The Fourth Amendment
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
TheChapter 11 Section 3 The Age of Napoleon Make-Up Quiz is today.
#19. should have listed: "d) Anne Louise Germaine de Staël"
#20. do not answer, skip the question entirely, go on to #21.
The electronic edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer is available. We have the Sunday edition, available on Mondays, in addition to the Tuesday through Friday editions on the other days.
Please follow the steps below:
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
The electronic editions will be archived at the site for 30 days only.
HW is available below at the bottom of the daily blog post.
ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm
Who Wants to Be a Cotton Millionaire? Group #2 in 5th Period did earn money as entrepreneurs if anyone else wanted to continue trying.
ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm
vozMe: Cf. http://vozme.com/index.php?lang=en
The Spinning Mill Animation
Spinning mills used 'line shafting', which is the means by which the power of the steam engine is transmitted along rotating shafts (rods) to spinning or weaving mills.
This animation depicts a spinning mill like that found at Quarry Bank museum in Cheshire. It shows a furnace powering a flywheel, which is there to smooth out the otherwise jerky rotation of the crank.
In spinning mills, which could be multi-story, there are large numbers of ropes coming off the flywheel. These 'rope races' convey power to the mill's different floors.
Spinners and weavers now came each day to work in these first factories, which brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. Early observers were awed at the size and output of these establishments. One onlooker noted: “The same [amount] of labor is now performed in one of these structures which formerly occupied the industry of an entire district.”
Railroads, p. 365
Stephenson's Rocket Animation
BackgroundOne of the most important developments of the Industrial Revolution was the creation of a countrywide railway network. The world’s first major rail line went from Liverpool to Manchester in England. Fanny Kemble, the most famous actress of the day, was one of the first passengers:
The Rocket was designed and built by George Stephenson with the help of his son, Robert, and Henry Booth, for the 1829 Rainhill Trials.
The Trials were held by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company, to find the best locomotive engine for a railway line that was being built to serve these two English cities. On the day of the Trials, some 15,000 people came along to see the race of the locomotives.
During the race, the Rocket reached speeds of 24mph during the 20 laps of the course. This was due to several new design features. It was the first locomotive to have a multi-tube boiler - with 25 copper tubes rather than a single flue or twin flue.
The blast pipe also increased the draught to the fire by concentrating exhaust steam at the base of the chimney. This meant that the boiler generated more power (steam), so the Rocket was able to go faster than its rival, and thus secure its place in history.
The Rocket can be seen at the Science Museum, in London.
“We were introduced to the little engine which was to drag us along the rails. . . This snorting little animal, . . . started at about ten miles an hour. . . . You can’t imagine how strange it seemed to be journeying on thus, without any visible cause of progress other than the magical machine . . .”
Early Socialism, p. 370
Are Utopians Dreamers?
For: Interactive Village
Web Code: nap-1941
Owen Establishes a Utopia
What did early socialists believe?
What type of working conditions did the industrial workers face?
References and Resources
Rise of the Working Class by Jurgen Kuczynski
Making of the English Working Class by E.P. Thompson
Cultural Foundations of Industrial Civilization by John U. Nef
4th of July at OSV.
Redcoats to Rebels at OSV.
Mystic sign. Photo Source: The Next Generation
Whaling in popular culture: Mountain, "Nantucket Sleighride"
The cold hard steel of the harpoon's point
Struck deep into its side.
We played out line and backed the oars
And took the cruel sleighride.
The term "Nantucket Sleighride" was coined by the whalers to explain what happened after they harpooned a whale. (Nantucket Island was considered the whaling capital of the world during the 19th century.) The first strike of the harpoon was not intended to kill the whale but only to attach it to the whale boat. The whale would take off pulling the whale boat along at speeds of up to 23 mph (37 kmh). The whale would eventually tire itself out, the leading officer in the boat would then use a penetrating lance to kill the whale.
Nantucket Sleighride is Dedicated to Owen Coffin who was cabin boy aboard the whaler Essex, which was destroyed by a sperm whale in 1819. Owen ended up in the lifeboat with Captain Pollard, his uncle. Two other lifeboats also put out. During the next 3 - 4 months, the lifeboats separated. One was never seen again, but some of those on the remaining two boats were eventually rescued.
During those long months at sea (and on desert islands), many of the men died. The remainder eventually had to resort to cannibalism to survive. After the dead of natural causes were consumed, the men determined to draw lots to see who would sacrifice his life for the others. Owen Coffin ``won'' the lottery. The Captain tried to take Owen's place, but the youth insisted on his ``right''. The executioner was also drawn by lot. That ``winner'', another young man named Charles Ramsdell, also tried vainly to swap places with Owen. Again he refused. Owen's body kept the others alive for ten days (Captain Pollard refused to eat his nephew). Another man died, and his body kept Pollard and Ramsdell alive a few more days until they were rescued.
Goodbye, little Robin-Marie
Don't try following me
Don't cry, little Robin-Marie
'Cause you know I'm coming home soon
My ships' leaving on a three-year tour
The next tide will take us from shore
Windlaced, gather in sail and spray
On a search for the mighty sperm whale
Fly your willow branches
Wrap your body round my soul
Lay down your reeds and drums on my soft sheets
There are years behind us reaching
To the place where hearts are beating
And I know you're the last true love I'll ever meet
Starbuck's sharpening his harpoon
The black man's playing his tune
An old salt's sleeping his watch away
He'll be drunk again before noon
Three years sailing on bended knee
We found no whales in the sea
Don't cry, little Robin-Marie
'Cause we'll be in sight of land soon
Section 2 Reaction and Revolution.
After Waterloo, diplomats and heads of state again sat down at the Congress of Vienna. They faced the monumental task of restoring stability and order in Europe after years of war. The Congress met for 10 months, from September 1814 to June 1815. It was a brilliant gathering of European leaders. Diplomats and royalty dined and danced, attended concerts and ballets, and enjoyed parties arranged by their host, Emperor Francis I of Austria. The work fell to Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Lord Robert Castlereagh of Britain. Defeated France was represented by Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.
Congress Strives For Peace
Congress Fails to See Traps Ahead
What was the "principle of legitimacy?"
The Conservative Order
What were the views of the conservative movement?
Forces of Change
How did the desire for national independence among ethnic groups weaken and ultimately destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires?
Why did nationalism bring new strength to some countries and weaken others?
In Eastern and Central Europe, the Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Turks ruled lands that included diverse ethnic groups. Nationalist feelings among these subject peoples contributed to tensions building across Europe.
How did liberalism and nationalism begin to break through the conservative domination of Europe?
The Revolutions of 1848
The backdrop for Victor Hugo's novel Les Miserables is revolutionary France in the 1800s. Les Miserables expresses Hugo's passionate belief in the spiritual possibilities of society, despite the presence of evil. Les Miserables also expresses Hugo's fight for justice, democratic ideals, and basic rights for all people.
What was the main theme of Hugo's novel Les Miserables?
What were Hugo's political beliefs?
How do the choices made by Jean Valjean reflect his sense of justice and compassion for others?
Another French Revolution
Trouble in the German States
Recognize Sequence: keep track of the sequence of events that led to German unification by completing a chart like the one below. Add more boxes as needed.
In the early 1800s, German-speaking people lived in a number of small and medium-sized states as well as in Prussia and the Austrian Hapsburg empire. Napoleon’s invasions unleashed new forces in these territories.
Napoleon Raids German Lands
Economic Changes Promote Unity
In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union called the Zollverein (tsawl fur yn). It dismantled tariff barriers between many German states. Still, Germany remained politically fragmented.
In 1848, liberals meeting in the Frankfurt Assembly again demanded German political unity. They offered the throne of a united German state to Frederick William IV of Prussia. The Prussian ruler, however, rejected the notion of a throne offered by “the people.”
What was the German Confederation?
Revolutions in Central Europe
Equally disturbing to the old order were the urgent demands of nationalists. The Hapsburgs presided over a multinational empire. Of its 50 million people at mid-century, fewer than a quarter were German-speaking Austrians. Almost half belonged to different Slavic groups, including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Often, rival groups shared the same region. The empire also included large numbers of Hungarians and Italians. The Hapsburgs ignored nationalist demands as long as they could. When nationalist revolts broke out in 1848, the government crushed them.
Revolts in the Italian States
Italy Before 1861
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
As you read and hear a lecture on the Italian revolt, create a time line showing the sequence of events from 1831 to 1871 that led to Italian unification (the time line continues in the next section of the Chapter).
“He (a rebel) held out a white handkerchief, merely saying, ‘For the refugees of Italy.’ My mother . . . dropped some money into the handkerchief. . . . That day was the first in which a confused idea presented itself to my mind . . . an idea that we Italians could and therefore ought to struggle for the liberty of our country. . . .”
—Giuseppe Mazzini, Life and Writings
How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?
In fact, a local municipality is named after a leading Italian patriot and nationalist: Pasquale Paoli.
What countries experienced revolutions in 1848?
Eyewitness to History
Analyzing Primary Sources, p. 377
And, to anticipate further revolutionary developments, we will consider Karl Marx.
The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848 by Eric Hobsbawm
The Church in an Age of Revolution by Alec R. Vidler
Congress of Vienna lecture
In-class assignment: answer the following questions about the Congress.
What was the Congress meant to accomplish?
The Congress attempted to tie the Continental nations together and set up a balance of power between the competing interests of the various countries.
Who was the leading figure of the Congress?
Where was he from?
What was his view of democracy?
Democracy is dangerous and unpredictable.
Who ultimately came to power through this form of government?
Dictators rise to power.
In what country was the first major problems they had to face?
What was Germany composed of?
Several small, feudal-like states and kingdoms. The Congress formed the German Confederation.
What country was the second major problem?
What was the name of the alliance that was formed?
What countries formed the four parts of the Alliance?
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The main purpose was to counter any ambition on the part of France.
What other important--three country alliance--was formed?
Holy Alliance: Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The main purpose was to stop revolution and support the monarchies in power.
1) Early Socialism, p. 370
2) The Conservative Order, p. 372
3) Liberalism, p. 373
4) Nationalism, p. 373-74
The Congress of Vienna, between Sept. 1814 - 9 June 1815, after that France had surrender in May 1814 (Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo 18 June 1815).
It was a conference with ambassadors from many European states, chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. It was the five "great" nations - UK, Prussia, Austria, France and Russia that decide almost everything. Norway was transferred from Denmark to Sweden and Swedish Pomerania was ceded to Prussia.
Congress of Vienna 1815
UK = Duke of Wellington
Prussia = Prince Karl von Hardenberg
Austria = Prince Klemmens von Metternich
Russia = Tsar Alexander I
France = Charles de Talleyrand
Sweden = Count Carl Löwenhielm
What types of economic systems have societies used to produce and distribute goods and services?
When Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776, traditional agriculture formed the heart of nearly all world economies. In the 1800s, industry began to dominate, especially in Europe and the United States. Industrialists wanted to control their own businesses. Using Smith’s laissez-faire ideas, they pushed for free markets and an end to government interference. The resulting market economy is one of the basic economic systems in the modern world. Other systems followed. These systems can be differentiated by those who make the following key economic decisions: (1) What will be produced? (2) How will it be produced? (3) To whom will the product be distributed?
Students will be assigned to one of three groups. Each group will determine who makes the key economic decisions within the three types of economies. Create a column within your group. What can you learn about your assigned system? Answer the three questions at the bottom of the introductory paragraph listed above. In each of these economic systems who decides the answers to these three questions? Then, provide examples of nations and/or regions that have each economic system.
In a market economy, the key economic decisions emerge from the interaction of buyers and sellers in a market. A market allows individuals to exchange, or trade, things. The market economy is also called the free market, the free enterprise system, or capitalism. One key element of this economic system is supply and demand. Producers make, or supply, only what consumers want, or demand. Another element is self-interest where producers and consumers consider only their own personal gain when making decisions. A third element is competition. Here, producers compete for consumers’ money by lowering prices or introducing new products.
Centrally Planned Economy
In a centrally planned economy, the central government, rather than individual producers and consumers in markets, makes the key economic decisions. The centrally planned economy is also called a command economy, a socialist economy, or communism. In a typical communist country, the government sets goals for production and manages nearly all aspects of production and distribution. Everything in a command economy is produced according to a rigid plan. This discourages new ideas and new products that could stimulate economic growth. The result is often poor quality goods, serious shortages, and falling production.
A mixed economy is one that has both free enterprise and socialist characteristics. Economic equality, socialists argue, is possible only if the public—in the form of the government—controls the centers of economic power. Although socialist nations may be democracies, socialism requires a high degree of central planning to achieve economic equality. In mixed economies, government plays a significant role in making the key economic decisions. In modern times, the number of mixed economies has grown. Market systems have benefited from some government intervention, and centrally planned systems have benefited from some free enterprise.
1. (a) What legitimate role might government have in what is otherwise a market economy? (b) Why might a centrally planned economy begin encouraging some free enterprise?
Industrial Revolution Review
Terms, People, and Places
Complete each sentence by choosing the correct answer from the list of terms below. You will not use all of the terms.
1. predicted that population would outpace the food supply.
2. A member of the ___________ most likely lived in a small, crowded building called a ______________________.
3. Investors in Britain were ready to risk their capital to invest in ________________________.
4. Those who advocated ______________ believed that the goal of society was to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
5. To ______________________ involves separating iron from its ore.
6. _________________ improved the efficiency and design of Newcomen’s steam engine.
One video features just the Congress of Vienna music with period pictures supplementing the sound.
The Fezzibomb occurred on Friday November 20, 2009. A bunch of Fezziwiggers (dancers from Fezziwig's Tea Emporium at the Dickens Christmas Fair) met in Embarcadero Bart in San Francisco to dance to music provided by Bangers and Mash.
The Congress of Vienna is a choreographed waltz.
Congress of Vienna dance at Gaskell's held in Oakland October 2005
Ye Gaskell Occasional Dance Society sponsors Victorian ballroom dances several times a year. There are afternoon dance lessons and refresher lessons before the dance. Formal dress.
Brassworks is a live brass band led by Frank Beau Davis. They sound much better in person than in this clip.
Scottish Rite Center in Oakland has a beautiful ballroom for this event.
Creative sock puppet show as a dramatization of the Congress of Vienna of 1815.
THE AMAZING LEGO REANIMATION OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA
New holiday feature: keep Christ in Christmas
Ray Charles • Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, 4:06
HW: email (or hard copy) me at email@example.com.
1. p. 373, Reading Check, Summarizing, What were the views of the conservative movement?
2. p. 374, Picturing History, How was Louis-Philippe involved in these events?