. It's been 2 weeks since President Kennedy was killed in Dallas - and only 8 weeks before The Beatles invade New York. Due to YouTube restrictions, there isn't a lot of music on this aircheck - but heck, you already know all the songs. There are some wonderful Brucie moments, and a classic spot for Clearasil pimple cream, featuring Dick Clark.
Elvis Presley The Complete Stage Shows Performances part 1 of 6, 6:07
The Beatles' 1st American TV performance, Feb. 9th, 1964, Ed Sullivan Show, 10:59
The Ed Sullivan Show was a popular American TV variety show that originally ran on CBS from Sunday June 20, 1948 to Sunday June 6, 1971, and was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan.
The Beatles appeared on three consecutive Sundays in February 1964 to great anticipation and fanfare as "I Want to Hold Your Hand" had swiftly risen to #1 in the charts. Their first appearance on February 9 is considered a milestone in American pop culture and the beginning of the British Invasion in music. The broadcast drew an estimated 73 million viewers, at the time a record for US television, and was characterized by an audience composed largely of screaming hysterical teenage girls in tears. The Beatles followed Ed's show opening intro, performing "All My Loving", "Till There Was You" which featured the names of the group members superimposed on closeup shots, including the famous "Sorry girls, he's married" caption on John Lennon, and "She Loves You". They returned later in the programme to perform "I Saw Her Standing There" and "I Want to Hold Your Hand."
70s Disco, 3:48
Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Honors students have finished their HW already.
Final assessment review; the Final is scheduled for 9 June. The Final will consist of 50 multiple-choice questions, two Short Answer (there are three to choose from) questions, and a Required Essay.